Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vaiy country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google . com/ 



/ eV^ 



I ' .' 

vl> 2, t 


rACiL) )~^ 



• > 

♦ . 


or THX 


VOL. X. 







VOL. X. 




The Acabeht dmre it to be undentood, that they are not 
ansicerable for any opinion, representation of facU^ or train of 
reawning thai may appear in the follomng Papers. Ths 
Authors of the several Essays are ahne responsible for their 




Om SpooMr'a Iriih BiTeai By P. W. Jofc*, Vaq,, A. V. 1 

Ob nimiilJMTiw Aa^q^tim dk mrtnd mv Undbridgc, Coutj DabUa. 

OatJbcKleorMojrtiin. B7 Sir W. B. Wild*, IL D., » 

Ob it— !■■ flf Aacknt TiQi«M b tki Ana tdm, Coonty GalwBf. Bjr Q. H. 

%mMbui,Vaq., U 

Ob b Cnaooci ia Loo^ Xaowria. By 6. H. Kiaahu, ^., II 

On tbe Fonni of Ordeal andentlj {MracUaed in Irelaad. Bj W. H. Heo- 

i«T.E«i., M 

Oa Bidicolar Qoartici. Bj John Caiej, A. B., 44 

Ob the Life and Labonn of the lata John D*Altoa, Etq. Bj J. R. O'FUna- 

gaa, Eaq., 46 

On Ziphiai Soverbieoiu. By W. Aadrewt, Esq., 61 

On the Fonaataon of Groand loe in the B«d of the River Dodder. B7 Ueoiy 

Bamc«7, F.B.3- 52 

On the Boond Tower of Ardmore. By H. M. Weetropp, Esq., 60 

On a Cairn at Hyat Nagger, in the Dekhan. By Colonel Meadows Taylor, . 60 

On tbe Hirtology of the Teet of the Class Palliobranefaiata. By W. King, Eiq., 64 

On Animal Heat By W. H. 0*Lcary, Esq., 65 

On Sooth Enropcan Plants found growing in the West and South of Ireland. 

By Hcory Hennassy, F.B.S., 66 

On Iridi Gloti recently found in tbe library of Nancy. By M. Henri Gaidoc, 70 
Oa a Sootenain at Cnmgbely, near KUcrea, County Cork. By R. B. 

Bnuh,Iaq., 7« 

On some Rclatknsbipa of Infloresoencca. By G. Sigeraoo, M. D., . . . . 76 
Ob ProCrasioB of tbe Tooguo, and its DeTiation to the affected Side in Unila- 
teral Paialyiia. By Tbomaa Hayden, M. D., 83 

On Architectural Sketches presented by G. V. Da KAyer. E*]., .... 89 

On tbe Pre>CeItic Epoch in Ireland. By Hyde Clarke, E»n . ..... 100 

On tbe Ogham Chamber at Dmrologhan, County Waterford. By R. B. 

Brash, Esq., 103 


Ou the Ogbftm Chamtxr at Drumloghau. \\y Ibe Lord BUbop of Litnerick, 119 
On MuKtilAr Anomalies In Human Anatomy, and ibdr bearing upon Homo- 
typical Myology. By Alcxacder Macaliator, Esq V2i 

Ou the OccurroDC« of the Number Two in Irish Proper Namei. By W. P. 

Joyce, A.M., 164 

On Chinese Porcelain Seals found in IroUnd. By W. Frazer, Em|.. ... 172 

On Original Sketches of Coats of Arms prcKntcd by Geo. V. Dn Noyer, Esq., . 179 

On the RoUtory Motion of the Heavenly Bodies. By Rev. W. G. Penny, 189 

On Irish Sponges (Part I.). By E. Perceval Wright, Sf. D 321 

On the Cave of Knockmore, County Fermanagh. By W. F. Wakeman, Esq., . 229 

On Bock Carringa. By H. M. Westropp, Eaq 232 

On the Geology of the County Antrim, &c By John Kelly, Esq., C. E., . . 235 
On the Inscribed Carem in Parish of Boboe, Cunnty nf Fermanagh. By W F. 

■Wafceman, Esq 827 

Od reoent Excavations at Uo«tb, County Dublin. By Rer. J. F. Shearman, . 330 
On Iha Physical Coadiliona of Climate during different Geological F>pochs. By 

Professor Heoneasy, F.R.S.. 33i 

On Two Streams flowing from a Commoa Source in opposite Directions. By B. 

Hennessy, F.U.S., . . 335 

On Earthen Vasea found at Palmorsiown, County Dublin. By W. Frasur, Esq., 336 
On an Inscribed Stone in Tullagh Churchyard, County IJublin. By Henry 

Parkinson, Esq., 8<0 

On the Imaginary Roots of Numerical Equations, tc By J. R. Toung, Esq., 343 

On an Ogham Stono in Glen Faia, County Kerry. By Richard Rolt Brash, Esq., 884 
On the Cavern called " GilUea' Holt," at Knockmore, County Fermanagh. By 

W. F. Wakeman, ICaq., 395 

On the Occurrence of Mammaliao Bonea, Brown Coal, and Pebblea in Mineral 

Veins. By William K. Sullivan. Ph. D 397 

Catalogue of Coats of Arms from Toinbstonea, &c. By George V. Du Noyer, 

Eaq 402 

On the Flora of tho Seychelles Islands. By E. Pfirceval Wright, M. D.. . . 413 
Biographical Notice of the late George V. Da Noyer, E«q. By Alphonse Gsges, 

E«l'f -IIS 

On Colophontne and Colophonic Hydrate. By Charles B. C. Tichbome, F.C.S.. 415 

Diographical Notice of August Schleicher. By Dr Lottner, 415 

Oo the Goddess of War of the Ancivnt Irish. By W. M. tlunnessy, Eaq., , . 421 
On Ancient Bapttlchral Monuments found in the County Oalway. By M. Bmgan, 

Esq., 440 

On the Rivers of Ireland, with Derivations of their Kameo. By Owen Conuel- 

lan, LL. D 443 

On an Aneicui Cup and firoochea. found near Ardagh, in the County Limerick. 

By Right Hon. Karl of Dunraven 458 

Ou a Modification ol R«guauU*s C'Oodeiising Hygrometer, with Obeervelions on 

the Psychrameur. By M. Donovan, Esq. 459 




Oa McgifitUc Rwnaiitt in the Dspartment of the Bums P^rnoees. By Lord 

Tiai(deHaUiide,Pn«daDt, 472 

Oa Spufiib Ajthmokogj. By Lofd Talbot de Makhide^ PBBiDxirT, ... 474 
Oi u AciMmcDt, in laab, between QenOd, Ninth Eari ef Klldara, and 

tiM Mae BawwH^ Tanrtfd at Ifaynooth, Norember 5, 1580. By Yecy 

Bar. a W. Buaell, D. D., 480 

Ob the ■«I>«tiee npoo Iziahoun" in the Klldan Rental Bo<^ aa illos- 

txaud by the Mac Baanall Agreanent. By Very Rer. C. W. RoiaeU, D.D., 490 
Ud the "Polm** of the Alpa, and ita Connexion with the Glader Theories. By 

Haniy Hfloneaey, F.R.S., 496 

A Kepott on the ffiaeeirhee of Hetr Cduheim on Inflammation and Snpporation. 

By J. BC. PniMT, M. B., 499 

Ob ** Boaaon Canadmiaa." By WiUiam King, Sc D. ; and Thomaa H. Bowney, 

Ph.D., 696 

Tbc Rmna of AnfiSaan, Coonty Galway. By O. Heniy Kinahao, Eiq., . . 561 

ArmDix. — Hinatea of the Meetinga of the Academy for the Seaeiona 1866-67, 

•67-68, '68-69, i-U 

Dooatioos to the Library of the Academy from NoTember, 1866, to Joly, 

1869, i-U 

GcnenU Abatract of HootUy Aooonnta oi the Academy, ftom April, 1866, 

to March, 1868 xxxt, xxxtI 

Ditto, from March, 1868, to April, 1869, Hii, lir 

Ijmcx, It 

PL4TB, L to XLIX. 










Vmiox : 


Should any erron or omissioiu be found in this List, which is reviBed to Ut No- 
Tember, 1869, it is requested that notice thereof may be given to the Secretary 
of the Academy. 





Commtltte of S^tumt : 








(Commiiiet of ^jpolilc JCilttatnu: 




S^ ..RGUSON. LL. D. 

VEKV UL\ C. W. nrSSELL. D. D. 



CotmmtUc of ^ntiqntluff : 








Thi§ Council wiU tontinm titt March 16, 1870. 

0» AOAUKNT, . W. K. SULLlVAiN, Pu. D. 


TAftT or PoRiiny CoviesroNSKriCB, SIR W. R. WILDE. M. D. 


irKvrit. AMD Clkbk t 

A 2 

Data of Election. 

1838. Feb. 12 i •Carson, Eev. Joseph, D. D., F.T.C. D. 18, Fit%- 

william-placef Souths Duhlt'n. 

1855. Feb. 12 Carte, Alexander, Esq., M. D., Director of Museum, 

ItD.S. 54, Waterloo-road, Dublin. 

1866. May 14 Casey, Johu, Esq., LL.D. Hose Cottage, Tivoli, North, 

Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 
1843. Jan. 8 *Catber, Thomas, Esq. Newioumlimavady. 
1862. Jan. 13 *Cather, Eev. R. C, LL.D. 3, Queen's Elms, Belfast. 
1842. June 13 *Chapman, Sir Benjamin J., Bart. Killua Castle^ 

1864. Jan. 11 Charlemont, Eight Hon. James Molyneux, Earl of. 

Marino, Clontarf. 

1824. Mar. 16 ♦Chetwode, Edward Wihnot. Esq., A.M. Woodbrook, 

I Portarlington. 
1842. Jan. 10 ♦Churehill, Fleetwood, Esq., M. D., F. K. & Q. C. P.I. 

15, Stephen' s-green, North, Dublin. 
1857. AprillS *Cleland, James, Esq. Tobar Mhuire, Crossgar, Co, 

1841. Jan. 11 ^Clermont, Eight Hon. Thomas, Baron. Ravensdale 

Parkf Newry. 

1867. May 13 *CloBe, Rev. M. H. Nexctown Park, Blackroek, Co. 

1866. April 9 Collum, Archibald, Esq., Junior, A.M. 16, War- 
rington-place, Dublin. 

1839. May 13 *Conroy, Sir Edward, Bart. Aborfield, near Reading, 

1860. Jan. 9 *Conwell, Eugene Alfred, Esq. Trim, Co. Meath. 

1846. June 9 *Cooke, Adolphus, Esq. Cookshorough, Mullingar. 

1866. April 9 Cooper, Lieut. -Col. Edward H., D. L. Mar kree Castle, 


1856. April 14 Copland, Charles, Esq. 7, Longford-terrace, Monks- 

town, Co. Dublin. 

1825. Nov. 30 ♦Corbaliis, John R., Esq., LL. D., Q. C. Rosemount, 

Roebuck^ Clonskeagh, Co. Dublin. 

1857. Aug. 24 Corbet, Robert, Esq. 17, Mount-street, Upper, Dublin. 

1847. Jan. 11 Corrigan, Sir Bomiaick J., Bart., M. D. 4, Merrion- 

square, West, Dublin. 
1864. May 9 Cotton, Charles P., Esq., C. E. 11, Pembroke-street, 

Lower, Dublin. 
1846. Jan. 12 Cotton, Ven. Henry, LL.D., Archdeacon of Caahel. 

1857. Aug. 24 *Crofton, Denis, Esq., A. B. 8, Mountjoy'squnre, 

North, Dublin. 

1867. June 24 *Crofton, H. M. E., Esq., F. R. A. S. fncMnappa, 

j Ashfori, Co. Wicklow. 
1834. Oct. 27 *Croker, Charles P., Esq., M.D., F, K. & Q. C. P. I. 
7, Merrion -square, West, Dublin, 

1866u Joae 11 

2853. April 11 
1966l Maj 14 
1846. April 13 

1846. Jan. 13 

1851. Jniw 9 
1849. Sept. 9 

186a Jan. 9 

1847. Jan. 11 
1851. Jan. 13 

1854. Feb. 13 
1856. FeK 11 

1843. Jan. 9 
1864. Mar. 16 

1861. Feb. 11 
1867. Jan. 14 
1830. Oct 25 










Craiae. Ttmbom B.» £iq., H. D. 3, MHrim-^fmn, 

•Dariaa, Franeia Bobert, Ea^ A. M. SwOmm, 

BMsnck, Ce. IhUim, 
DavT, Edmnnd W., ^., fi. A., M. D. £bi Onn, 
iirrimwv, B emit rn gm ^ Cb. DmUim, 
•D*Axcf, Hattbew P., Eaq., ILF. 6, M imrim mrnr^, 

£ut, DMim. 
*Deaflj, Bi^tHon. Bickard, LL. D., Foaxtb Barak of the 
Exchequer. CktryrfortSmm,Bhekn^C9,IhMm. 
*I>e la Ponee, Mont. Amadir Patmu 
De Yeaci, Bight Hon. Thomas, Yiiooant. AHt^tis 
Mitmm, AHetfUix, 
•Button, Ber. fienjamin, D. D., F. T. C. D. 8, KU- 

itr§ phf, IhMn. 
•Doblnn, Leonard, Em. 37, Gmdin99'9'ptme»t DMim. 
•Dobbin, Ber. Orlando T., LL. D. JMliwmr, MklU, 

DomTi]e,SirChaileflC.W.,Bart Smtiy, (^DMin. 
Downing, Samuel, Esq., C. E., LL. D., J^fieeaor of 
CiTil Engineering, T.C.D. 4, Tibr ffiii, JfonU- 
Utten, Co. Duhlin. 
*Drary, WUliam Vallanoey, Esq., H. D. 86, HarUy- 
street^ Carendink^tquare, ZomtUm, We$U 
Dublin, Host Rer. Richard Chenevix, Lord Arch- 
bishop of, D. D., Primate of Ireland. The Palace, 
SUphen* a-green^ ybrtA, Duhlin, 
Duncan, James Foulis, Esq., H. D. 8, Merritm-etreet, 

Up., Dnhlin. 
Dunne, Eight Hon. Major-Generol F. P., D. L. Brit- 
ia$f Clona»lie, 
•Dnnraren and JXount-Eorl, Right Hon. Edwin B., 
Earl of, F. E. S., a Vice-President of the Academy. 
Adar« Manor J Adare, 

•Eiffe, James S., Esq., F. B. Ast. S., Ac Plantation 

Mouae, A$ner8Aam, Duch. 
Ellis. George, Esq., M. B., F. R C. S. L 91 , Leeeon- 

etreet. Lowers Dublin. 
•Enniskillen, Bight Hon. William Wilioughby, Earl 

of, F. B. S., F. G. 8. L., and Dublin Trustee of the 

Hunterian Museum, B. G. S., London. Florence 

Court, Co. Fermanagh. 

1867. April 8 ♦Farrell, T. .\., Esq., M. A. 3, Aferrion-^guarf, East, 


Dfttc of Election. 

1840 June 8 

1851. Jan. 13 


Feb. 13 
Jan. 10 

1831. Mar. 16 






Feb. 11 
June 9 

April 8 

Feb. 28 

June 24 
June 11 

1847. Jan. 11 

•Hemans, G. W.,.Esq., C. E. 13, Queen-square, West- 

minsteTy London, S, W. ; and 1 7, Gloucester-street, 

Vppert Dublin, 
♦Hennesy, Henry, Esq., F. R. S., Professor of Natural 

Philosophy, R. C. U. D. Wynnefield, Rathgar, Co. 

Dublin; and 2, Harcourt-buildings, Temple^ Zondon. 
*Hennesy, W. M., Esq. 11, Gardiner^ s-place, DuhUn. 
♦Hildigc. James Graham, Esq. 7, Merrion-st., Upper, 

*Hill, Lord George A. Ballyare, Raikmelton, Co* 

Hill, John, Esq., C. E. Ennis. 
*Hone, Nathaniel, Esq. 5^ DouhugKs, Co. Dublin. 
♦Hone, Thomas, Esq. Yapton^ Monkstotvn-avenue, 

Monkstown, Co. Dublin, 
Hudson, Alfred, Esq., M. D. 2, Merrion-square^ 

Norths Dublin. 
♦Hudsou, Henry, Esq., M. D., F.K. &aC.P.I. 

GUnville, Fermoy. 
♦Hutton, Robert, Esq.,F.G. S. Putney Park, Surrey, 
Hutton, Thomas M., Esq. 1 18, Summer'^hill, Dublin. 

♦Ingram, John Kells, Esq., LL. D., F. T. C. D., Secre- 
tary of Council of the Academy. 2, Wellington-road, 

1841. Aprill2 ♦Jellctt, Rev. John H., M.A., F.T.C.D. 18, mytes- 

j bury-ttrrace, Wellington-road, Dublin. 

1842. June 13 j ♦Jennings, Francis M., Esq., F. G. S. Cork. 

1867. April 8 j Jephson, R. H, Esq. 24, Clarinda-park, E.,Kings- 

\ town, Co, Dublin. 
1836. Jan. 25 ♦Joy, Henry Holmes, Esq., Q.C., LL.D. 33, Mount- 

joy-square, East, Dublin. 
1863. Jan. 12 Joyce. Patrick Weston, Esq., A.M. 5, Clifton-t9r- 
race, Ranelagk, Co. Dublin. 

1831. Nov. 30 

1865. April 10 

1869. June 14 

1867. Feb. 11 
1864. Nov. 14 
1838. Jane 24 

♦Kane, Sii Robert, M.D., F. R. S., &c., a Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Academy. QueenU College, Cork; and 
Wickham, Dundrum, Co. Dublin. 
Kane, W, F. Do Visme, Esq., J. P. Drumreaske 

House, Monaghan. 
Kavenagh, Very Rev. James, D. D. St. Palrick^s 

College, Carlotc. 
Kcane, Marcus, Esq., J. P. Beech Park, Ennis. 
♦Keenan, P. J., Esq. Dehille, Glasnexin, Co. Dublin. 
[♦Kelly, Denis Henry, Esq., D. L. 61, Moun f -street. 
Upper, Dublin. 



XBSgTjZi. 25 ' *KeUy, Thomas F., Esq., LL. D., J. P. 10, Lefwn- 

I gtreet. Lower, Dublin. 
1W9. April 9 Kennedy, Henry, Esq., M. D., F. K. & Q. C. P. I. 

I 3, Rutland-square, East^ Dublin, 
IW6u April 13 *Kennedy, James Birch, Esq., J. P. 1 , Albert-terrace, 

Dlaciroek, Co. Dublin. 
IMS. April 10 Kenney, James Christopher F., Esq., J. P. Kilclogher, 
Co. Galicajf: and 2, Merrion-tquarey South, Dublin. 
1838. May 14 *Kent, "William Todderick, Esq. b\, Rutland-square, 
West, Dublin. 

1844. A^ail 8 \ *Kildare, Charles William, Marquess of; V. P. R. D. S. 

I Kilkea Castle, Me^eney. 
1857. Ang. 24 j Killaloe, Right Rev. William, Lord Bishop of, D. D. 

Clarisford House, Killaloe. 
1866. April 9 ' *£inahan, Edward H.. Esq. 11, Merr ion-square. 

North, Dublin. 
1868. Jan. 13 ' Kinahan, George H., Esq. Geological Surrey Office, 


1863. April 13 Kinahan, Thomas W., Esq., A. B. 2, Abercorn-ter- 

, race. Circular-road, North, Dublin. 

1845. June 8 *King, Charles Croker, Esq., M. D. 

1837. Feb. 13 i *Knox, George J., Esq, 2, Finchley, New-road, London. 
1841. Jan. 11 •Knoi, Very Rev. H. Barry, M. A. Hadleigh, Suffolk. 
1837. Feb. 13 \ *Knox, Rev. Thomas, M. A. BaUymoney. 
1835. KoT. 30 '■ * Kyle, William Cotter, Esq., LL.D. 8, Clare-st., Dublin. 

1864. April II Lalor, J. J., Esq. 2, Longford-terrace, Monkstown, 

Co, Dublin. 
1833. Xov. 30 'Larcom, Right Hon. Sir Thomas A., Bart., Major- 
General, K.C.B., F. R. S. 

1835. Feb. 23 '*LaTouche, David Charles, Esq. Castle-street, Dublin. 
1864. Jan. 1 1 La Touche, J. J. Digges, Esq., A. B. 1 Ely-place^ 

I Upper, Dublin. 

1836. Jan. 25 i *La Touche, William Digges, Esq., D. L. 34, 5/^- 

phcrt^s- Green, North, Dublin. 
1857. May 11 ♦Lawson, Right Hon. Justice James A., LL. D. 27, 

Fitzicilliam-street, Upper, Dublin. 
1857. Aprill3 *Leach,Lieut.-ColonelGeorge A., RE. Z, St.Jamess- 

square, London, S. W. 
1839. May 13 *Leader, Nicholas P., Esq. Dromagh Castle, Kanturk. 
1852. May 10 ' Leared, Arthur, Esq., B. A., M. D., T. C. D., 
; M. R.C. P. L., Physician to the Great Northern 

Hospital. 12, Old Burlingfon-fitreet, London, Jf'esf. 
1845. Jan. 13 i L'Estrange, Francis, Esq., M. D., A. M., F. R. C. S, 

39, Dawson-st. ; and Landaur^ Raglan-road, Duhliti . 
1845. Feb. 10 I Le Fanu, William R, Esq., C. E. 59, Fitzwilliam- 

square, North, Dublin. 



1846rMa7 11 
1843. April 10 

1828. April 28 
1869. April 12 
1853. April 11 

1837. April24 

1868. April27 
1832. Feb. 27 

1846. Jan. 12 
1845. Feb. 10 

1838. Feb. 12 

1859. June 24 
1833. Feb. 25 

1845. Jan. 13 
1836. Mar. 16 

1868. Jan. 13 
1851. Hay 12 

1812. Jan. 9 
1857. April 13 

1853. April 11 

1869. Feb. 8 

1864. April U 

1825. Feb. 24 
1827. Mar. 16 

1857. Feb. 9 

1865. April 10 

1843. Bee. 11 

1866. June 9 

♦Lefroy, George, Kuq. 18, Leegon-ttreet, Lotcer^ Dublin. 
•Leinater, His Grace Augustus Frederick, Duke of. 

Cartonj MaynootH, 
•Lenigan, James, Esq., A. M., D. L. Balkey, 
Lenihan, Maurice, Esq. LimfricL 
Lentaigne, John, Esq., D. L. 1, Great Denmark-at, 

♦Limerick, Right Rev. Charles, Lord Bishop ot The 

Palace^ Limerick. 
♦Little, James, Esq., M.D. 24, BaggoUat.^ Lr^ Dublin, 
♦Lloyd, Rey. Humphrey, D. D., D. C. L., F. R. SS., 

L. & E., Provost of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. Pro- 

vastus Ilousey Dublin; SfKilcronyfBrayt CclFicklow, 
♦Lloyd, William, T., Esq., M. D. London. 
♦Long6eld, Rev. George, D. D., F. T. CD. 1, Earh- 

fort-terrace^ Dublin. 
♦Longfield, Right Hon. Mountifort, LL. D., Judge in 

the Landed Estates Court. 47, Fitztcilliam-square, 

iTest, Dublin. 
♦Longfield, William, Esq. 19, Harcourt-ttreet, Dublin. 
♦Luby, lUv. Thomas, D. D., S. F. T. C. D. 43, Lee- 

aonstreetf Dublin. 
♦Lucas, Rt. Hon. Edward. Castle Shane, Co. Monaghan. 
♦Lyle, James Acheson, Esq., M. A. The Oaks, Lon- 
Lyne, Robert Edwin, Esq. Sandymount, Co. Dublin. 
Lyons, Robert D., Esq., M. D. B, Merrion-iquare^ 

We$ty Dublin. 

♦Mac Carthy, Vicomte de. Toulouse. 
Mac Carthy, Denis Florence, Esq. 74, Gardiner- 
street, Uppery Dublin. 
M*Carthy, James Joseph, Esq., F. R. I. A. I. Char- 
leston ITouse, RathmineSy Co. Dublin. 
Mac Cormac, William, Esq., M.D. 4, Lombard- 
street, Belfast. 
McDonnell, Alexander, Esq., C. E., M. A. St. John's, 

Island' bridge, Co. Dublin. 
Macdonnell, James S., Esq., C. E. 
♦Mac Donnell, John, Esq., M. D. 4, Gardiner* s-row, 

♦McDonnell, Robert, Esq., M. D., F. R. S. 14, Pem- 
broke'Street, Lower, Dublin. 
Mac Donnell, Major W. E. A., V. L., F. G. H., S. L. 

^ew Hall, near Ennis. 
Mac Dougall, William, Esq. Drumleek House^ ffowth. 
♦Mac Ivor, Rev. James, D. D. Moyle, Newtotcnstewart. 



Iim."FVbL 10 •M'fay, Rer. Maurice, LL. D. Hali^rA^futnt, CoU- 
mi. Feb. 38 
!»!«. Frb. 33 
l($e4. Jane 13 
IS3X Oct 23 

\m$. April to 
1SS9. Jan. 10 

1«». lUr. 15 

ISI7. Mar. 15 
tM2. J«i, 10 

t»«5. Fvb. 13 

UfiT. Apci) 6 

1640. Jan. 13 

1S61. JftB. 14 

l$4l. April 12 

IMS. Jan. 11 
tSflO. Jan. 9 
IM5. Jon« 33 

IRGI. Jan. H 
1M59 B«G 12 

1369. Fab. 8 
18«e. April 9 

1840. FoK 10 

1844. Juno 8 
IHM. ftUf 8 
1836. Not. 30 
1816^ Jan. 13 

•Mac Naill, Sir Johu, LL. D., F. H. S. 7, Kentington- 
martf Lond*m. 
tfaddra. tt. K, Esq., F. R. C. 8. En^j 1, IVaoti- 
i^, , '.. .'rrtiwrn'arfnw, Boot^tforfn, Co. Dublin, 

Mad. M., Ewi., Ex. Lie. K. & Q. C. P., 

Ac. l^ifUf'iN iIo*pitai, Gt. Britain -a/rf^l, Puhfin. 
•Mallet,*rt, Efiv. Ph B.. M, I. C. E.. K. H. 8., 
F. G. S. The Gntfn, Clitp/iam-roiuf, Londim^ 8. 
Malone, Rev. Silvester. Kiikrr, 
•Mrmt'lieslcr, His Gmte William Drogo Slontitpu, 
DnVe of 1, GrMi St^iihope-strett^ London; und 
Tiu C'l^tU, Taudrroiiff. 
•Mnrtin, Yen. John C, P. D., Archdoocon of Ardagh. 

•Mayue, Rev. Charlea, M. A- KiUahe, 
•Meath. Mo&t Rev. Samuel, Lord Bishop of, D.D. 
Ardhraccan Iloutff Nafan, 
MfehoD, Rev. C. P. Pr0$hytfr$f, Exchangt'sireef , 

Loicer^ Duhiin> 
Merriman, Michael, Esq. 

town, Co. J)iihiin, 
Moilan. Jolin, Esq.. U. D. 

Xarih, Dublin, 
Monck, Right Hon. Charles fttanley, Viscount. 26, 
Bttl laftd-^tftMre, North, Dublin ; and ChBrln'tUe, 
•MoTificll. Right ITon. WiUiam, M. P.. T) L. Tervct, 

Limfri*l i and Athftiaum C I uh, London. 
•Montgomery, Howard B., Ewj., M. I>. 
Moort*. A. MiinLgomcry, Lieut. -Colonel, 4th HaBsars. 
Moore, Davi.l. Esq., Ph. D., F. L. 8. Glatimm, 

Co. Ihtbiin 
Moore, JnTno**, I>|.. M. D. 7, Chichfiiier-$t., BAfattf. 
•Moore, William 1)., V.m\., M. X). Dul». 40, Ftzwil- 
Itawmiunre, fj^tut, Dublin. 
Morati. Ver^ Rev. P. F., D. 1). 55» EccUi-at., Dublin. 
More, Alexnnder O.. EKq., F. L. 8. ^^ Botanic VUw, 
(Hatn^rin, Ct>. Dublin. 
•XapiLT. Kt. Hon. Sir Jowph, Bait,, LL, D. 4, Jfer 

rion-tquare. South, Dublin. 
•Xevillf, Joiin, Enq., C. E. Joe^lyn-ntrect^ Dumhlk. 
Jfeville, Purke, Enq , C. E. 4, IVaterhto-road^ Dublin. 
•Xicholfcon, John A., li^'.i-.A.M. Balntih Jlotme^ KelU. 
Xugcnt^ Arthtir R., Ewj. ClonU>»t, Killucan. 

9, Royal-ttrractf King** 
60, FitxtviUiam-tquarp^ 


Date of Election. 

1869. June 14 
1869. June 14 

1867. June 10 

1833. May 27 
1867. Jan. 14 

1865. Apr. 10 

1857. May 27 
1845. Feb. 10 

1869. Apr. 12 

1834. Feb. 13 
1849. Feb. 12 

1866. Jan. 8 

1867. May 13 
1866. June 25 
1857. June 8 

1869. Apr. 12 
1866. Jan. 8 

1869. Apr. 12 
1844. June 10 

1861. June 10 

1866. June 11 
1838. Bee. 10 

1866. Jan. 8 

1839. June 10 

1841. Apr. 12 
1843. Dec. 11 
1845. Feb. 10 

1863. Apr. 13 

1851. June 9 
1838. Feb. 12 

O'Brien, James H., Esq. St. Brendan's, Rathmintt^ 

Co. Dublin. 
O'Callaghan, John C, Esq. \fltuiland'ttreetj Upper^ 

O'Connor Bon. Chnalit^ Castl^rea. 
♦Odell, Edward, Esq. CarrigUa^ Dungarvan. 
O'Bonel, Charles J., Esq. 47, Leeson-atreett I^wer, 

O'Bonnavan, "W. J., Esq., LL. D. Univertitg Club, 

17, SUphen*s-green, Norths Dublin. 
O'Bonnellj Sir Charles R., Lieut.-General. Limerick. 
•O'Driscoll, W. Justin, Esq. 65, Mountjog-aquare, 
Westy Dublin. 
OTarrell, Ambrose More, Esq. Ballgna, Enfield. 
0' Flanagan, James B., Esq. 18, Summer-hill, Dublin* 
♦Ogilby, William, Esq., M. A., F. G. S., &c. Altna- 
ehree. Castle , Dunamanagk. 
O'Grady, Edward 8., Esq., B. A. 105, Stephen'*- 

green. Souths Dublin. 
O'Grady, 8. H., Esq. The Temple, London. 
O'Hagan, John, Esq. 20, Kildare-Hreet, Dublin. 
O'Hagan, Right. Hon. Thomas, Lord High Chan- 
cellor. 34, Ruthnd'8qu<ire, West, Dublin. 
O'Hanlon, Bev. John. Preibytery, Exchange-st., Lr, 
O'Kelly, Joseph, Esq., M. A. Rochestotcn-arenue, 
Kingstown, Co. Dublin. 
i O'Laverty, Eev. James. Hollywood, Belfast. 
I Oldham, Thomas, Esq., LL. D., F. R, S., Superin- 
i tendent of the Geological Survey of India. Calcutta. 
I ♦O'Mahony. Rev. Thaddeus, M. A. Feighcullen, mi- 
O'Rourke, Rev. John. Maynooth. 
♦Orpen, John Herbert, Esq., LL. D. 58, Stephen's- 
green, East, Dublin. 
O'SuUivan, Daniel, Esq. 34, North Great George's- 
street, Dublin. 

♦Parker, Alexander, Esq. 46, Upper Rathmines, Co. 

•Phibbs, William, Esq. SeafUld, Sligo. 
♦Pickford, James H., Esq., M. B., D. L. Brighton. 
Pigot, Right Hon. David R., Lord Chief Baron. 52, 

Stephen' s-green. East, Dublin. 
Pigot, Bavid R., Esq. 24, Oardiner-ttreet, Lotrer, 

Pigot, John E., Esq. Bombay. 
♦Pirn, George, Esq. Brennanstown, Cabinteely. 

mu Jan. 13 


Apr. 12 

l»36, Apr. 26 

\Ui. June 13 
1864. Jane 9 

inO. OcC 2d 

IM. J«n. II 

1N4. June 10 

667. Jan. 14 

IW8. Feb. 10 

IMS. Jul 9 

lft63. Jul. to 

Iftai. May 12 

•Pim, Jonathan. Esq., M. P, ^^'rt^Umk. M^^mltfrnrm 

Co, Dublin. 
*Piin, William Hsrrey. Eiq. Monk^^*cn Homr^ 

Moni-Jitotm^ Co. DubtiM. 
Poorc'. Mtijor Uobcrt, 8th TTiiunn 
♦Port<^. Ctorge, E<m\- LentUim Ltdft^ Btfpir^tbmai, 

*Portcr, H. J. Kpxt. Eeq. Brmmptom P^hflTmUimfdmi. 

*PoTt«T, Eev. Thomas H., D. D. TvtUkt>fw, hmm- 
Power, Alfred, Efiq. 35, RuUm-ratd^ DMm, 
PratU J.ames fiutlcfp £m|., C. E. /Vwmjm. Comnty 
•Prior, Sir^runcfl, F. S. A.. F- E. A«t 8. 20, JViw/©tt 
Crettceni, Ift^Ar Park, Ijondon. 
Purser, John, E*»q.,Jttn., M.A- Zote, CrotM-m^w, 
B0ot/T8totc»t Co. Duhhn ; and G, MountpUfuant^ 


Bead, J. M., General, U.S. ; Consul-Generol for France. 
Hon. F. N. A., F. R. S. N. -^M^iny, i'. .V. 
•KeevcB, Rer. William, D D.. M. B., LL D. The 

Pubiic Library, Armagh ; and JlaUfty^ Tgnan, 
•Renny, H. L.. Lieut. K, E. (Uetirtd List). Qwfifr. 
•Rhode«, Thomas, Esq., C. E., F. R. A. S., Hon. 

MI.C E. 
Bichty, A, O.. Esq. LL.R 27, Copper Prtniroiv- 

»(rfft, Dithlin. 
Riagland, John, Esq., M. I). 14, JTarrourt'ttreet, 
•Robinson, Rev. Thomas Romnry, D. I>., F. R. 8., 
F. R. Asi. S., Hon. M. I. C. E. Lon., Hon. M. Cam- 
bridge PhU. Soc, Hon. M. I. C. E. I., Hon. M. 
Acad. Palermo, Hon. M. Acad. Philadelphia, Hon. 
F, R. G. 8. 1. Obsertafortj, Armagh, 
•Ro^, Henry, Esq., M. A. London. 
Roughan, 0. F., Esq., P. L. I. Eyre-tquare^ Oalttay. 
Russell, Very Rev. C. William, D. D. St. Patrick' h, 

♦Salmon, Rev. George^ D. D., F. T, CD.. F. R. 8., a 

Vice-President of the Academy. 81, TTfllingtou' 

road, Ihihlin. 
Sanders, Gilbert^ Eeq, BroekUy, 6, The Hill, 

Jfonktiotm^ Co, Dublin. 
•Sayers. Rev. Johnston Bridges, LL. D. Velorfj 



Date of Elcetioo. 
1848.'Feb. \4 

1846. Feb. 9 

1847. Jan. 11 
1869. Apr. 12 
1861. Apr. 8 
1835. Feb. 23 
1834. June 23 
1868. Jan. 13 

1833. Apr. 22 
1837. Apr. 10 

1867. Jan. 14 
1846. Apr. 13 

1853. Apr. 11 

1834. N0V..29 

1857. June 8 

1856. Apr. 14 

1857. Aug. 24 
1845. Feb. 24 
1845. Jane 23 

1848. Feb. 14 
1863. Jan. 12 

1846. Jan. 12 

1866. June 11 

1847. Feb. 8 

1869. Apr. 12 

Segrave, O'Neale, Esq., D. L. Kiltimony Newt9tcn' 
♦Sherrard, James Corry, Esq. KinnersUy Manor y Rei^ 
ffaUf Surrey. 
Sidney, Frederick J., Esq., LL. B. 19, Herbert' 

street^ Dublin, 
Sigerson, George, Esq., M. D. Richmond'hill, Hath- 

mineSt Co. Dublin. 
Sloane, John Swan, Esq., C. E. Woodlands, Fair^ 
vieWj Co. Dublin, 
♦Smith, Aquilla, Esq., M. D. 121, Baggot-atreet, 

LoweTf Dublin, 
♦Smith, Rev. George S., D.D., Professor of Biblical 
Greek, T. C. D. Drurhragh, Omagh. 
Smith, John Chaloner, Esq., C. E. Engineer's Office, 

Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford Railway, Bray, 
Smith, J. Huband, Esq., M. A. 
Smith, Robert William, Esq., M. D. 63, Eccles- 

street, Dublin. 

Smjthe, W. B., Esq., D. L. CoUinstoum, Killucan, 

♦Stapleton, Michael H., Esq., If. B. 1, Mounfjoy- 

place, Dublin, 

Stewart, Henry H., Esq., M.D. 1\, EccUs-st,, Dublin. 

♦Stokes, William, Esq., M.D., F. R.S. 5, Merrion- 

square. Norths Dublin. 
♦Stoney, Bindon B., Esq., C. E, 42, Wellington-road^ 
Stoney, G.Johnstone, Esq., LL. D., M. A., F. R.8., 
Secretary to the Queen's University in Ireland. 
40, Wellington-road, Dublin. 
♦Sullivan, William K., Esq., Ph. D., Secretary of the 

Academy. 6, Mount-street, Upper, Dublin, 
♦Sweetman, Walter, Esq. 4, Mountjoy-sq,, Nth., Dublin, 

♦Talbot de Malahido, Right Hon. James, Baron, 
F. R. S., President of the Academy. The CastU, 
♦Tarrant, Charles, Esq., C. E. Waterford. 
Taylor, Colonel Meadows, C.S. L M. R. A. 8. C. E., 
J. P. Oldcourt, UaroWs-cross, Co. Dublin. 
♦Tenison, Edward King, Esq., D. L. Kikonan Castle, 
Keadue, Carrick-on- Shannon, 
Thom, Alexander, Esq. Donnycamey House, Artane, 
♦Tibba, Rev. Henrj' Wall, M. A., F. S. A. Scot., &c. 
Bobbington, Bridgnorth, England, 
Tichbome, Charles R. C, Esq., F. a S. L 27, Wal- 
tham-terraee, Blackrock, Co, Dublin. 



IS69. Jose 14 I Tobii), Sir Tliomas. Ballinenfli^, Cork 

1846. Feb. 9 I •TuftieU, T. JoUitfe, E^t.. ¥. \i. C, i*. I. 5$, Mvwt 

ttreti, Lotrer^ Dublin^ 
WIG. Feb. 14 *Tuni6r. WiUiam, Esq. 
1863;. Fe^ a Tyrrell, Henry J., Esq., F.B,C.8. 1. 29, Wt^Ua 

row, DuhUn. 

ldG5. Jtf. 13 
IS^. May 26 
im. /us. 26 

Uriin, Richard D., Est). 12, /A>«on /'tfri, Dublin, 

•Vandeleur, Crofton M., Colonel, B. L., II. P. i 

Hutland-mmre, £aatf Dublin. 
*Vi«:noleB, Charles, Esq., C.E., F.B, 8., F.R.A.S., 

21, Duke-itrett, We*tmiH4Ur, London, 8, W, 

1M0. /an. 9 Woldron* Luurcncc, £»q., B.L. 38, R^land-^^uar*^ 
Wt*i, Dublin. 

1833. Apr. 28 «WaU, Rcr. Eicbard H.. D. D. ErriUannon lodf^ 

IBM. Feb. 8 Warren, Joniea W., Esq^ K.A. 39, liufUnd'tq^art, 
1ire4t, Dublin. 

IWI. Jm3. 11 Wwt, Very Rev. John, D.D., Dean of St. Pairick'^. 
Tlu Dfanertf Homt, Kctin'*trf*t, Upptr^ Dublin. 

1W4. Apr. 9 Weatropp, Wi H. 8., E«q. 2, Jdron^t^rr^t^, Black- 
rock, Co. Duthn, 

Its?. Jmw 8 «Whit^heQ'i, James, Eaq., M.D. 87, MouUff^Hrttt, 

19^1. /an. 15 »Whittle, Ewing, E&q., M.D. \, PHfliament-Urrate, 

1M9. Juac 10 , •Wildo, Sir William R. Wills, M. I)., F.R.C.S.» a 
Vice-President of the Academy. Sur^^^.'on Ociiliat in 
Ordinary in Ireland to her Miijfsty ; M. K. 8. of 
UpBolfl, &C. 1, M^rrion-Mquaff^ North, Dublin, 
Wilkic, Henry, Esq. Bel^race Houw, MonkUoufn 
Avcnw, Co. Dtiblin, 
*Williumn, Richard Palmer, Eiq. 88, Doms-tireet, 

•WilUnma, ThomaR, E«q. 71, SUphtnU'^rtm, South, 

♦Wilson, Henry, Esq., F. B. 0. 8. 1. 29, Baffffot-»ir00t, 

Z^ictTf Dublin. 
Wilson, John, Esq., M. A. Durham Villas, Eentinff* 

Utfiy London, 
Wilson, Joseph, Esq. 16, TempU-at.f Upper, Dublin. 
•WiUon, Robert, E»q. 28, WnUtloo-road , Dublin. 
♦Wright, Edward, Esq., l^L, D. 10, and 11, Letnster 
Chambertt 43, Da rtU" street, Dublin, 
Wright, E. iVrteval, Emi-, F. R. G. 8. 1., M. D., Her- 
banum. Trinity College, Dublin. 

1882 Jan. 13 







t86«. Jaa 







12 ' 





Dtte or EleeUon. 
1863. Jane 22 

1863. Mar. 16 


Hw RoYAr, HianKKM Azbbrt EowiBD, P&wcb ot 

Sabine, Major-Gencral Edward, R. A., President of 

the Royal Society. 13, Aahley'phcet Wmtminkttr, 

lotion, 8, JT, 


1863. Mar. 16 
1832. Nov. 30 

1826. Kov. 30 



Nov. 30 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Mar. 16 
Jan. 23 

1869. Mar. 16 
1R64. Mar. 16 
1864. Mar. 16 
1837. Jane 26 
1867. Mar. 16 

1836. June 26 

1841. Mar. 16 
1862. Not. 30 
1836. Jaa. 25 

1884. May 26 

Agiissiz, Louis. Cambridge^ MaMachiMtta^ XT, S^ 

Airy, George Biddell, M.A-, F. R, 8., &c, Astrono- 
mer BoyoL Or^^nmeK 

Bubbage, Charles M, A., F. R. 8, 1, Dor9et-ttre4i, 
Manchfsfrr-nquarct London. 

Boautnont, Elie de, J. B. A., L. L. PuHi. 

Brown- S^quard, Charles Edouard. Pan9, 

ButtsoD, K. W. Hfidflherg. 

CaruB, Victor. Ltipaie, i 

Clatisiua, R. Zurich. 

Cbasles, Michel. Pari: 

Darwin, Charles Down. BromUjf, K«nt, 

Daubree, A., Ecolo des Mi&ee. Pari*. 

Dove, Heinrich Wilhclm. B^Hn, 

Dumas, Jean Baptijtte, Parin. 

Dupin, Cbarlca. Paris, 

Honftteen, Christopher. StoeJUtolpt, 

Ilelmholtz, Hermann, Jlrhhihfr^. 

Hcracbel, Sir John Frederick William* Bart, D. C. L,, 
F. R. S. GoUiwjwood, Hmckhurtt, Etnt, 

Hooker, Joseph D^iltoo. M. D. Kf*o. 

Hyrtl, Carl Joseph. Vienna. 

Le Vetrier» F. Paris. 

Liebig, Baron Justus Vou. Munich, 

Lyoll. Sir Charles, Bart., F. R, 8., Ac. 53, Earlty- 
Mtretft^ London, //^. 

MuTohisou, 8ir Roderick Impey, Bart, D. C. L.. 
F. Its. 16, Ifrh/rar«'tqmtr$, London, S, W, 

Qaotolot, Lambert Adolpho Jaoquaa. BrtuteU, 

Rcgnault, Victor Henri. Pari*, 

Sedgwick, Uav. Adam. M. A., F. VL S., &c. Cam- 

Somerrille, Mrs. Mar}*. 





iftseTjuL 25 

\U± Hsr. 16 
1867. liar. 16 

Sykes, Colonel Wm. Henry. R R.S., &c. 47, -4/*ion- 

«^«^, Myde^parif London. 
Wheatetone, Charles, Esq., F. E. S., &c. 7, Chatter- 

terrace^ BegeHf$-parh, London, W, 
Wurtz, A- FarU» 

Sscnov or Politk Litsbatubk. 

1S50. Not. 30 i Boeckh, Angustaa. Berlin, 

18&3. Mar. 16 ' Ebel, Hermann. Leipgic. 

1869. Har. 16 ; Gayangos y Arce. Don Pascnal de. London, 

1863. Mar. 16 i Grote, George, Esq. 

1S49. Nov. 30 ' Guizot, Fran9oise Pierre Gillanme. Pant. 

1836. Jan. 25 | Harcourt, Rev. Wm. Venablea Vernon, A. M., F. R. S. 

j Bolton Percy, TadcasUr. 
1869. Var. 16 ' Lassen, Christian* Bonn. 

1849. Xov. 30 ; Lepsius, Richard. Berlin, 

1830. July 25 , Madoughlin, David, M. D. Paris. 
1869. Uar. 16 ' Hommsen, Theodore. Berlin. 

1866. Mar. 16 ' Mottley, John L., Esq. London, 
1863. Mar. 16 j Miiller, Professor Max. 

1850. Nov. 30 ; Thiers, A. Paris. 

1867. Mar. 14 I Tischendorf, A. Leipnc. 

Section op AHTiatrrnBfl. 




Mar. 16 i 



























Benavides, Don Antonio. Madrid. 

Botta, P. E. PariB. 

Cochet, L'Abbe. Rotten. 

De Rossi, Cav. B. Rome. 

HalliweU, James Orchard, Esq., F. R. S., F. S. A., &c. 

6, jS^. MaryU-placet W. Brompton, London, S. W. 
Keller, Ferdinand. Zurich. 
Larcom, Major-General Sir Thomas A., F. R. S., &c. 

Mauray, Alfred de. Paris. 
Neilsson, Rev. S. Copenhagen. 
Petit-Radel, L.C. F. Paris. 
Thorpe, Benjamin, Esq, Chiswick. 
Visconti, Commendatore, P. E. Rome. 
Way, Albert, Esq. Wonham Manor, ReigaU. 
Worsaae, J. J. A. Copenhagen. 





SESSION OF 186«-47. 

I.— Ox Spehsee's Ieibh Ritebs. By P. W. Joyce, A. M., T. CD. 

[BmUI Nov«iBber 18, 1866.] 

I21 the year 1580 Edmand Spenser was appointed secretary to the 
newly created Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Grey of Wilton, 
and in that capacity resided in Ireland for two years. In 1586 he 
obtained a grant of 3028 acres of land in the county of Cork, part 
of the forfoted estates of the Earl of Desmond, under the impor- 
tant condition that he should reside on, and cultivate the property. 
He selected for his residence the Castle of Eilcolman, one of Des- 
mond's strongholds, situated on the estate, two miles firom Buttevant, 
and while Uring there he composed a considerahle part of " The 
Faerie Quecne.** 

During the time he filled the office of secretory, as well as while ho 
lircd at Kilcolman, he studied carefully the history, politics, and topo- 
g^raphy of Ireland, of which he has left proof in his '' View of the State 
of Ireland." Throughout his poems he makes frequent mention of 
Irish localities; but there are three passages of especial interest in 
which he enumerates and describes our rivers. In the Fourth Book of 
**Tbe Faerie Queene," Canto xi., he describes the marriage of the 
Thames and Medway, and among the guests, he gives a long catalogue 
of the rivers both of England and Ireland. The following is the pas- 
sage in which the Irish rivers are named : — 

"There w«8 th« lilfy rolling downetbe les; 
The Mndy SliUne ; the stony Aabrian ; 
The tpacioDt ShenAn spreading like « ma ; 
The pleuant Bojne ; the fishy froitfall Dan ; 
Swift Auniduff, which of the English man 

R. I. A. PIOC. — TOL. X. * B 


Is cal'de Blflcke- vster ; and the Liffar deep ; 

Sad Trowifl, that once his people over-ran ; 

Strong Alio tombling from Slewlogher steep ; 
And Mulla mine, whose waves I whilom taught to weep. 
** And there the three renowmed brethren were, 

Which that great g>'ant Blomius begot 

Of the faire nimph Rheilsa wandring there: 

One day as she to shunne the season whot 

Under Slewbloome in shady grove was got, 

This gyuit found her^ and by force de6owr*d ; 

Whereof conceiviog she in time forth brought 

These three faire sons, which being thenceforth powr'd, 
In three great rivers ran, and many coantriea scowrd, 

" The 6r8t the gentle Sfaure, that, making way 
• By sweet Clonmell, adomea rich Waterfurd ; 

The next, the stubboiBe Newre, whose waters gray 
By faire Kilkenny and Rosseponte boord ; 
The third the goodly Barrow which doth hoord 
Great heaps of salmons in his deepe boddnig: 
All which, long sundred, doe at last accord 
To foyne in one, ere to the sea they come ; 
So, flowing all from one, all one at last become. 

" There also was the wide embayed Maire : 
The pleasant Baodon crowiiM with many a wood; 
The spreading Lee, that, like an island fayre, 
Encloseth Corke with his divided flood : 
And baneful! Oure late stained with English blood." 

In the first of the "Two Cantos of Mutahilitie," it is related that a 
meeting of the gods took place on a hill called Arlo, which is very fully 
descrihed ; and here two other rivers are mentioned, both of which 
figure in a charming pastoral story — the Molanna, and the Fanchin or 
Funcheon. The tliird passage occurs in " Colin Clouts come home 
again ;" and here the MtUla and the Brcgoge are the subjects of another 
pretty pastoral. 

Many of Spenser's Irish rivers are so well known, that they could 
not be mistaken ; there are several, however, that no one, so far as I am 
aware, has ever attempted to identify ; and there are two, and these 
some of the most important, that by the generality of writers have been, 
OS I believe, erroneously identified. On those that arc suflicicntly well 
known — such as the Shenan, Iho Slaine or Slaney, the Boyne, &c. — I 
do not intend to offer any remarks, and in dealing with the remainder 
I shall take them in the order most convenient to myself. 

There is a range of mountains running eastwards from the neigh- 
bourhood of Buttevant and Charlevillo, county Cork, till it terminates 
near Cahir in Tipperary, extending altogether nearly 30 miles in length ; 
the western portion of this range is called the BuUyhoura mountains, 
and the eastern the Galties, This eastern portion is also the highest, and 
one particular summit, Galtymore, the most elevated of the wliolo range, 
rises 3015 feet above the sea level. This peak is Spenser's Arlo Hill, 
once, accordiitg to him, the favourite resort of Diana, and the scene of 
the meeting of the gods. It was never so culled except by Spenser him- 

mlit and he borro ved the oame from tho Olen of Aherlo^r, at that timo 
waanktafy called Ario^ or Arlow by English writers — a beautiful 
rdUf, ten milts long, csiclosed by the Qalties on one fiide, and SUeve-^ 
luCBOck OB the other, with Gaitrniore towering immediately over if 
That this peak, and oo other, is Arlo Hill, is e.hown by several circam- 
Arlo Hill most be at tho eastern end of the ran^, that i^, 
the Galties, for he telk us that it overlooks the SiuTf and the 

pUiB through vhich it flows : — 

** [Dians] qnit«'rorsooke 

All IboM* fairN fore«l# «t>out Arlo Lid, 

And &11 tht&t muunlainc wbic-h dotb oveHooke 

Tlu richest cbttRipain that may else be rid ; 

And Uu lahe Shuirt iu irbkfa ere ihonaaod salmofu brrd." 

Fir»t Vamto of MutahiUti^ 

The name Arlo Hill shows it to be one of the peaks rising over tlie 
vale of AherUiw \ and it& identity with Qaltj^more is placed beyond oU 
qoesdoQ by Spenaer'e own assertion, that Arlo Hill 


- U the highest head in all mcu's sight 
ly old fAtbtf Mole." — ifM4, 

We have jojtt seen that he reckons Galtymore as one of the moun- 
tniiu called Mole; in "Colin Clouts come home agniu" he says hia 
on remdence of Kilcolmau was under the foot of Mole, and further on 
in the »ame prw-ra hf etatt^j that the MuUa or Aubeg rides out of Mole ; 
in the same place alao he suys that 


' Hole bight that moontain ^jxty 

Tbat walU the north aide o( Armulla dale." 


all which it is evident that by " Old Father ACole/' Spenser 
t the whole range including the Ualties and Uailyhoura mountains. 

** OU father Uole" 

had ft daughter fresh aa floure of May 

Which grave that name uato that pleasant, vale, 
Halla. the dAUKht4-r of uld Mule, so hi^ht 
Th« ninph that of that wau-rcourM! hrts charigt, 
Tliat ipriiiKini; out of Mole, di^tli run doiine rigfat 
To lIiitievAiit, where, ■rprvaiting forth at largo, 
Ti givcth iiatnir unto that ancient citlie 
"Wbich KilDuOiuUah clepped ta of old." 

The rrrer Mulla or Aubeg, which flows by Buttevant andDoneraile 
already well described by several writers, so that no dcscrip- 
:emary here ; but I wish to make a few remoiks on the name. 
fits culled the Aubeg to distinguifh it from the Avonmoro, "tho 
it river" — the Blackwater. Spenser has drawn on poetic license in 
ling it by the name MuUa, which could not be the name of a river 
all except by traiisfLrence from a hill; the Aubeg was never called 
VuUa except by himself. Kilnamullagh was, as Speneer says in the 


above passage, the old name of Butterant, and seeing this, ho assumed 
or believed that the river was called MuUa, and that it gave name to 
Kilnaniullagh; but this is all the work of his own fi-rtile imagination. 
At the year 1251 the Four Masters, in recording the foundation of the 
monafitery^cidl it Cill-na-muUaeh, which O'SulIivan, in lus "History of 
the Irish Catholics," tratialatcs Ecelf»ia tumul^>rvm, the church of the 
summits or hiUocka, and the words admit of no other interi)retation. 

Sjienser takes great delight in the name of Malla ; and not content 
with impressing the name on the river, ho has multiplied it in other 
localities; the plain through which it flows, he calls Armnlla, and it 
is, no doubt, to carry out the same idea that he personifies the adja- 
cent range of hills under the name of ilole — another imaginary name — 
whose daughters, ifuUa and Uolanna, are to be understood as named 
from him. All this structure of fictitious names ho has evidently built 
on the name MuUa — tliis, tuo, as we have seen, being the work of his 
own funey. I'here can bo no doubt that ho selected the name for its 
soft musical sound, in preference to the tme but less harmonious name 

lu the first of the "Two Cantos of Mutabilitie," Spenser mentions 
ft river under the fictitious name of Molanna, which he pcrsonities as 
one of Diana's nymphs, and celebrates her love for the river Fanehin 
or Fujxcheon. It is not easy to determine willi certainty what river 
Spenser meant by the Molanna. The whole context of the pfwtoral 
shows that it runs from one of the slopes ot Gultyniore. and according 
to Spenser it joins the Fuucheon : — 

" So DOW her wnres [t. e. MoUiinB>] puM througb a plMMot pliins 
Till wUli tbc Fanchin the bcnclfo due whI, 
And both combined. LhrmMlvc* in ooefslre river flpred." 

There are only two streams whieh run down on that side from the 
^lope8 of Oultjinore. One of these, the Bchanngh, rises about a mile 
west of Galtymore, and joins the Funcheon at Kilbehcny, after a steep 
course of nbuut four miles. The other is the Attychraan streaui. some- 
times called the lirackbawn ; it rises on the side of Oaltymore, and 
flows through a deep glen by Galty Castle, or *'The Mountain Lodge." 
It is the p^nerally received opinion that thin is the Molanna, and in 
many purtieulnrs it certainly answers Spenser's dcscripiioii. *' It rises 
from a group of rocks somewhat in the shape of a horseshoe, high up on 
the side of Galtyniore : near the rocks it forms a pretty large pool, and 
the glen through which it flows u to this day shaded with oaks.' 
This is ju9t an Spenser describes it : — 

'* Kui Hnl iKe niiringi out nf two m«rl>U roclu. 
On which I gmre of mites hlgh*mnnnlM f^rowM, 
ThMt at a prlonil avemea to drck the lock* 
or aoina faire bride, bnmgfat, forth wah puni|Miua abowna 


' T trnw not bwn abb to •xamloe Ihia txact locsUly panoDally. For lh« i 

MioQ of the llraclibaaa iiooled aliova I am hi<liM«d to the lilmln«aa of Mr. 

(iic«hy, nho livea »ii thi' ti^ot, auil he U reitipiiajble for iu corrrclDaaa. 

0« «# bm boirrr, Uut mnnj aowvrt Hrowet . 

&i tltfiMi^ (he dowry iUXm »ti-r * ' " - 1 <wn«, 

Tfaxoofti amaj wood* end »1ib<J vrci, 

That oo fsdl lid* hersilvcy chji> c, 

Tin lA ibe ptiUBK tlM eooK, «ho«c rslitT-c* sIm dolb dro«m«. 

lo biilhe ** to this 
.lig ut the source of 

Aad Uxtbtr oo he stat^^ that Dior • 
firwC ifriag/' which ocswcnt t<3 the j 

There U however one grand dilHcalty, which so one has hitherto 
aabond, thoti^ all ttwert that the Hulaona ie the Brackhaiin. Acc-ord- 
ta^ to 9pFn?cnhcMolflimaand the Funchcon arc twoditfcrent streams, 
tbc Ibrn - the Utter after passing " through a pleasant plaine/' 

But thif^ 1 :■■ :ickhaun is the source of the Puncheon itself, and even 

Is aparaoD unacquainted with the locality this will be rendered evident 
hf m l^anea at a good map ; how then can the Brackhaun be the Ho- 
Istaa, aincc the former is the Poncheon, while the latter is a diiferent 

Smith, in hi» *• History of Cork" (voh ii., p, 262^. nwierts that the Fun- 
cfaacQ riflca in a bog in the county Tippc rary, one nulc south of the Galtiea, 
wbA that it receives the Bruckbaun not far from its source. Ue is fol- 
lowid by scTcrul modem writers, oil being apparently more anxious to 
reeettualu Spenser's staU-monU regarding the Mohuma and the Puncheon, 
tiktfk to describe these rivers as they rc^y exiet. Smithes statement 
ia VB^oolitedly ernmeous, for tlie Brackbaun is universally known na 
tlw wmree of the Puncheon ; moreover, there is no stream «t all meeting 
tka BtBckbann from the Tipperary side ; all the streams without cxcep- 
tioB OB tlut side flow east into the tributaries of the Suir. 

I sa MOt yot able to come to any satisfactory conclusion on this 
poat. It k powible that Spenser may have been mistaken regarding 
Iht mmrtiT of th*' Puncheon, like Smith and other modem writers, and 
^^Hpt -wled the Brackbaun for the Molannn. If^ on the 

^^^^^. : '^^' that Spenser hud a correct knowledge of the 

^^^^KhM tiie yuucheun, then the Atolanna must be some tributary of 
|H^^^I^K!hr<>n. rhc mu8t likely stream being in this case the Behonngh, 
* " ' innot say whether it answers Spenser's description. 

! - to me certain, that modem writers have drawn their 
oicrwhat too hastily, and without sufficient examination of 

Ib ** Colin Clonts rome home again,' Spenser celebrates the love of 

i ^' ^ *■-' f^ Q^^, Jiuiia^ and in hia usual felicitous style he describes 

by which the Bre^'oge contrived to gain possession of the 

nymph, in sj/ite of hir "old father Mole;" he also states that this 

riTer — " the tahao Brcgogc," as he elsewhere calls it — was 

** So hfffbt beciUM of thu deceilful tnine 
Which he wHh HuU« wronght to wio delight. ' 

ThrliltleriTcrBrcgogphaanot disappeared, as some writers assert; it is 
ftin wen known by the same name. It* principal branch rises in a deep 

glen on tho side of Corrinmore hill, and it joins the Aubog near Donc- 
ruile. After leaving the bills it traveraes the plain before its junc 
with the Aubpg, and in this part of itfl course its chnunel is somctim 
very wide, and filled with heaps of gravel and rocks, rolled down I'ro' 
the mountain, bu that tlie stream, which is generally very small, a 
often nearly dry, is much scattered, divided, and interrupted. Th 
ohnractoristics are very correctly described in Spenser's beautiful pasi 
ral, and he has also rightly interpreted the name as signityiug '* false.' 

The word "breug" means a lie, and in various modified si'oscs it 
protty commonly U'^vd in Iririh names. For t'xnmple, Dromorebraga 
in the parifih of Aghaderg, Down ; there is a tradition that the found 
of Druuioro at first intended it to be here, and that, having ohan 
their minds, and built the town on its present site, Uio former place w 
called Dromorebraguc — {al^^ or pneudo Dinmore. So alsoArmaghbragu 
ft few milo4 south of tho city of Armagh; and there ie a townlond 
this name in tho parisli of Nobber, Mouth. 

In a great many places in Ireland, standing stones that look at 
distance something like men are calhd Firbreaga — false, or fantasti 
or p»eudo men — and these objects have given name to some townlnnds.^ 
The word is sometimes applied to rivers that are subject to sudden and 
dangerous floods, and in this ease it means dcet-ilful or treacherous 
forms paj-t of the name of Truwbreaga bay at Alalin, Donegal, the fi 
or treacherous strand — a name well dcsenxd, as the tide rises there 
sttddcDly, that it has otleu swept off people walking incautiously 
the shore. 

Spenser's Bregogc alflo fully hears out ita name; it is formed by the 
junction of four mountain streams, all of the same length, and mee 
nearly in tlie same place. There is very little water in these in 
weather; but whenever a heavy shower falls on the hills, four moun 
floods rush down simultaneously, aud coming I'rom the same distan 
they meet together nearly at the same instant, and tho insiguifieant 
little rivulet swells in a few momeutt^ la a dangerous torrent. 

In the north of the parinh of Onlbooly, Tipperary, ihei-e is a river 
called Breagagh — same meaning a* Brogogc ; at the citj- of Kilkenny 
there is a smsiU stream of the same name; and the Kiver Diuiu in Kil- 
kenny is, or used to be often called Breagagh, on account of ita sudden 
nnd dcftmctivc floods. J 



"The Liifnr deep" is the Foylc at Lifford. It is often called Liffar 
by earlv English wrilcn*, ns by Spenser himself in his *' View of the 
State ol'Irclnnd" (p. 15H, Ed." 1809) :—" Another [garrison] would I 
put at Castle-lifter, or thcreubouls, so as thoy should have all the paa- 
Mgefl upon the river to Logh-foyle." Both f;il>soii and Gough, the 
translators of Camden, also call this river by the name of Liifer. l*he 
Irish form of the name as used by many authorities is Lcitbbhcarr, 
which is well represented in pronunciation by the old and correct 
Kngli«h form Liffcr. The town of Liiford takes its name from the 
river, a circumstance very ufiuol in Ireland; in this mannor Dublin, 


Ltrnff-wk, Oalway* ftc^ mnny other phbces have received their names. 
The 4 at tlw cod ia a modem corruplion in accordance with a phonetic 
law chat I examined in a former paper, by which d is orten corruptly 
iditd in Bkodem names after n and r, and 6 atter m. 

"S«d Trowia that onco his people over-ran," This is the little 
RrrwDrowes, floving from Lough Mclvia. hdtween the counties ui'Fcr- 
BOBA^h andX^eitrinif into Donegal Bay. The Irish name im Drobhaois, 
lad it ia a river very often mentioned in Irish history. From ihr most 
iDcunt period it M'parated the province ui Connuu^ht from that of 
niH«r, and it i« still tht- boundary between them. The earliest division 
of IntLui ' ' provinces was made by the Firboigic colony, when 

tbe fiTe - lii divided the country between them, and " Ueanann 

took IIm^ 'jf Connaught from Luimnench [Limerick] to Dro- 

Uiaoca, III iiiidhe tix»k the provint:e of Uladh fi-om Drobhaois to 

Droic^Bd-atha [Dropheda]." (Eeating, chap, ii.) 

Tbc iroids •' 8ad," and •* that once his people over-rnn," nllude to 
I vdl-known legend rcgoi-ding Lou;;h M(?lvin, from which the river 
flow. — iiariK^ly, that at a very ancient period it suddenly overtlowtd 
tbt i i drowned the people. This legend is givin by the Four 

tfu . following words: — *• AnnoMundi 4691. ilclghe Molbh- 

tbs' h of Ireland, was slain in the battle of Claire by 3Iodh- 

eI :iey go on to eay that " when his grave was digging, Loch 

forth over the land in Cairbre, so that it was named 
.« i;-::^,*!.', DOW cornipt*:d to Though Mcl\Tn] from him." 

StK^w r tniiVc^ the three river*, Barrow, Suir, and Noro, the offspring 
of ■ it Blomius" and " the faire nimph Kheiisa," which 

t. -• way of saying that these rivers rise in filieve Bloom, 

, dmw their supplies from the rain water falling on the 
.rt , llhciieu being merely 'P^oSffo, the fem. portieiplo of 'PeV, 
to flow. 

I am pemiaded that SpenRer, in mentioning "the great gyant 
Blomius," allude* to another very ancient Irish legend, namely, that 
I, or as it is written in Irish, Sliabh Bladhraa [pron. blaw- 
red it* name from Bladh [gen. Bladhraa], the v>n of Breogan, 
chieftains of the Milesian expedition to Ireland. The legend- 
aiy pcnwnage* connected VrHth hills or other f(.aturea arc almost always 
aagniftiHl into gianta or supernatural beings by the imagination of the 
petMOtry ; and they arc believed to haunt those places as a land of 
Mardian spirits; as. for example, Finnvarra of Knoekuiaa near Tuara; 
uonn of Knockrtoma in Limerick; ilidir of Bri Linth, now Slieve 
Oolrv. BMir Anlagli, county Longford, &c. It is highly probable that 
woa preserved among the peasantry in S|K.'ii8er*9 time ; that 
le ac<juainted with it, n« he knew and recorded the legend of 
T^IviTi ; nnd thrit "the great gyant Blomius'* is the ancient 
.\ the presiding spirit of 81icvc Bloom. 
I '.r pcrsoriiJieM thche rivers in ihe raasculiuo 

grader, caiiing them "throe runowmed brethren,*' and further on in 


the same passage " three fairc sons; '* by early English writCTS 

are commonly called <* The ihree sisters," as by Oiroldus Cambrenn^i] 

Camden and others. 

"The wide embayed Muiro" ia the Kcnmare river and bay. 
bay was often called llaire by writers of that early period. In Norden*i 
map it is written ** Flu. Maire ; " and ISoate describes it as a " h 
bay called Maire'* (*'Nat. Hist of Ireland," p. 11, Ed. 1726). 
name was, I believe, an invention of these writers themselves, and 
they took it from Kemnare, by a kind of reverse process, as if Xenmare 
signified "The head of Mai re." The original name as used in Irish 
authorities is Ccann-mara; and it was In the first instance applied to 
the highest point to which the tide ascended in the river Kouglity, tlt« 
name signifying " head or highest point of the sea." 

"The balefull Oure late stained with English blood,** I am no 
aware that any one has attempted to identify this. At first gliinv^ the 
Nore in Kilkenny would suggest itself, as this river was at that period 
often called the Oure; but this supposition is out of the question, as, 
besides other reasons, the Nore has beeu already enumerated. I think 
I shall be able to show that the **bnlefull Oure" ia the Avonbeg, 
which flows through Olenmalure in AVicklow, and joins the Avonmore 
at the Meeting of the AVaterg, the two forming the Avoca. Whether 
SpL'User meant to apply the name Oure to the whole river as far 
Arklow, or only to the Avonbeg, one of its branches, I shall leave ah 
open (question, but I think the former probable. 

The wonls "late stained with English blood" obviously refer 
some battle in which the English were defeated and suffered low, an 
which was fought a short time before Spenser wrote the fourth Boo 
of " The Faerie Queene," in which this passage occurs. The first 
three Books of "The Eaerie Qneene" were published in 1590, and it 
ia an ascertained fact that the remaining Uiree were finished before 
1 594. Tlie only battles of any conse^^uence in which the English ^ 
were defeated, that could be culled "late^* ut this period, were the throofl 
following:— A trifling action fought at Tulsk in Roscommon in 1693, ■ 
in which an English otticer, Sir William Clififord, was slain ; a battle 
fought at Gorl-nu-tiubntd iu the south of the county Limerick in 1579, m 
in which fell three hundred English soldiers and three officers ; and «■ m 
third, the most serious of the three, fought in Olenmalure in 1580, It 
will not be uecewiarj' to examine the two former; tliis last is the only 
battle that will answer Sjwnaor'a deacription in every particular. The 
nnwly appointc<l Deputy, Lord Grey, advancing rashly against the 
Wicklow elans, tmfl'ered a disastrous defeat on the 25th August of that 
year, on the bonks of the little river Avonbeg, flowing through this 
gleo, in which four English officers. Colonels Moor, CoaIij-, Audley, 
and Sir IVter Carew. with a great number of men — eight hundred, 
ac(<ording t<i tMimc outliorities — were slain. So far it exactly bears out 
8pen»er's words " late stained with English blood." It must he ob- 
oerved. t»o. that Spenser was himself in an indLrect way closely con* 

Ml I 



ia tbk doCeiU, fiUitt^ « ha did tlie aSoe of ■imijImj to Land 
Qfi7, nd B o aTn aeatly he woold be all tbe bor likclf to raUln ■ 
TTTKi MuMcj of it, ani to mmtioin h ia eamaexTOtt with the rirer, 

B«t the Bene itadf, and his manner of Hfliii; it, afivrd if poanbie 
itiB JUw^et erideBflc 8pea8er oAcn bestovs ietitioaa nanea froat 
fliMe rod fv ftnrif^ ooanexioa -with neighboozijig lacaHliea; Gal- 
trmtet he calls Arlo, from the Glea of Ahedo v ; Molanaa ia so called 
<W Father Xola; Amnlla from the KiTcrMalla; and the aaaie 
Valla itaelf he borrowed 6«m Kilnaniiillagit. 60 thi^ rirer he calls 
the Orm^ from the last eyllabk of Gleimuilw^ (or Glenmalonv aa he 
eaUs il ia his *' Tiev of the StAte of Intlaad*'), aa if the g^ took its 
Bane freaa Uie btct. 

Ia hta cataloe:ae of riTere, Spenser generaDj giree a short and rtrj 
daaiiripfian of each ; and he oitea eadeavooxa to find a cotre- 
h e t we e n the ehanoter of the riTera aad the nal er aoppoaed 
oftheaameu For example (see "Fame Qneeoe," Book IT., 


** Kola tkit Or m oooifiog Bo)« dcU aak* 

Bb vajr iCiil tmder pvaaA.^ 

MtA tkixtf [Fr. froUv] urti «f Aib, amA lUrtjr mAry 

« <• k%bt tiiiiei of kka dmiiftd Biiiit.*- 

''T^flris fierce/' "Ifcander intricate," Ac. In 

oChis» Uie word ** baleful" he eTideatly intends as 

ia meaning of the syllable ** mal ;" the Onxe or " Hal- 

was balefiil on aeeoont of the catastrophe that oecoired on its 

■ad its rexy name corresponded exactly vith its character. It 

aredkas to asy that tbis meaning is not the true one, and 

it origiaatad ia the poet's imAgination. 

be admitted^ 1 think, tl^ the river answers Spenser's short 
in erery particalar with singular precision, and I may add 
bdiere no other riTcr eaa be fbond to do so. MoreoTer, what 
the matter still mora certain, it comes in the natural place ; for 
^Matrci theBaadoa, and the Lee, the very next in order of those 
alraady named ia the Avoca. How Car these considerations may 
with athera I know not, but thf-v are qnile soffident to oonnnce 
a " baleful Oure" is the Aronheg of Wicklow. 

I dmQ next take two riTers together, the Alio and the AuniJuC 
Uackwater: aad in dealing with tbeee I shall be obliged to niu 
to the grticrally reeeivcd opinion. It has been commonly 
for granted that Spenser's Auciduff is the great Blackwater, and 

a. L a. raoc — tou x. 


thftt his Alio is the little river at preatfTit so called, flowing by Kanturk 
into the BLackwater ; and these identiflGation? have been copied and 
repealed by writers of nil kinds down to the presfTit day, with a mingle 
exception. The Rev. 0. B. Gibson, in his •' History of Cork" (1861), 
asserU, but without giving any proof, that Spenser's Alio is the Mud- 
ster Blar.kwnter, and thnt his Aunidutf is the Ulster Blackwatcr, flow- 
ing by Charlemont into Lousjh Neagh : that these identifications are 
correct I hope to be able to bIiow beyond any reasonable doubt. 

In the first place I must remark timt, so far an I have been able to 
discover, the ilunster Blackwater was never called Aunidutf or Avon- 
datf (black river). Its Irish name is Abhaiiin-raor, or Avonmore (great 
river); it is so called iu all Iribh authorities, and this is its univeml 
Irish name among the people of llunfttrr nt the present day. Black- 
water appears to be a modern English name, though a sufficiently 
appropriate one, as the river is ver}' daik iu the early part of iU counOi 
partly from Ihe bogs of Slievelougher, and partly from the coal district 
through which it flows. 

SUevclougher, from which Spenser tells as the AUo flows, is the 
ancient Sliabh Luachra (nashy mountiiiu), a wild moorland district, 
Ijingea-st ofCastloi^ilaud in Krrry, and very mnch cclobrated in ancient 
Irish writings. The modem AUo, as Smith remarks in his ** History of 
Cork" (vol. i., p. 328), does not flow from or near Slievolougher ; its 
whole length is not more than seventeen miles, and in every part of its 
course it is at least twelve miles distant from the nearest part of 
Slieveloughcr. That Spenser, who lived so near these places, could 
commit the gross mistake of making this Alio rise in Slicvclougher, 
requires a more than ordinary amount of credulity to believe. The 
Blackwater, on the other hand, flows directly from Slievelougher ; it 
nscs about Ave miles N.N. W. from King AVilliamstown, flowing flrst 
southwards, and, after passing throu^^h this very mountain district, it 
turns east towards Mallow, so that Spenser must have been speaking 
of tlie Blackwater when he described it most truly as " strong Alio 
tombling from Slcwloghcr steep." 

But, to remove all doubt, Spenser himself in another place tells U8 
expressly the very river he means by the Alio. In "Colin Clouts 
come homo again" he relates bow Old Father Hole did not wish his 
daughter \fuUn to wed the Bregoge, but 

•• meaning h*r muoh !>ctter to prpfcrre, 

Dtd thinke to match her wirtt the ncii;:lit>our flooil, 
WUicb AUo bight, BruaJwator called furrv ;" 

by which he means thnt the river which ho called AUo was called 
Broadwater by distant writers. N<i\v, Brnadwater is the name by 
which the Blackwater was known by early English writers, and it i« 
nothing more than their translatiou of the Irish name .\bhainumor. 
For instance Boate : — "The chief rivers of Munstcr ore Sure and 
Broadwater The other [the Broadwater] pssseih by Lismore** 





I C*N*t, HUt-/* p. 37, Ed. 1726). Mr. O'Flanagan, in hia interesting 
■ta|k on the Blaokvruter, quotvs a chiirter of James I., in which it 
^^■jiblvrd &5 *' the River BUckwatcr, called otherwise Broadwater.' 
^^Bk 0«||^ ukd Gibson, the tran»lutors of Cumdcn, call it Broadwater; 
P|B]f t« HcuB««fly has dirueted my attention to thu fact thut in Norden'i 
' Ibf of Ireland, compiled about the year 1610, which is puhlishod 
witi the State I'ttpers of Henry VLIL, it is marked "Broadwater." 
Im^it (|aaie miuay other autliorities on this point, but I do not think 
i ttcumrnTj Nothing can be plainer than Spen^r^e text on this liver 
Alio, telling as in one plare that it vises in SUevelougher, and in ono- 
U>cr place that it is the Broadwater he means. 

lii support of all that has been adviiaced, I hare now to quote the 
o^nioo of the inost accompU'thed of all Irish topographers^ the late Dr. 
O'DoDOTftD* from wltich it will appear that the Blackwater was at one 
biae, ather wholly or in part, cailvd the Alio, and that consequently 
the application of thid name was not the invention of Spcnser'R imagi- 

Kon, The ancient territory of Duhallow and the town of Mallow 
Ii lt« on thv Blackwater, and both derive their names from a river 
la or Alio. The original name of the former, aa written in Irish 
documents, is DutJioirih-Kalla, i. e. the district of the river Alio; and 
the Ih*h name of Mallow is Magh-Ealla, the field or plain of the Alio. 
Ihihallow might have taken uiime from the modern Alio, ae this river 
flowA tiirongh it, but how docH Mallow get ita name, for it is eleven 
ailM ea0t of the AUu? This difficulty was so apparent to O'Donovan, 
that in a nc* '^ Ji-EuUa in the "Four Masters" (vol. vi., p. 2080) 
ke itot^ h: >u tlmt the port of iho Blackwater between Kan- 

tnrk and Miiii jw was anciently called the -Vllo. His words are : — 
"From this namie [Magh-£uUa] it is evident that the name Ealla was 
■ftcuntlr applied to that port of the Blackwater lying between Kanturk 
wlww tbo modem River Alio enda, and the town of Magh-Ealla, now 

/. liow." m 

no! appear that 0*Donovan woe acquainted with theso paa-V 
■go* I T ; if he were, he would no doubt have quoted them in 

iQ|ipof 'tnion. His evidence is independent, and his corrobo- 

r^Joo quite unintentional; and this circumBtoncc gives his 

DpinkiN lurcc OS an argument. It must be regarded aa exceed- 

ingly . -' to lind this opinion of 0' Donovan's so unexpectedly^ 

CooiSn:! .. /t-nser. " 

Smith, in his " History of Cork," bo far as I know, was one of the 
^rtt I.. .ilrt/'MABi ilit-fie rivers of Spenser, and he identifies the *' strong 
A the modem river Alio, and the Auuiduff with the Munster 

li.„. ^ « ,. . . r. Ho is followed by Crofton Croker ( ' • Itesearches in the South 
»f Irr-land," p. 124). In Todd's elaljorate edition of Spenser these as- 
Krtioas art* r*fpeatod, but Todd received his information from Joseph 
Cooper Walker (Author of "The Histor)' of the Irish Barcla"), who merely 
fbOowt Smith, without adding anything of his on-n. I believe, indeed, 
that modem writer" generally have followed the authority of Smith 
tvftfiting these riverft. But Smith was evidently puzzled, and unable 



explain SpeiiKor'B text on this supposition, for it nover occurrvd 
to qucBtion it. Tnfttead of taking the poot at his own •word, 
the Alio was the Broadwater, and reading the passages in their nal 
and obvious meaning, both Smith and Walker lidopt the incredible eii] 
position that Spenser confounds the AUu and the Bluckwuter. Spei 
had a good knowledge of the topography of Ireland po far oa it 
known in his time; his descriptions of our Irish rivers are always ex- 
ceedingly oorrect, anr] it would be Gtrunge indeed to find him confound- 
ing two remarkable rivers in his own immediate; neighbourhood, with 
both of which ho must have been perfectly well acquainted. 

Whether the whole of the Blackwuler was anciently called 
Alio, or only a part of it, as O'Donovan believes; whether also 
present Alio was ever known by a ditferent name, and whether it got 
the name Alio by transferenco from the Blackwater — these are qii< 
tions I am not now able to decide; my object has been to prove that 
Spenser's Alio is the Munster Blnekwater. 

Let us now return to the enumeration of the nvera. The ordi 
followed is Litfey, Slaney. Aubrian, Shannon, Boyne, Bann, Aunidu^j 
Liffff, Browes, Alio, Mulla. Here T must observn tliat the wril 
referred to evidently never grasped the whole of Spenser's rivers 
one view; for if they did they could not fail to perceive that the Auni* 
dnff ia the FUtor Blackwater, the classification alone being sufficient to] 
prove it. When this river is restored to its proper place, Spenscr'i 
enumeration becomes perfectly natural He first names thoLitfey^ anc 
proceeds southwarde till he reanhes the ^Shannon. He then begins ail 
the Boyne, and, proceeding north and west round the coast, he takes 
the northern rivers in tlieir exact order, ending with the Drowes; hi 
then returns to Munster, uud linishes his stanza with his own tw< 
rivere: — 

" Stronjr Alio tomblinfr from Slowlopher steep ; 
And MuMa miue, whose waves I wbilom Uaghl to we«p.'* 

After a careful search I find myself unable to identify "the Stony 
Aubrian." The first syllable ^m is probably the common Iriph prcfii 
signifying *' river/' From the order in which iSponser names it in con* 
junction with three well-known rivers (Lifl'ry, Slum-y, Auhritmt Shan- 
non), it may be inferred that it lies somewhere in Cork or Kerrj*. The' 
river Feale in Kerry, flowing by Abbeyfcale, would naturally strike on«] 
as being possibly the river Spenser meant, as its Iwd is very "stony," 
and its position would answer the classification; but I cannot find that] 
this river was ever called by any name resembling Aubiian, and at bentj 
it is only a conjecture, I thought also of the Gal way River, for thiS' 
too would answer the classification very well; and its bed is very rorJcy 
near the town. Lough Oorrib, from which it flows, wjia anciently! 
called Lough t^rbnen, which is not wh(dly unlike Aubrian, l»ut the re- 
ttcrablunce is too faint 1o found any conclusion on it. This is the only 
one of Spcnnir's rivers that remains unidenlillcd. 

lAiDote at A. D. 1385 of tho " Four MiwUrre" (, p. 701), 
R. ifHaeawm stat- " ■"'' uf CVoghan in tho norlh of the 

luaf^ Cttmnij is r 


r, wl. 


f in his " Kaorie (iurt'nr," Srnilh 
• t the Dripsey, u Iributarj- of the Lee, 
ever murmur in the Iuvh of ihc immor- 
iris arr.' no mon»*' (vol. JL, p. 2o5). 
! the word Cloedi'at!h, is the fol- 
llic name of u river in the <"ounty of 
sev ICallovr, eel* ' ■ . .u Spenb^r'e Fairy Quoon." 1 have not 
l«aaUe to find any mention oi these — rroghiin Hill, the Kivcr Drip- 
<w, nr tlie Cloedeach (or Clydagh) in *' Tlie Faerie Uueene/* or in any 
wr pan of Spenaer'fi poenuL 

totL. :- 
to h 

IL — 0» T»B RcAjmrsArtAX AxnQrrriEs latelt niecovERED at 
L IsL^aiDhRiDOK. KKAA DuBuif. By Sir W. It. 'Wrij>B. 

^t [Kmd Deonnber 10, 1866.] 

^^K V 'Wqj>c Vice-President, brought under tho notice of 

HHB . an account of t]ie uutiquities of Scundiuarinn origin, 

n the fields sloping do^Ti from the ridge of Inchicore 
un.1 to the south-west of the village of Islandbridge, 
jml boundary of the city of Dublin, where, there was 
.^, ^rac of the ftu-colled Danish engagements with the 
BttiinB Iruh took pluce. These antiquities consisted of swords of great 
kagth, spcarbettdi^ and bo9«5e« of shiolda, all of iron ; also iron knives, 
mMhm* and izHstjd imeltc^rs' ton^s hammer heads, and pin brooches, &c. 
Of fccon^e tbcre were four very beautiful torloiso-shapcd or maramil- 
InjteocKshn found, likewii!>e some decorative mantle pins and helmet 
tnaft* of fiodmin, or white metal; biamn and scales of the enme ma- 
Icnal, And leaden weights, decorated and enamelled onto]), juid in some 
ttm» omomented with minerals. Besides those wliich were considered 
to be of Scandinavinn origin, there were others, especially email discs 
of «mboMod ^( ' naniel, found among them, probably of Frunkish 

or Saxoo »<■ ■■]>, simihir to some of those in tho Academy's 

Mowam, and tigtuid in the Catalog;ue, p. 574. Among the most 
intocvaliDg ortit-lfs in the collection was a sword handle of bronze 
■ad iron, hij^hly dw:orated in Saandinaviun patten), and inlaid with 
<rf white mital, which Mr. Clibbum was fortunate enough to 
uths «g*j, from Islundbridge. With few oxccptioua, 
Ve^MMi* ' . iss were Wlicved lo be of what was usually, buterro- 

beottaly caiicd. Danish origin. Sir William stated that iron swords 
of ikat patter7i went nirely found in Jutland, or the countries known 
ia modem geography as Denmark, but similar swords were found, 
cUcfljin Norway, and the adjoining coasts of Sweden, and he believed 
thatthiurc were nioro iron swords of the so-called Danish pattern in the 


collection of tbe Academy than were to be found in the Copenhagen Mu- 
Beum. He complimented the uoblu President upon the circumstance that, 
through his instrumenlaJity in procuring the "Treasure-trove reguU- 
tion," the Ili>yrtl Irish Academy was now able, without drawing upaa 
its own very limited resources, to purchase any collection of artide*| 
which might bo discovered in Ireland, provided such articles were at 
once brought to the Academy, or forwarded through the constabularj^ 
or police. In detail, or spread through private collections, these article* 
would be of comparatively little worth ; but collectively, and procured 
as they were, with all the circumstances connected with their discovery 
well known, they became of great historic interest. 

The circumstances under which the osseous remains and the 
BccomponyiDg relics were found were well worthy of consideration. 
The surface of the great pit from which the macadamizing material of 
Dublin was being procured, which was about twenty feet in section, ^^ 
consisted of a layer of dark, alluvial soil, varying from cightoefl^f 
inches to two feet in depth. Upon the gravel bed on which it rested ^fl 
were found several skeletons; and among their bones, both above and 
below them, were discovered tho di^'erent articles referred to. It would 
appear that they were worn by or were in the possession of the persons 
to whom these skeletons belonged ; but there was no evidence of 
" interment" having Uiken place j and, from all the attendant circum- 
stances, the investigator was left to believe one or other of two suppo- 
sitions: the first was, that the bodies were buried in all the panoply of | 
war, with their weapons, offensive and defensive, and their armour, de- 
corations, tools, and implements upon them — either hastily after a battle, 
or according to the usiigc of the people to whom they belonged — which 
latter was not only unlikely, but, from the shallow surface of the soil 
covering them, most improbable. The other and most likely conjecture 
was, that these Scandinavian invaders were killed in brittle or some 
sudden skirmish, and lay there on the lightly covered gravel field, on 
tile south side of the Litfi-^y, until the birds of prey picked their bones^ 
and the weeds, graas, and soil accumulated over them during tho last 
eight or nine hundred years. 

Sir William was of opinion that the Scandinavian incurRions into 
Ircliuid extended back into the very remote period of tlie Tuatba do 
Dannans, although the annfilists assign the HrHt great invasion of tho 
Tutons to the early part of the ninth century. We have no special notice 
of any battle having been fought in the precise locality from which Ibcse 
Rntiquiticfl were prw^urcd, although fteveral engagements tookplace round 
the environs of I)ublin. One of the last is tbat relat^^d in the " Annola 
of the Four Masters," under the year 1171, when At^gall, or llasculphus, 
ex-King of the Foreigners of AthCliath, attacked Milo de Cogan, near 
the city, but was vanquished by the Knglish Governor, and biboaded* 
It i» only in the museum of Christiania that we find any numl>t*r of 
ftwords identical with those disrovered in Ireland ; and some of the few 
that arc in the collection ot Copenhagen were, with other valuable ar- 



^deit^nKOrad &ofn ibis country some yean ago by that mostenergetie 
odlMUdDftne, Dr. "Woraaae, who, however, has not Bgured them in 
btestifaV Catalogui* of the Copenhogen MuK-um ; neither have such 
VMBOW Vea Aeacribcd by Engelhurdt aa found in the Thorsbjerg Mose- 
m.orthe1x>ga of Sle^vig. nor in the same author's epleutlid work, 
" Doawk in Uke 'Early Iron Age." A few, however, have been found in 
En^gttd, uid mre fig;ured and deucribed in the '*Hone Feraiea'*of thelate 
J. M. Kemhle- Our I>anUli invaderR, or at least tht ir commanders, were 
clad in maU, geTierally chain armour; wore eoniciil helmeU, of which 
there i» anexemplifioation upon one of the oval brooches, lately procured 
ftwn Ulandbridge ; had circular shields, probably bound with iron, 
nd Mndded ^tik large central bosses, one of which bears evidence of 
tiic iadeatatioo of an Iri^h battleajce. They had also long ehorp iron 
and javelins ; but their chief weapon was the larpfc heavy-hilted, 
1-blad^d iron sword, with a strong decorated hilt, and loaded 
We hare no evidence derivable from physical objeetu, norjmy 
neord la our manuBcript*, of the cross bow or any similar projectilo 
batiaic been employed in the Danish wars, except that shown in the 
betiMt crest, p. 17- There were also found ^ome fnigmcnts of bone 
vwmd bftiidlee» and a few vestiges of the bmsR ferules or tippings of 
nabtjarda. An i:xideavour had been made to scrupc and polt!«h name of 
the article*, bat it should be generally known among oil classes that 
ereiT effort of the kind decreases the commercial value of the articles. 

la eoodnnon, Sir William staled that his attention Wiis at- 
tzieted to the Iilaodbridge discovery by Sir Thomas Larcom, to whom 
tlb» Academy Vttt already so much indebted; and ended by congratu- 
htiag the raembem apon these and other valuable accessions which had 
b«CB vnde to the Moseum during the past year. He also rcfened to 
tSkebiatory of the Committee of Antiquities, and the fonnation of the 
Maacom, wldch he had brought uuder tlie notice of the Academy some 
jcan ago, and in which formation those who bore a part were justly 
ral errw l to, and thctc especially Dr. Todd, then Secretary of the Academy, 
aad who sul' . during his presidency, so eti'octively assisted in 

proctuifig th< .i ion of the first part of the Catalogue. 

The following is a list of the principal Antiquities procured from tlda 
Ttsy roflaarkahjc Find, given in the consecutive order of the arrange- 
Hkent obaerred in the MtiHeum Catalogue, " according to Use ;** and illus- 
trated by engravings of some of the rarest articles : — 

Kre complete iron swords, much corroded, but with handles ; also 
a deeorated «word handle. They arc nnmbcrcd 23o6, -7, -8, and -9; 
aad al«o 2360, and -61, in the New Registry. The Scandinavian 
weapoas of this class are of two kinds — single and double-edged; the 
latter aremge 36 inches long in the blade, and 2 wide, and have 
rather obtuse points; the former are not quite so long, and have the 
^ rattiai; edge running off obliquely into the straight blunt back. In a 
■ ttw rare fnstanoes the flats of these sword blades are indented with 




loDgitudinol grooves, as in Nos. 2357 and 2368 in tliis collection, 
handles of the iron swords iu the Academy's coUectiun are all masuri 
and appear to have been so weighted us to balance the bhidOf and rem 
its blow more clFective. Some of them are beautifully decorated 
silver, inlaid into the iron hiits and pommelK. The handle portioa i] 
eluded within the space of these two gutirda was generally occupu 
with wood, bone, or sealiorse tooth, &c. j but, owing to the curiosity 
the cupidity of the finders, they rarely find their way into the collection i: 
this condition. Fortunately, however, in No. 2358 a portion of the boi 
handle remains, and a fragmentof the wood in No. 2360, The beautifully 
decorated metal handle here figured, one-half its natural size, is the 
first of its kind that has been discovered, and is formed of iron, bronze, 
silver, and /iWru/w, or white me- 
tal, now so intimately incorporated 
that the lines uf juuution c;uiuot 
bo discovered. Tho entire length 
of this article in its present con- 
dition is 5 1 inches, and there is 
a portion of the 'blade still re- 
maining, but tho hilt or gnard is 
wanting. The hilt is iron, beau- 
tifully wrought, and inlaid with 
white metal, and the handle por- 
tion of bronze, inlaid with white 
metal or silver chevrons, termi- 
nating in small circles, as shown 
in the illustration. The side edgefl 
are also decorated. Nothing like 
this has heretofore been pubb'shcd. 

Six apcar heads, of the ordinary 
class — long, thin, and narrow, 
4 to 20 inches in lengtli, by 2 
inches broad in the widest por- 
tion, and having a socket about 5 
inches deep. There is also a gn'at 
number of tliese weapons in the 
general Scandinavian Collection 

of the Academy. They may have been used either in war or for the, 

Pour urolvMi, nr shield bom^ii, of thin plate iron, witli holeAin 
instances fur holding the rivnt^t that attached them to the bucklers: aom^\ 
are globular, and others conical. They average 3^ inches across, and 
2 J high. i 

Connected with the weapons and armour discovered at Islandbridge ' 
was a white metal figure of a dog. evidently a helmet cre*t. and which 
is here represented, the full size. It holds in its moulli something like a 
cross l>ow, and stands on plates fur attaehiiig it to the metallic pot^ 

Na 23GL 


Oa Oe MtiUft ii is iiUio, tnil on the right it wa* 

) vilb two n— iliililii ^«nl rohitm, mwmcIj 

o« tiN clooei of Xew Gnage mad Uowlli, 

of thai t^mm n IrrbotL Thii it oum of Uu fint 

no* ^Monition of tbt «pu« dundtf hu 

lend* Mppwrt to ibo bdaof that tW Tutka 



X& SS7I. 

igured on pu 18, tlMte are foar mtdIU of (he flaae pattern. 
Anong the " weopoo toob'* were aerenl knife blades, ranring in 
Icagtii fhaa 9 lo 5 inc^ ; ud ako an mm Mcklo-tike book. No. 2379, 
wkaelt Baqr» vben hafted. bare been osed as an iaftnuncnt of mat at a 
tee vkaa «t«t7 " eatfing and nmmiog" iniplem«at was made aTaiUble 
ftfbt. The true '•tooI»**di»w)Terr^^ '•^*' •■'^""■■' "OB«irtofhaiBn»er- 
Atan, aad tongs, eapectally on* ^ent of this Utter 

Ko. 23S3, vitii bent bladea^ maiiiit *itj u^fj iir lifting crucib]e«v 
ia olhflr aodtmg purpoav*. There were also oeveral Itfge-headcd 
Bid olhar piacca of iron, sacfa aa might be found in the forge of a 
«r a iMoam, togetbiT with aharpeaing stonei, vpindle whoris, 
villi Tariooa artidea of honsiduda oconomy. 
W* leara from history that in their predatory incursions the Scan- 
ptUaged our cfaurcbea and monaat): : ' ' t>^poiledusofour 

entamcnta. They efterwarda exh r eommcrcial pro- 

xa tbetr tradiag oattlementa in iJublm, Waterford, &c. ; m 
baring " aa eye to the main chance,*' they were always reedy to 
; and psvpared to weigh the precious articles which may have 
iafeo tSkeir baaids. This may acooant for the circumstance that in 
JiHtwiffa, in this Tery neighb*:)urliood, amAll scales hare been dia- 
eavered ia eoaaezioin with human reniaios and implements of war, art, 
aad barter. In the I&Undbridge Find were diftcovered one straight 
aad ana folding beam of coppery bronze, to both of which belonged cup- 
shaped white metal aealea; but in the former instance the chains were 
vaaliag. Ia the latter, which is 5^ inchea long in the beam, the chains 
are perfect ; but suspended from a single strand, which holds up, by 
a.L4. raoc. — roci. n 


means of an cagle^B claw, the three chains of the scale. The balance of 
the beam is held up by a bronze model of a awan, very similar in aiae and 
form to that believed to be one of the birds of Oden, disr.overed recently 
in his tomb at Upsala. It is manifest that these small portable acalea 
were used by their possoBsors in the same maDiierthat the guinea scal^iS 
and weights were carrierl about to fairs and markets in the early part 
of the present century. It is, however, to the weights, now for the first 
time discovered, and to develope their artistic structure, that special at- 
tention should be directed. They are t*n in number, and vary iVom 
390 grains to 18.50. Six are circular, and the rim of each ia capped 
with a decorated disc let into it, ajid weighted below with lead, 
probably aocording to the number of ounces or grains it represented. 
The following cuts, the natural size, illustrate some of the most 
remarkable of these articles. The first is that of a dog's head, most 
beautifully cut, and also tooled in brass, and highly gilt. No. 2389 in the 
registry, and weighing in its present imperfect state 1547 grains. As, 
however, some of the bottom lend from this and other specimens hoa 
been removed, it is not now possible to say whnther those weights are 
multiples one of another. The eyes were originally jewelled; and the 



No. sa»3 

back portion of the frontal raitrc-like projection is also highly decorated 
with volutes, or Scandinavian scrolls, like that on the rides, and the 
nostri) projections were tipped with i-edenaraeL The bronxe portion 
was riveted to the leaden disc. 





irticles were probably worn one on each breosU nnd ihvre- 
Te tbc D«zn<* of mumtiiiUarr brooolies ; and very likoly they 
eoootcted by chains, likv ibi- p:iir« of dog-hcade*! pina so fre- 
r|iieatlj Iband in S-wcdf^n. W^ are fortunate to ponsrss so many as 
nrrvn of these article* in our 
Vnmm — foar uf which, ^o?. 
X4(H sod -5, 2420 and -21. 
rtn found at Island )ind^& 

By tbo«c at all ac<|aainU<d with 

Iniii areloeology or hUiory. tbe 

bDovt&g paasa^ from Mr.MTor- 

•ae't " Prunc'TaJ Antiquities of ^^ 

Dmnark*'* in reftrvn-'e to these ^^^ • ^' 

broodMB, will be read with oa- 

tonifltmrnt : — " That tiny ore 

paDtireiy to be referred to the 

list period of Paganifrm we know 

»ith compute certainty, icfaiwtf ^■KJF^Vi^^) ^ IS^, 

Ibfy are frequently found in 

grarea in Ireland, which coun* ^-~i., , -^ ^ j 

try was first peopU^l by Pagan ^K^^^^y X.. H '". ). 

XoTBcgiaiia at the cl<j«ie of the 

aiBtfaoeittiiry." Now, tbcyhnvc 

MTsbueo found in Irish gnivoft; 

tad, aa to tiie question of this 

ttnittry hanngbecn tirst '^pwj- 

fW" by Xorwi-ginns one thou- 

tiad yraia ago, il is quite iin- 

MOMiarT to enter, as the f^tatc- 

Mflt, if Dot an error of tranrtU- No. ii400. 

tmi, is at nttrr raritiuce with 

WitnTT. The averaj^e eixe of the opening of theac convex bnwchce is 

I)' \v two anil a hulf. The decorative lines arc usually straight, 

•*•• ..'*'* angular; but in Ihut represented in the cut No. :i420 

we hav« a rude representation of a soldier on eaidi side, already re- 

fcfrcd to. 

The accompanyinjc illustration, the tnie size, prt'senls us with Iho 

rrr«f-..- «i<^''- <^r VI >,',-}, ly oruumcntcd bronze strap buckle, upnu which 

li'- ' culitir form of straijifht-lineornnmintaiion. hen^ 

lufwiv vu- -...^.rLu .->,-. I ved ill ajuiquities found in Inland. The front 

prcjenta a highly deooruteil c^Hting, which was originally plated with 

■Irer. and apon both eidea the verdigris, with which it is partially 
I cooled, is remarkably imj-rfHsed with tbe indentation of n twilled woven 
b texture, prohnbly woollen, and which possibly grew into it while the 
H (ariDciit of the weiuxT still retained its inte^rily. Among tbe other 
H iftieka tliat may be classed oa peraunal omamentR, there were found 

several beads of glass and euamel-paste bronze ring-pios, decoratvt 
button-like studs, and small white metal tubes, &c. 

With these aud other mi^ellaneous articles collected in the Islai 
bridgu Find, and amounting to about 78 specimens, were found a large 
qaaiitity of human bones, but no perfect skull. 

III. — Off THE BiTTLJE Of SttoTTTBA (in Continuation). By Sia W. B. 


[Kejid NoTember 12, 1866.] 

Sib WiLLiiV said that, in continuation of a paper rend at the last meet- 
ing of the Academy in June, upou the subject of the battle-tield of 
Southeni Moyturu, county of Mayo, he diWded his stibject into a geo- 
graphical description of the great plain extending between the hiQ of 
Knockmagh andBen-Leri Mountain — un historic account of the battle — 
and an identification of existing monuments with the record of the en- 
gagement ; he now presented a small instjilment of tbe last section, of 
which the following is an abstract: — The mnnyscript account of (he bat- 
tle describes "'The Plain of the llurlers," upon which there still stands 
a vast enim, which, if my topography be correct, was erected to com- 
memorate the death of twenty-nine youths who were killed in a game 
ot hurling tlic day before the battle; and many of the circumstances 
connected with which, as tending to fix the precise locality of the bat- 
tle, 1 laid b<-forc the Academy upon a fomuT occasion. An incident 
connected with this battle, which must have been fought 2000 years 
ago, is thus related in the hi^toiy of the engagement: — Eo<'hy, son of 
Km, King of the Belgip, or Firboigs, upon the morning of the second 
day of the battle, went down into a certain well to perform his ablu- 



tiiMU. Looking np, be pcjceired pcmrkg^ thrvc men of the Toat^ d« 
enemj, who were about to seek his life. One of his own «t- 
bowerer, came to the rescue, fought with and killed his three 
ttpgn an adjoining hillock^ and there fell dead of his wonnda. 
Tba Firbolga, comiog np to look after their king, there and then in- 
terred the hero who ao bravelx defended him; md each taking, it is 
■dd, a atone in hia hand, erected orcr him a moimmental cairn. The 
vaU is not named in the ancient acoonntof the battle; but the little hill 
on which the eaoflict took place is called Tuliaffh-an-Trtr, *' Tbe Uillof 
tlw Thre«," and tbe moaurnent erected thereon C^nin-eik^Fwt " Tka 
Cant of the One Man/* Such is the simple narrative of the transaction aest 
down to na through bards and wandering poets aod chieltaina' lanreatea, 
wba parhapa recited it at feasts aud iu public at a c mblica — as the talea 
of Ttxrj were sung pos&ibly before Homer was born — ootil tbe days 
vt Irttm, when the tradition was transmitted to writing, and the an- 
aatist sped it oa to tbe present time, although it has never yet been 


la it tTQe ? Can it be that a trifling incident of this nature, occnr- 
ring ao for barji in tiie night of bistcrr, can possibly bear the teat of 
topographical inrc«tigatioD, while many of uur classic bisloriea bare 
faoeB qofstiooed. and in s'-.-r- -*- 'inces their statements diaprored? 
Tea^ there it atanda at the , y — the deep well in a chasm of 

the liiDiatoce rock Ihroagh s^ uikh tne high waters of Lough Mask per- 
colfltv toto Lough Corrib — the only drop of water that ia to be found in 
the aeii^boiirhood — and so dc^^p under the surface, that tbe king must 
hate looked apwards to see his enemies oTcrhead. Adjoining it, on 
the aottth-eaat, atoods the hillock referred to in the manuscript, and 
now crvwBed with a circle of standing stones, 1 76 feet in circumferenee, 
in llkt eoitrD of which are the remains of a cairn, as shown by the ac- 
csBpaayii^ iUustration. The well is now called Me^rutn uis^t^ which 


'The Small Watery Plain;" and the adjoining monument 
■ «il1 called Cent JfiMi«m-«r>y/. 


Directed to the spot by the manuscript, and feeling oonvinoed of 
identity, I excavated the cairn, and found in thccpntre, beneath n ri 
fliigstone, 44 inches by 36 on the surface, a aronll chamber, somcivhal 
smaller than the covering flag, and 28 ini:ho« lii^h, containing a sittg] 
urn, ftlled with incinerated human bones. Pi-rhapa a more convinoiD| 
proof of the authenticity of history was never addncrd. 

O'Donuvan, when exaniining the barony of Kilmain, in 1839, dii 
not visit any of thcso monumcntft^ which exist in the hollow souti 
east of Toueleane, the site of Cath-na Bunnm, or I);innan, 
which several of the battle monuments stand. But the frun»]a' 
lion vrliieh he has left of the Cath Mttfjh TuireaiUh liaa dirccl 
me to the discovery of this and several other monuments still ex^ 
isting, and which I hope to bring before the Aeademy ou a futui 
ocea<$iun. I have altw had the advanta;;e of roUatiuj;, with Mr. 
O'Looney, 0' Donovan's translation with O'Curry's transcript of ih< 
Trinity College manii!tcript now in the Catholic University. I b< 
l)eg to present this vtry beautiful, and I may add historic urn. to 
museum of the Academy. It is a very beautiful object, about fiv6u» 
a half inches high, an<l six 
inches wide in the mouth, ta- 
pering gracefully to tlio bot- 
tom, which is only two inches 
broad. It is also highly deco- 
rated all round the lip, and has 
fiix decorated filli-ts beneath 
the outer edge of the rim : and, 
what is unique in vt:*Mi'l8 of 
this description, four slightly 
elevated knobv, like handles. 
Tlie lower plain surface be- 
neath the tlllets and luindles 
Ifl covered with herring-bone 
oma mentation. The surface of 
the vessel is of a redOiah- 
brown colour, and the interior of its aubHtance black, sJio^ring that i1 
was submitted to the procosa of baking or roasting, either in its original 
formauon, or at the time of the pyre, or when the hot embers of tin 
human remains were placed within it. 1 may observe tliat it is a re- 
markable circumstance that we have no word in Irish to express an urn; 
and that, when fnund, the wondering people called it a "crueka b«fg,'*i 
or little crock. I In'g ahw to express my obligation to ChaHes B)iike,i 
Esq., of Tnam, the proprietor of the land, who had most kindly givtrnj 
mo permission to make whntcvcr excavations I choM. 

IT. — ]leni oy «oxs or tok AyciTyt ViLLAor« iit tjik Aiuk Ut.%», 
OManrr or 0*i.wat. By O. Hdcbt KixxnAS. F K 0.8. L 

[.Bftfti DvomW 10, 180C.] 

Dm** ft reeent Tint to the IsUnds of Aran, in Oiilway Bay, I 
RBfftctd •one aaaait habsution*, a few only of which ore cngravpd 
OQ the Ordaaace Uap; and. a* I believe they hare not been previously 
doeHbed, it may be as well to rceord thctn. 

BotA-3u-«u.9 {Auyh'e^, ViHngp of the Ancient Ones). — Having hcitrd 
trtn tfacBcT. W.Ktlbrido, Yicarof Anto, that a TillRgcu'itt supposed lo 
ezMft Bear the centre of Inishmore (the >'orth Island of Aran), wi* went 
tolMklbr it, aztd found ita site about a mile N.NV.ofthe Light Uoiitio.* 
ObiwiiHj speaking, only the fouo'lTtrinn^ of the niins remnin; but after 
aiir cxammatioD wt eame to thr i<. that the villiige consisted of 

iitmmar CmJttrt; <aityJU«»«, or wt" 'h '• bot-hivc" or arched fitone 

rooCi; Osartfat (pnaooqnre'! r beehive utone cells covered 

srith day; /Wmm ({iranou. >, or relU built of dngstones 

phieoA^iBedge, androofed vith Higs; and O/n/ij;^ (pronounced Oa-teo), 
or rtotta hots tbat haw not archtil ntonr roofs. 

Tlw OiMi^k$ toem to be the ■ ;it, as thuy upprr)ae1i in type 

10 the ttCM^L-rii cJibiu. ITostofiii - >tn» are of a eimilur type to 

tb«ae D' -^ounty of Kerry, viz., they hnvt rectangular 

faaan. ■ -• above the surface before they slope in to 

ferm ll ■ cnaof.'* The Cloghauns on the Great Skellig arc sup- 

peamd tw. ;..*-- -en built by the monies, mid thcrcfurc the rectangiilur 
CIoBHsBtia on Aran may ulso be of Christian origin, and more modern 
t&aa the Ctut^na. Moreover, the rcetangrular Clogliuuns have t^o 
doorvaya. amilar to the cjihins of the present day, while in none of 
tb* cxrcoUr Cloghaons or in the CnocEna was more than one observed. 

la moQC of these ancient ruins was mortar apparent; bnt this may 
not be a test of antiquity, as in most of the old Cyclopean chiirchcs on 
tlir ialond, and in some of those which arc mure modern, no mortar was 
mL This ijt <'a»ily Accounted for, when we remember that on these 
UmmA* %i^ wfU iiF in the barony of ilurrcn, county of Claro, fuel for 
tbc mar if lime has always been scarce and costly, and tho 

piioplr 'lit dtiy ccncruUy build their houses with i\ry walls. 

Or. mying Map (w» Map, Plate I.), the position 

of I - ' will be apparent, t 

*7b»MiaBtt w*r to icet to thia vitlairi* is along the borMn al the Rocnui Catholic 
TUi laa«, ur rather bridle* paUt. leadi into ita aoatbern part. As the namo 
(o be u*m1 fur cvfrry km4 of ancient mortarlefs ttonc houM, I bavo ujod 
Mr. Kilbrlita'i naiuca. trhich indictU the peculiar itnictDre of each kind of 

71 the various ruins are in the order in which wo visited them. These 
although not In retpilar lucceasion, bccaiiao they are the numben 


Mr KiUiriLjv-i Map. 
a. J. a. pfcoc. — VOL. r. 


No. 1 . (wtf Plate II., fig. a), —A rectangular Clogbaun, 21 feet long, 
\ 2 feet wide. The walls are 3 feet thick, and Luaide the comers are sq 
for a height of 3 feet ; above that height the stones are laid transverse 
the angle, and made to overlap one above the other to form the beehive' 
roof, {see Plate IV., fig. A). — There are two doorways to the Cloghaan, 
one in each side wall, and thus facing to the K. N. E. and 3. S. W. ; 
they arc about 3 feet high, and 2^- feet wide on the outside, narrowing 
within to about 25 feet. 

No. 2. This is supposed to be an Oiutigh. It may not have had % 
stone roof, and certainly never had the ** beehive roof* of a Cloghaun,* 

No. 3. A circular ruin, 10 feet in diameter; possibly a Cloghaun. 

No. 4. Ruin of a Cloghaun, of the same type as No. 1. 

No. 5. A group of three mounds, which appear to be the relics of a 
impound Cnocan (tea No. 16). 

No. 6. A fiaiall stone fort, about 70 feet in diameter. This was for- 
merly surrounded by u stone wall, about 8 feet thick, in which was a 
flagged rcctAn;ifuIar doorway, 3 feet high, by 3 feet 5 inches wide^ 
facing to the S. E. 

Ho. 7. A Fosleac, or rectangular chamber, built of six large flagv 
placed on edge (j« Plate III., fig. h) : it is 8 feet long, by 3'3 feet widc» 
and about 4 feet high. 

No. 8. A group of three mounds, similar to No. 5 (Mf No. IG). 

No. 9. Two Cnocans that have been dismantled, and the ruins of the 
cells exposed. These cells were circular, 24 feet in diameter, and seem 
to have been of a regular beehive shape. The walls are faced with a single 
layer of atone, backed witli clay; and at their base, on the inside, were 
circles of flagstones plucod on edge. Fig. c. Plate L, ia the ground 
plan of a Cnocan of a similar type. 

No. 10- {nee Plato II., tig. c). A Cuocan of a similar type to thoeo 
joat montionefl (No 9). The inside circle of this is 15 feet in diameter; 
and around this, out-^ide the clay backing, there is a circle, 27 feet in 
diameter, of flagstones placed on edge. 

No. II. (se$ Plate III., fig. d). A rectangular Cnocftn, divided into 
two chambers. It seems to have had only one doorway, facing to the 
south. , 

No. 12. Ruin of a circular Cloghaun. 

No. 13. Stone and clay circle, 18 feet in the diameter ; it aeemB to 
he the niins of a Cnocin. 

No. 14. {sf€ Plate V., fig. ^). Ruined mound, with part of a cir-' 
cular chamber 21 feet in diameter. Extending towards the east from 
this chamber there is a passage, IS feet long, 4 feet wide, and 3 feet 
high, covered by large fiags. Contiguous to the chamber, on the S. £. 
is a circle of stones, 21 feet in diameter ; these seem to be the ruins of 
a laiige chambered Cnocftm j 


* lo th* otighbourboiid of thti there teen to t>e tho remaiui of • kitchen mlHtlen, tod 
* rtceni {toUtii gsrdtti. TbU itructuro mty, ttierrfoir, be eonifttntlvely modern. 

57: :^ 

StL 1&. Bum oi • GkftDc&ii, of > nailsr tjp« to No. 1 1, except Uut 
it dm Ml nnav to bacre beea diTuM into duoLbefs (m« Plate III. 

>*. 16. (Mr Flute I V^ fig. «). A ehambered Cuocika. The chain- 
bcrift thB fBtzmacB ic on oval* 1^ feet lo^, bj 8 Tcct wide, at the S. R. 
«itf vlaek is tbe entnoMse pi—gp, 9 feet square on the out^do, and 
■ovwiac k width to 2-75 fiMi on the xBsde. At the N.W.ofthe chom- 
WrkapHBsge, 3 feet wioan, leading into a droolar chamber, t2feetin 
liiBrtK FnMD Uiis cnvnlar chamber tfaexe is another paasage, 1 5 feet 
hig, }ff 4 wide, 3-S high, leading into the innennoet chamber, which 
tf ilMoreolar, and 12 feet in diameter. 

AQ these c^Mmbers are sorroonded internally- by flap, hacked with 
and faced externaUj with eUy. Atesi^ side of the en- 
te calaraal clay wall is £sced with fl^. The two groups of 
lefntimwd (Nue. 5 and 8) would eeem to be Ciio<?&na of 
thktype; Car at both those i^aees there arc three mounds, two of which 
im Ms «oe aadher ; and the other, which is a little apart, is connected 
istfam \ff a low ridge, which may indicate the site of the connecting 

ilk, 17. Baxoed Cnocan. 

Xo. 18. Ruixwd Cnocfin. 

Ko^ 19. Bains of two Fosleac and two Ointigh. The lorgost Fosleac 
(MP Plata III .« fig./) is 30 feet long, 6 feet wide, and about 4 feetltigh; 
it MwakS to ksTe hem cohered by large flags. Attached to it on the 
S. W, ode is a smaD rectangular chamber. 

Ko. 30. A Cloghaos of the same type as No. 1 . It is marked on 
tiks Ordaatiee Map, and called Creg-a-blughann. This is the most por- 
Isot eiMMpld of its type at the locality, as a portion of the roof is still 
■MB to naa abofa ue perpendicular walls. There aro two doorways 
titlba Vmlding^-one facing north, and the other south, that are three 
ftet ]ugfa« 2'6 feet wide on the outside, and 1 *7-5 feet on the inside. At 
thsll. £. of the chamber there is a window, 1 foot square, and 3 feet 
ftoB the gnmnd ; the chamber is 16 feet long, by 8 fuet wide, 

Ko. 21. Ruined Coocan. 

Ho. 32. This may be the ruin of an Ointigh ; but it seems to he of 
eonstniction. On the Ordnance Map it is markod, and colled 
BsUyvaBkOOght {^n^Iic^^ Village of the Poor). It is 27 feet long, by 16 
feel wido. aad hsa north and south high doorways, 2 feet wide, and a flre- 
plaea at flie east end. 

Ko. 23. Three circular Cnocans — these occur on the hill, south of 
<ha hamlet called BaUruacraggn, a little north of tlie tngonumctricol 
ftiak 400. They lie in a line contiguous to one another, and scorn to bo 
the remains of a ehambcrcd Cnociin. 

"So. 2-i. On the crest of the hill, due south of the Tillage called 
Cowrugh. there is a round and flat heap of stones, which seem to be the 
nn&s of a cluster of hut*. Mr. Kilbride considers this to be the ruins 
of a Oocnobium of n colony of monks. 

No. 33. Ruins of two Cloghaons, of a similar type to Ko. 1 The 



most northern of these is marked on the Ordnance Map, and ca]l< 
Cloghann-a-pUuca ; part of the roof of the Intter remains. 

No. 2G. A little S. "\V. of Cloghaun-a-phuca there is the ruin of 
Cofihel of about 60 feet in diameter. This Bccms to bo of quite a dift 
ferent atylu of building to the Duns or Doons for which the Islands 
Aran arc famous ; and it is considered by Mr. Kilbride to be of a much 
more recent constniction. 

No. 27. Fosleac, or perhaps more correctly Lignitrenhh, or pill 
dwelling. This is marked on the Ordnance Map, and called Dermot 
Omnia' s Bod. 

No. 28. Ruin of a large Doon of an oval shape, its diometcn 
220 and 1 10 feet; this is called by the inhabitants " The Doon." 

No. 29. Alittl»?N. W. of " The Loon" are two mounds, and Ui 
remains of a circular chamber apparently the niin of athrce-chamhurt 
CnocTin of a similar type to No. 16, Contiguous lo them wc found b 
a "JSuUaun^^' or stune basin, of au oval bhape, and made of granite 
these are geuL-rallr found ncnr cliurches, and arc supposed to have b 
nsed for bapti,«tmal fonts, perhaps this may have been brought here fro 
Templean-chcalhniiraluinn, the church which lies a few hundred yards 
lower (iuwu the hill towards the N. E. 

No 30. Ituin of a Cloghnun, of a similar type to No. 1 ; part of iUl 
roof remains. This is situated on the (^lope of u hill, n little N. N. £, 
** The iJoou." Belwet'n it and " Tltc Duon" in onu of the waJls there 
tlio remains of a doorway, but whotbcr it is modem or ancient weoonld 
not make out. 

No. 31. The ruin ofasmall circular Cnocan, marked on the Ordnanco 
Map, and called Cloghancolticnunien. 

All the Clo;;haMns in Huila-na-sciui are roofless; but there are two 
such structures un the ridge of the hill, half a mile S. W. of the Tillage 
called Onnght, which ore worthy of speL-ial note. The northern 
larf^er of lh'.'«o («(V Plato VI., fig.,/) is rectangular, 18 feet long, 14 fi 
wide, and |0 foct high. It has twod<x)rways, one in the south, and 
other in the north wall. The fonnor is larger than the latter, they 
rcspectivily 3 ftet square, and 2 t'vet by 2"5 feet : there is also a vm* 
dow. 1 foot square, in the south wall. 3 feet fVoin the ground. 

A large poilioQ of the roof over tho south doonvay has been d 

A little to tho south of the larf^ Cloghaun is the other {9m Pla 
VI., fig*. X- and !). It is 13 feet long, by 12 feet wide, imd 10 feel hig 
except at the west end. wbero it is 9 feet hi^Oi. It also has doorwa 
in the north nnrl south wnllh ; but ita window is diflVrcntly pliic< 
to the other*. b<ing oltbcS. W. corner of thcrhumbor. As the found 
tion for the west wall is n natural bhclf of linirslone, on the outbidi: t 
window is nearly level with the ground, Imt inside- it is about lhri.*o fc 


* Th« i>Ul ntiti* on tlti> Amn UUmt* mm (ii%t iltMippranng:, principMlly tbanht ia II 
ftbUt •hopltr*, mho yuW tbrm dvwii to lx>li ih** ralljtu, 

■bovr the Moor of the celL Xo appliances for ixaQging doors were ob- 

Mnrr«J - .: ^hg inhabitante used rush or etraw mats, sirailarto 

thorn : I i-vstnt tune in the islands of Gomimna and LtaWr- 

uti iLc Duiih of GilJ way Bay. 
Am the l»t« Doctor iVtric, in his *' Uound Towers of Ireland," when 
dnghoim-s-carruga (which is still the most perfect Cloghaun 
id> has exptaiiicd how the CloghAuns are roofed, I need not 

Lhtiharr :U. I would remark, however, that this Cloghuun 

tvo <iu- . —i^ fact wUiuh that C'lnineut antiquarian seems to have 

Tht dttrmHaa of none of the Cnoc&os could be given, on account of 
tilt dihpirfatcd condition in which they now are ; but much more might 
klcamL-<! ah>iut them, if careful excavations wcru made lu'ound thorn ; 
M, tttv , tho^ numbered 5» 8, and 29. 

Ct vr%B{A»(flicf, the Yellow Village of the Rock).— This lies 

wtiwS. W. slope of Iniebmauu (eouuty ofGulway, Sheet 119), the Middle 
2ijjgi,] . » *"n. about halfamileS. W. of Doon-Connor, Hercthesites 
of thiT iius and Cloghauns were observed, and a small stone fort, 

iboui ovF i^^i iit diameter. Of the Cqocuqs and Clughauns only two 
werv rtctongulor ; all tlie rest were circulor- Only oue now riscB more 
tkiB throe feet above the fouridatinn, and that is marked on the Ord- 
Hap, and called Crag bally woe: of this only half remains, but what 
cxistift shows a good cxamjde of a circular Cloghaun {wa Plate VI,, 
m ftiid «)- Every particle of the eaplem linlf ha* been taken away, 
to the very foundation, and has been used to btiild two wing walls 
a ^helte^ for entile. 
OnricnA wrrn KiTciitN-MiDDKNa. On Inishmaan there ore Oin- 
iSy clo*c to which arc kitehen-middens; these seem to be rather 
jrn, ;■ ; ;ire found coin » and brass pins. These heaps arc 

ipal]_ r thebunuet shell and periwinkle, with occofiioiially 

of the museel and scollop, along with bones of the cow, sheep, and 

of these Oiiitigh, marked on the Ordnance Map, and called 
isafhaun, lira about 200 yards N. W. of the boreon that leads 
Sttodhead Lough to lite hamlet called Moher. Immediately east 
thumin is an uiidergnTuud chamber; and on the north is a kitchen 
tidd^o, 12 yArtlft long, by 9 yards wide, and 3 feet high ; in this the 
pm Ko. I was found- 
Wwl of tlie ruin called Templesaghtmuree (which to me appear 
^Vore like the ruins of ahoutK.'than of a church, oftit is divided into three 
cbnDben<» the centre one of which ia n more passage), there U a largo 
~ " i-n midden, in which brass pins ore said lo have been found, but 
thew wenr fortheoming when I was on the island. 
'wo hundred yards due north of Doon-Connor there is au Ointigh, 
a kitchen-midden attached. In this the brass pin No. 2 was found; 
wil-hit atoken, a little larger than a farthing; on onesideof thi»«eoin 
'WiL*nK OF Drar.iw." over n figuixM»f St. George and the l>i-ngun, and 
♦rlhefistirc wai»lhetinlelG72; on ihortverfcwns" Om; HMrrywNY," 


round some sort of trude mark. Theru is no ovidenc^ as to the 
turn of the kitchen-midden in which this coin was found, but it sboi 
that the spot was inhabited at the close of the seventeenth century. 

The cdt Soighead (pronounced scythe), An^Ucf, Darthead, marl 
No. 3, was found by a man while digging in one of the 6m.aLl patcJ 
of cultivated ground N. "W. of Doon-Cunnor, It is made of black sili* 
ccous limcBtonCf beds of which occur in different places on the island. 
These Soighcads are said to be very common, but are not eoaily procured ; 
as the islanders, when they find them, keep them carefully, as they be- 
lieve that if they lose them they also lose their luck.* Seals were 
formerly killed in great numbers by the Aranites {ue O'Flaherty's 
History of Yar-Connaught); and the Rev. W. Kilbride suggests that the 
Soigheads were used for skinning the seals and other animals, as the] 
are of too soft a nature to be put to such hard work as hewing w( 
or breaking stone. A shallow groove in tho flat side of the Soigh< 
in wliich to place the tops of the fingers would seem to confinn tl 


Plate I. 

Platk II., Fig. a, 

Plate III.. Fig. h, 
n Fig.rf, 

Plate HT. Fig. », 

Fig. A, 
Plate v., Fig. ^, 

Mdp of Uftn-Ann-Senn, Ini&bmore. 

The ground plun of a rectanguUr CIouphAUti, or beetiiv 
cril, on s scale of eight feet to one inch. 

Tb« grooDd pUn of a circular Cnocun, or brt-hire call, i 
vertHl with cUy, on n scila of right feet to oim iO( 
Innermost is a circle nf flngftoncs, plac«d on edg« ; o« 
side there U a ainglc- faced otonc wall, that \» backed wl 
clay \ and surrounding allU another cirt-le orflAgKon 

The |;rotind plan of a Foslcoc, or coU huilt of flogi, < 

a scale of eight feet to one inch. 
11)6 ground plan of a rectAtiguIartwo-ctiarobcrrd Cackctn 

icsl«f eight feot to one inch. 
Tha ground plan of a two-rhambirred Foalcac ; scale, ejgl 

fMt to one inch. 

The ground plan of a thrfe-chamU'rfd Cnocun ; ir«l 
eleven fv«t to one inch. Round ench chamber are Ai 
placMl on edge, behind which are single-faced walU, 
are hacked with clay ; at each tide of tbo enlmiiM 
flags tn keep in (lie hackin({. 

Sketch, showing the overlap in iJm corners of the 
gular CInglmiins and Ctioctins. 

Groutxl plan of a ruined Cnocun 

Kale, eight feet to 

Plate VI., Figi. 4*,/. asd/ Skotcliea of rectangular Cltghauns. 

,. Figa. m AudNj. Sketch and plan of a nilued circular ClofbAun; 

eight fc«t 10 onfi indi. 

* In lb* er»(...<" ..r \(«<rr», ami thereabouta. the nallrfe, when rhey find il»*« 
balebelA, ioun ihcin. aa they behcve that [>mpl« Mho are " fairy atrMck 

otin A blow t<l i I ! wupoii from a Fairy hand. 


F. R. 0. S. L 

By 0. H. KisahIjJ? 

[Read DMembar 10, 1866.] 

ill ihe iittcntion of the Academy to an unrecorded Crannoge 
.1 K&noci'in, lownland of Gortacamaun, parish of Killanin, 
tanmy qI MoycuUen, and coxinty of Galway — Ordnance Map, No. 67. 
Uit iommer (1865) 1 rt'CDurked that this ialand seemed to be a 
CkniMif*, but did not land on it This Bummcr. hearing that there 
nn vnden piles around it, I had a boat conveyed to the lake, and, in 
Dnpany with Oeorgc O'Fflahextie, Esq., of Lemonficld, examined it. 


^ MU h^lf of the hiiU being removed, to ebow the Interior rtittored from th« 
AMVMriM lo Ihi* »Qi) other Craaoogefl, nion etpeciftlly those ia Loughs Re* aod 
Itfo. la rnair, if nnt in aII, of these Crannogea, there wemeil to have been a apaca 
b tkacaatn drroid orhnta, which may bare been used in common by the inhabitiuits, ba 
is It tra foond the remains orfiret, with stone seats and kitchen middens nrur ihem. The 
Wl|ht<f Ihe bota aeems to have bwn about fire feot, as Mr. Hemsworth, of Loughrca, 
iaimaA a» that, when the larg«^ Crannoge there was flrst npen«d, " on some of the vertical 
Inm v«« IcBODt (Suing into mortiMS on horizontal beams;" and, as thcAc latter were 
Am |r« feeC above the basket floors, they [xMnt to the bright of ihfl chambers : niore- 
v^i ttb btbe average height of the subterranean dwellings or earth cavca in the Baths, 
(3>Ur\ Uai, &e. Whether the roofs sloped inwards or outwards has not been prored. 
Owgaa y ai-fifft wide were found in Shore Island Crannoge, Lough Kca: but their height 
^ teC bam proved i in the sketch the>*nr« made low, Bimilarto those found inClof;baani, 
BMfe Cbv«, Ac. No windows bavp been r^preitcntcd, as none up lo the present hare 
^fboad; \nA it sa not Ukely the buU were without them. 


* TW wood engraver has not been succeatfol in hLs representation of the iohabitanla 
^'tte C>«ttfio2», aa ihcy are very diminutive compared with the auppoMd height of the 
^i mmmfm, they are drmtd nioilaT to the people of the present day. 


butes, the faculty of maintaining this attitude for a very long time ; 

and as tliia corresponded with the original nature of the Judicium CrucU, 
according to which the person who could longest keep the arms extended 
was ndjnd^od innocent, it is possible that it implies the use of this fc 
of Ordeal by the Christian Irish. 

The Irish had, however, many forma of their own i of tl\cse tl 
most accurate list that I have met with is contained in a tract in tbi 
ancient ** Book of Ballymote," fol, 143, tq. This list, couched in vei 
ancient language, is included in an historical sketch of Connac Mac 
monarch ot Ireland in the third century, which is iDtersperaed with som^ 
Tory curious legends, particularly one very remarkable one, regarding 
magical brunch having properties not unlike tho golden branch 
tinned in the sixth Book of the "^Eneid." The story represents 
a great assembly was convened by Connac at Tara, for the purpose of i 
arranging the riglits and privOeges of the severiil classes of the peopl 
which had fallen into some confusion, owing tn the encroachment* 
tho Irish poets; on which occasion tho twelve Fir Flatha were publiclj 
proclaimed before all. They were called i^i'r /^/aMa, or "truth of sove- 
reignty/' because the Irish anciently considered that the standard 
truth and morality depended on the character of the sovereign or prin( 
the justice or injuBlice of whose rule was Rupposed to alfectnot only thi 
moral character of the people, but also the seasons, and even the ti 
productive poweni of nature. 

They are enumerated as follows, viz. : — 

Do bpeca. imoppo, in bci pip 6ec ptacha op dipt) aca. Octal 
pitie no bmip ic eripgleoD ptp i bpecc occo, irioopo lotipein %. 
Cal TTlochca, Cpepin niopaint), CpanoCap SeariOa, L-eopCQ|vJ 
baouipn, Cfielia Ulocdip, Copi pip. Seancpan Sm nnc O151, lapnl 
tu6ca, aipepom oc Qlcoip, Cuac Copniaic. 

" The twelve FirFlatfia^^ Truths of Sovereignty*) were publicly pro- 
claimed by them. These were used by them to distinguish between 
truth and falsehood Here they are, viz. : — Tal Mochta (Morhtu's Adze), 
Drenin Mvrixind (the triple-Sin, or Collar, of Momnd), Crandfhvr Seaneia 
(the Lote of Scaucha), Ltantar Badhtiini (B«(lhuim*8 Goblet), 7W/i4 
Mofutir (the Three Stones of Bhu'kncss), Corijir (True-cauldron), Sm} 
crann Sin mic Aigi (the charmed branch of Sen Mac Aige), larn LueU 
(Lnchta's Iron), Airetom oc^//oi'r (Waiting at an Altar), Cuack C\ 
maie (Cormac'* Cujj)." 

Cal TTlochca .1. cat uime po boi la 1T)o£ca paep. po cupcea 
cetniD tipoi^in he. i 00 bepco reoTigo caipip ; inci lapambi6 co p< 
loipceft ; inci bu honnafi ni loipceto icip. 

" Tnl Moefha, i. e. a bronze adze which Mochta, a carpenter. 
It was wont to be put into n fire made of blackthorn, and a tongue 
rubbed over it. It would hurti the peraon who had laljchood ; but 
pervoQ who vfm iunoccnt it would not bum." 


The &jce or Adxei was, of course, ah inrtrum<>nt held in hlgU esteem] 
mons aU primibre people. Herodotus, Book iv„ has a curious utoourit 
tf an %xc piV^rve A with great veneration by the flncit-nt Seythians, 
ift whoM territory it ftrll from heaven in a glowing Ainte, tngother with a 
fiWo^b, yoke, "•■'^^ "t*^. I belitTVc ihnt the peasantry of the south and 
Ytftaflirla: iiudcr Uiat the poR&ibility of rubbiug the tongiio 

fitttr a red-bt/v h-ki ^n uot to be doubted. 

tike next is the 

Cpopn TTIopoint), L e. the triple Collar of Momn. 

Thi- ' '■ son of Cairbre Cinn-Cait (Carbrous Feliceps, or 

Cvbcy i 1 . who ia stutid to have usurj)od the throne of 

Inlai in the dr»t century of the Christian era, on the fiueeess of the 
lArftion of the Aithtch-Tuatha, or plebeians, otherwise incon"ectly 
^- toeotli. 

ly, in his corrected Chronology, refers the usurpation (»f 
fwtffy Us the year A. D. 90. The legend i*egardiug the origin of the 
ir»; III. I iT.M.*t ceiebrated collar of Moran is rather wild. It reprvbeute 
(f waft sevrrely punished, in his oflspriog, for the excesses 

r- '.dfT his leadership by the plebeian*, who nearly extirpated 

Ih i;; cUs-ses. Ever)" child born to him, the legend relates, 

» ',iied, tliat it had to be destroyed. At the suggestion of hia 

t convrnrd the Ke'iit^ or An^enibly, of Tara, and requested all 

prrvQi ut prt- fcr a supplication to their god»t. to the end that he might ho 
brociTvd witli a hiippy offspring. Subpequently, on thebiHh of Moran, 
it waa BuiDif«^t, the hgend proceeds, that siipplieations prefen-cd in 
fitvurof an iniquitous man like Carbry ninountrd to an ineult to the 
fi4*; for the child wn.-^ a hateful object, his features being rnTtlopcd in 
atUck hairy circle. The king ordered him to be taken to a pond, and 
^rwBird ; but a /far §i<ihe (fairy man) appeared to the queen, and com- 
_ tt aJtd that the cliild should be taken to the sea, and that his head 
^■■ittldbe held until nine waves passed over it. This command was 
H^psTed; and oftertho ninth ware hitd passed, the hnity circlet became 
iNHaad, and formed o coUur round his neck. The atory goes on : — 

T>o pi^nei) ctimtmch oip t oipp^m Icpin imon ppoahnTin pm. 
fopob 6 ptri pin niicPldin lapum. In cmcat!: ma cabapco bpoguil) 
>io tad-cab. Mo pmo, imoppo, uime co lap biambat) eannoc. 

** A • -r 'tf gold and silver was made by him round this collar, 

'iiich '. ii'da the Collar of Mac Main (another name for Moran) . 

Tb«f guKTv pii <in round whose neck it was put it would choke; it 
rodUl fall down to a man's waist if he was innocent," 

Thi- trailiKrms r(;speoting the efficacy of this Moran's Collar are still 
'^in the memory of the iri»hspeakiDg population, and enter largely 
lau^. Irish romance. 

With reference to the nine waves mentioned in the foregoing legend, 
>tto vorthy of remark here (though I mny again have occasion to ad- 


vert to the subject), that the number nine was undoubtedly the mystic 
number with the Pagan Irish, of which fact there is abundant evidence, 
both in writing and tradition. But the property of a ninth wave seems 
to have been regarded as of particular significance. Thus, our historical 
writers assert that, on thclanding oftho Milesian colonists in this country, 
the natives, by the advice of their Druids, stipulated that the strangera 
should re-embark, and put out to sea to the distance of nine wares; and 
if they succeeded in reaching land once more, they should have a portion 
of the soil. In the neighbourhood of the shore where this trial is stated 
to have taken place (Kcnmarc estuary), the inhabitants profess to believe 
that the waves approach the land iu successions of nine, and that the last 
wave of the nine is always the largest. 

The third is thus described : — 

bdi t)in pm aile TTlopaint) ant) .1. Iui6 TTlopann mop bpe6a6 co 

f)ol abpcal, t X>o bepc eibipcil ua6, t bi6 ma bpaigm. In* can tnn 
uit)it) TTlopan l)fa btin oc cmt>cut> 6 pol imanapnic t)0 ppi cumail 
bia cumaldtb oc bopup m bfine. Oc tonnaipc t)in m eipipcil imo 
bpa»5il) imcomapcaiD De, cit> ptn, a Tllopaint), ol pi ? Qbbe, oV 
Caimm t)pu6. bi6 pin lllopamt) onDiu co bpat he. Qn can, t>no, 
bo bepeao ITlopann bpec, no sebeb epipcil ima bpasaic, "} nf 
abpat) gdi lapum. 

'* Morann had, moreover, another collar, viz., Morann the grett 
judging went to the Apostle Paul, and brought from him an epistle, 
which he used to have round his neck. As Morann went towards hii 
fort, on returning from Paul, he met a bondmaidcu of his bondmaidena 
at the door of the fort. When she saw the epistle round his neck, she 
asked him, * AVhat is that, Morann* V asked she. ' £gad,' said the 
fool Caimin, * it will be Morann's Collar from this day forth.' "When 
Morann delivered judgment, he put this epistle round his neck, and ha 
uttered not falsehood afterwards." 

In connexion with this epistle, it is curious that Achilles Tatios 
(" De Amoribus Clitophontis," Lugd. Batav., 1640, p. 514) describes a 
fountain near Ephesus which had the virtue of detecting falsehood in 
this wise : — The oath which a person had sworn was written in a letter, 
which was attached to his neck. On his descending up to his thighs in 
the fountain, the water remained stationary if he had sworn truly ; but, 
if falsely, the water rose up, and touched the epistle, or tablet {tahellfi). 

The fourth was another Collar of Morau : — 

bai pfn nile lo Hlopann .1. cnapoo bee bai Uup email cipcaiU 
^eca. In cuaipt) pin bin, bo bcpcpom o ocamon opufc ap pitt 

* Sin (pron. shi«n'). This is a play on ihv word tin, tlie Irish dem. pron. " ihat** — 
riti 4in. " what is thatV" 

'jftpcfnin appo6aftCfom ii»ouain t do muncf mhocpfn l«ir» ap ofDeo* 

rtum ipin pi6 buo ne poc ipin t^oilijiD pip t 501 ano. Do 

iiin tn munci pin im coip no im laim in uuinot •} non laooo 

m>' i{^ o 6oip no a Idim oe moD (mat^ nip ntd6 unne, 

mi.;>; , - •>y.n:...o eonoc- 

** Monuin horl unotlier collar, viz.^ a llttlo drclet which he hnd, Itkm 
tvtayden cxjllur, Tbia circlet, then, he obtained from Ocojiion, a fool, 
«n Sufik Arfemhin (tbo most celebTntt**! fairy hill of Muripl'-r, n^nr th» 
itnw Snir); for he sent him th. i / him ihi" : 

lubad •e*fl n«c<i in the 6'irfA to ■ :i [hetwt^ii 

fiiW. I r was [wonl to huj put round a luau'^ 

aodtt ^ I ten until it would cnt oft' the hand or 1> . 

(rii&iiul; It would not tighten if he were innocent.*' 

like fifth form ia dt'scnbcd as : — 

Cponnfcijp Scanftai .i. Cpanchup bai la Secinchn moc GililUi 
twi ^cnt> no cup .1. cpanD tub Don pt$ i cttant> Don tic<.*a6; do 
ino6 cincoc Do leanaD o cponn do t>oip. Oamcjo ennoc, imoppo, 
occcD po ceDoip a cpano app. Ip aihlaiu do ?jnfcf pin .1- oi^ebal 

plrttxiioncain poppo. 

"Cranochur Scanrhai, i. c. a crannchur (casting of loi«; which 8e- 
udu, mm of Ailill, hwd, viz, : — Two lots were put — ont'of them for the 
tif,.. ,.,„! ,,,... f.irtbe Utijcant. If he [the latter] wan guilty, hi» lot ad- 
ti' i ; if innocent, moreover, bis lot did not adhere (/i7., 

riii.r ,, i.i.».. ■iialolj). The way in which this waa done waa hy 

d&anting a pocticAl incantation over them." 

flMBioba Mac Aililla id alleged to have lived in the fint century of 
tinaen. Thepreeeut proctice ol casting lots iH, no doubt, n relic of the 
old Pifian cucitom ; but fortunately wv do not at present attach crimi- 
naliijr to the failure, as seems to huve been the case with the Irish, in 
coouaoQ witli the Jews, aa appears from the instoDcee already cited re- 
Achan and Jonas. 

next IS — 

toapcop boDuipn .1. boDuipn pi^. tuiDDin a bean piDe Don cib- 
fkCb oonocca Da mnai ap no pi6aib ocun nbpaio ; 1 boi plobpoD 
epc^kiuiiio ecuppo. Or toncaDup in Trinni dki paigiD Lorap pon 
cibpaiD; luiDpuiGDin TKinmatrt pon riV)poir, conaca nampa ipin cf 16 
J. lipproii ?,Uifi. peap DO bepca6 ceClpo bpiocap ^6<i poip conpcopaD 
f'f! 'ti rpt ; pen(» arbepea6 ceopo b|Mocpa pipo poo eon - 

ct - ['']r^^ 7i°^^ ^^^ bean boDuipn in lepcop ptn do aep in 

Oo bepto Dipi mDi pin ; coniba heoDpm leopcop no oealof- 
501 1 pip La UuDupn. 

' Badhurn** Lttft^r (orTcsaol), 1. c King Badhum. His wife went 
tad she saw two women from the Sidht (fairy residences) 



at the well, and they had a bronzo chain between them. When they 
saw the woman coming towards them, ihoy went under the well. She 
went after them under the well, when she saw a wondrous thing in the 
JSM, viz., a bright vessel. If a man uttered three fabe words over it, 
it separated into three parts in his hand ; it' a man uttered threo truth- 
ful words over it, the parts heo-amo united again. Badhum's wife then 
begged this vessel of the household. The article was given to her; so 
that it was this Tcssol that distioguished between iabdiood and truth 
with Badhum." 

This article is precisely similar to the Cuach Cormaic, or Cormac*i 
Cup, which forma the twelfrh in the list. The account given by Hero- 
dotus of the cup which fell from heaven in the country of the Scythian*, 
and was religiously preserved by them, is not sufficiently explicit to 
enable us to compare it with Budhurn'a Goblet; but the magical cup 
of Cham Chit, mentioned in the "Shnh Nameh/' is probably ofcognatu 
character, although the Persian cup had the power of imparting a fore- 
knowledge of events, and may have been the origin of tho pmcLioe of 
cup tossing. 

The next is the 

Cpelm TTloraip .1. loin do Ifnca Oo t)ubporu -\ t)o gual t t>o ca6 
cenel r>uib olfceana, 1 pocepcicip rp! I15 a1^x> .1. lia pino "| ha oub 
•\ lia bpec. Tlo pi5e6 t)in neat a taim inD. -\ t>o bepeab iTi I15 piiio 
loip Uanibet pfp occa ; t>o bepea6 m t)uib t>omad 50, do bepeo iii 
mbpic DamaD left cincad. 

" Treh'a Mvthair (Three Stones of Blackness), i, e., a pan that 
wont to be filled with dubht^ta (black ryostuff) and coal, and e 
kind of black sf uft' besides ; nnd they put three stones into it, viz 
a white stone, and a black stone, and a speckled stone. One would 
then put his hand into it. and bo would take out the white stone if he 
had truth ; he would bring the black if he had falsehood; he would 
bring the speckled stone if half guilty." 

I have not been able to find any parallel for this tost. 

. The following is the eighth form : — 

Coipi pip .1. lepcup oip^io 1 oip t)o bi6 ago ppi bealo6a6 p1pint>i 
T 56<i I. no ceijfti \ipci ano combi6 ap piu6aD "| po cucca lorn ann 
lapum ; Datnoo cmcoi: bo loipcceo in laim ; minobec, imoppo, cm 
050, Tit ooanob up^oiD bo. Clp bu he in rpe6i ip mo no $iiac<j>^e 
o gcnncib .1. copo ptp, "i cpanbcup cucpinna, t aipipium im olcoip. 
Ip 6 pin, oin DO pap cpant> co to\\ a pecl<iib beup i saeDel. 

*• Cot ri fir (' tnie cauldron'), i. c., a vessel of bilver and gold 
they had to dintlnguish tn'tweea tmth nnd falsehood, vi«. : — water was 
heated in it nnfil it was boiling, and a hand was afterwards introduced 
into \L If the person was guilty, the hand was burned ; but if hu had 

Ipiilt, it iikjured him not. For the three things most used by the 



the C^iri JfTf and Crandcur Cutruma (inutuai lote), and 
im AUoir (waiting at an altax). Hence has ariBeu the cuBtom 
of fatting lots in reliqaariea, still practised hy the Qaeidhol/' 

It tt to be nf^rett^ th/it wc ore not able to fix the date of the ori- 

liiul ooQpcMiti'oa of the tract from which these pasaages have been 

titncted; but probably the concluding sentence of the foregoing pora- 

pa^ ta inXj an obflervation added by the Boribe of '* The Book of Bal- 

lymota," who wrote about the year 1391. I am afraid the description 

of the gold and sUrer vceeol which was set to boil over a Hre is nithcr 

baginatiTe-, and indeed I am inclined to doabt the alleged antiquity 

of lie hot water Ordeal in this country at all. The statement that the 

" 'laldnm of Truth" was one of the three most usual forms of Ordeal 

^'^ (ieiLtil68» 1 consider to refer to the Gentiles of other countrieai 

Tha next fozm is : — | 

Seancpono Sin .i. Cpanocup 8in mic Q151 .1. cju cpono Oo cup 
on npci .1. cpano no placha t cpani) tn oUamain i cpano in 
''It^j. Oa mbec cm 05a cei5e6 a cpono an iccap ; biamoO 
onitoc, rmoppo, cei$e6 ap ua6cap. 


** FmHfntnd Sifif i.e., the charmed branch of Sen, sonof Aige, viz. : — 
Hmelots were put in water — the IVince's lot, the Ollamh's lot, and the 
letof the litigant If the litigant was guilty, hia lot w^nt to the bottom ; ^ 
M if indeed he woa innocent, it camo to the surface." ■ 

Tld* Sea Mac Aige is mentioned in the Irish Law Tracts as a diB- 
6«difced Judge, who lived before the time of St.^Fatrick, and whose 
jiMfjiMiitu were necessarily delivered with care, because whenever he 
^.^i>f^.i » falae opinion his cheek became disfigured by three blotches, 
'I !tj of the cold water Ordeal here indicated is directly opposed 

t> »iui. •• uioh obtained in the other European countries. In Germany, 
ftlgfm'1. France, and the Continent generally, when this test was re- 
aofted to, the accused, having a rope fastened round his body, was cast 
into the water; if he floated on the surface, he was deemed guilty ; if ho 
Male* he wosdeemed innocent, and immediately drawn out On this sub- 
j«Cl Grxmm remarks : — ** Herein an old Heathen superstition seems to 

Rnol, that the holy clement, the pure stream, will receive within it 
nriadoer" {** D. R, A.," p. 923). It is possible, also, that the notion " 
t the criminal would not sink implied some subtle idea of demoniacal 
poveadon, and of the nature of a spirit. The belief that a witch could 
Bot auk waa painfully illustrated in England about two years ago, in 
the eaae of a poor man who, on suspicion of witchcraft, was worried to 
death by a crowd of people, who threw him into the water to see if he 
would mnk^ 

Bat, if the Irish notion implied in the foregoing form differed 
from the idea prevalent amongst the European nations, it seems to have 
%m ad with the opinion current among the Jews and other Eastern 
peoplen It will be remembered, for instance, that the axe head which 

tut A. PSOC— TOU X- o 


full into the water, as mentioned in the 2nd Book of Kings (ri 6. 
/fwiM through the justice of Eliaba. Many Pagnn writers also retsl 
that, when the Ordeal by cold wator was tried in parts of Asia, 
tablet on which an outh wob inscribed sank in the water if the oal 
wofl fulsc, bat floated on the surface if the oath waa true.* 

lapn LuAca .1. tucoo t>poi 00 chuai6 6a 6laim illo6a, 
nacu nt tngnao occa ic belu^at) ptpinOi 1 bp^igi, lapn t»o" 
pona6 It onDpfiiDib -] a 6op a ceini6 mppin coniao UPopg, "i o 
fcabaipc pop boip m lirij. Wo loipceO, imoppo, b6 Dionibec cin 
occa ; Di twnao up6oHj 60 mina bee cmcat. Qcbepci lu6ca 
loppin ppipi, no picpaiO a leap 05010 xA pip Cpenn, poppo* putitM) 
t>elu5ao enp pfpint>i i bpoij. t)o bpefca lu6ca a lapn ponca laip 
lopccin combai ic i^elugat) ecip gdi i ptp, convb oepm leoncop 
lapn p©[n]ca beup 05 ^aoiOoVutb Do 5p6p. 

Another test is described as : — 

"larnLitcMa (Lachta*8 Iron). i.*e., Luohta^ a Druid, went to lean 
in Letha, whore ho saw a wonderful thing used by the people to dis- 
criminate between truth and untruth. A piece of iron was charmed by 
their Druids, and afterwards put into the fire until it was red, and it was 
placed on the hand of the litigant. It would bum him if ho had guilt ; it 
would not injure him unless he was guilty. Luchta subsequently said 
that he would re<)uire it for the men of Erin, to distinguish between 
truth and untntth. Luehta aftcr^vards brought his charmed iron with 
him, and had it determining bctwoon false and tnic ; and hence it ia 
that charmed iron is still continually used by the Gaeidhel." 

The Letha to which the Druid Luchta is stated to have gone for 
the purpose of learning may doubtless be understood as representijig 
the present district of Brittany in Franco, which was anciently called 
Letha by Uic Irish. It is true that tbey also applied the name of Letba to 
Italy, or Latium, and that the cekbratod Druid, Hogh Ruith (IfagUB 
Kotie), who lived in the third century, is asserted to have gone thither 
to learn from Simon Magus. But, bearing in mind CsDsar's account of 
the state of Druidism in Gaul in his time, it is more probable, if 
Luchta ever left Ireland for the alleged purpose of improving his know- 
ledge of the Druidic institutions, that he directed his journey towards 
the Armoric Letha than to the Italian Letha. 

The mode in which the hot iron Ordeal is said in the foregoing 
soription to have boon practised by the Irish agrees with the most ancient! 
accounts that we possess. I believe the earliest evidence of the use of 
the hot iron is to bo found ia Sophocles, who, in his tragedy of Anti- 
gone (rcrne 270), represents one of his charactore as confessing himself^ 
ready to lift masses of red hot iron, and appeal to the gods, to pui 
himself of the luspieion of guilt. 

" Sm Stepbsnoi ** De Pftb'di," snd AHMotle'a Worita. 


The ftexl fonn ia: — 

Oipifem ic fllc<Stp i. cepbat) no bib acco pin aimpippm t)o 
T 50< ^ pip •«- Qipipeam oc alc-6ip .». ceatc pa .i;i. 
QCim6eoU na halcopa, t upci t)ol lappin cpia tji6eat>al DptiaD paip. 
bo popfel, imoppo, comapta a peccom paip oamoD 6inco6; ni 
oeriat), imoppo, epcoic> 60 bafna6 ant>ac. 

^Jkiriinm ic AlUrir (Waiting; at an Altar), i. e. a proof they had 
ilthat bme to dista^ish between false and true; i. e. waiting at an 
iltv, TIC :— to go zune times round the altar, and to drink water after- 
Wd«v Druidical incantatione baring b&en uttered over it. Manifest, in- 
4h^ vm the sign of hia transgreaaiona on a man, if guilty ; it harmed 
himBAi^ if incoccnt." 

Tlu teat^ according to my original authority, was borrowed from 
tbe Ivmeliftea by Cai Cainbretbach, one of the companions of the sons 
rfMtkahw, who introduced it into Ireland. He ia also stated to bavu 
tttivdaoed many other regulations, especially certain provisions in the 
ncint UwB and institutes of thi^ country, which arc a-^scrted to have 
^ fooadfid on the RtcM Maoiii, or Mosaic law, and arc alleged to 
^m been obserred until superseded by the laws enacted through the 
ddieSMc of Si, Patrick. The process certainly bears a striking rcscm- 
UlDM to the ordeal described in Numbers, v., where the woman sus- 
pcctad of ftdnltery ia made to drink bitter waters on which the priest 
mi besfied caraes ; and, if guilty, hor ticgh rotted. 

It » asserted by some writers that the ordeal wns originally adopted 
brCbnatiiin nationa from the Jews; but I think that it was common to 
lu Drnoitive peoples, whether from any idea inherent in the human 
tfaat rcthl'Ution in some shape or other was sure to follow crimi- 
; I ahoil not take it upon me to say. The ceremonial of going 
a place or on object was Pagan, as it is Christian. The word 
ia no doubt a loon word, representing the Latin aliaro ; but 
doe* not aifect the subject much, as the Irish scribes were in the 
of subfttitutiog modern expressions for ancient terms. It ia 
le that the circuit was performed round a "cairn;'' and St. Colum- 
have referred to the practice in hia invocation to God before 
battle of Cul Drcmne, fought in 561, when ho implores the Divine 
n against 

"Tha LtMtthat mmrcbes round a calro." 

Tbe Uai of the Fir Flatha eniunerated in the list is the article called 
Cw^ek C$% m m ie, or '* Corraac's Cup/' which broke into three pieces when 
tlirae £alae words were uttered over it ; but became united again when 
nomber of true words were spoken. The way in which King 
obtained possession of this inestimable treasure is described in 
winch, as it contains some genuine elements of ancient Irish 
f, I would be tempted to quote, but it is altogether too long ; 
it has been already partly published by Stnudish Hayes O'Grady, 
in the '• Transactiona of the Osaianic Society," vol. iii., p. 212. 


YIT. — On BiciBcuxAB Quartics. By JoRist Caskx, A. B. [Abst 

[Read Febnury 10, 1867.] 

If we taVo tlie most general equation of the second degree in a, ft «t( 
where the»e variables denote circles in place of lines 

wo get the most general form in which the equation of a bicirc 
quartic can be written. 

Setting out with this equation, I have proved that a bieirc 
quartic ia the envelope of a variable circle which cuts the Jacobian (< 
of a, fit 7, orthogonally, and whose centre moves on a given conic 
the equation of the conic i<^ in three point co-ordinates being exactly 
the same in form as the equation of the quartic, the a, )9, 7 of tha 
quartic being replaced by \, /a, » of the conic, where X, |j, v are 
perpendiculars fi^m given points on any variable tangent to the co: 

I have further proved that the same quartic may be do»cribcd 
more ways than one, in this manner, according to its class. Thna 
tho quartic be of the eighth class, there are four conies, F, F'y F^, F^, 
and corresponding to them four circlesi «/, tA', J*\ J'"\ and the some 
quartic may be described indifferently as the envelope of a variable 
cifcle whose centre moves along any of thcso conies, which cuts the 
corresponding circle orthogonally. 

I havu proved that each of tlie four circles, /, J'^ J*', /'", iuverta 
quartic into itself. 

If the quartic be of tho sixth class, there are bat threo director 
conies, F^ /'', F"\ and tliree circles of inversion, J, J\ J". In this 
case I have proved that the quartic mu»t be the inverse of an ellipse 
or hyperbola, being the one or the other according as the double point 
it muBt have in addition to the circular points at infinity is a conjugate 
point, or a real double point. 

If the quartic be of tho fifth clasa, T haTe proved that it must be the 
inverse of a parabola; that it has but two director conies, /*, F', and 
two drcles of inversion. 

For the quartics of each class, I have proved that tho conies, F^ 
&c., ore coufocal, their common foci being the double foci of the quartio 
and that their points of intersection with their respective contwponi 
ing circles, i/, J\ &c., are the single foci of the quartic; so that 
sixteen single foci of a bicircular quartic of tho eighth class lie in fou: 
on four confocal conies, whose coromou foci arc tho double foci of 

The conies, .F, F*, F", F"', which, on account of the proi>crty j 
stated, I have called the focal conies of the quartic, are intirautoly co 
aected with the whole theory, Thiis, if F, F\ &c., become circles, 
quartics become Cartesian ovals ; and il' parabolas, the quartics redu 
to circular cubica. 

I have discussed Cartesian ovals &om a new point of view, and ha 
entered rather fully into their properties. Thus, being given two circl< 


I FtxtdJ, then, if a variable S, cutting J orthogonally, has its centre on 

FfiU envelope is a Cftilestan oraL The centre of /' will be the triple 

' ibrOB of the oval ; and the three single collincor foci \rill be the centre 

^J, ssd the two limiting points of /and F. I have shown, also, 

t&it the oval has six other foci, which lie two by two on three lines 

papeBdionlar to the line of coUinearity of the single foci. 

I havft entered at some length into the properties of circular cubica. 
iil the properties of these curves which I give in this paper I believe 
to be new. Thus, "being given four concyclicpointfi," X have proved that 
**dkc two circalar cubics which can be described having these points as 
iQcIe foci are ench that the point where each intersects its asymptote 
^ttedouble focoa of the other;" and, again, that '' the circle which has 
^BbiUace between these double foci as diameter is the ^nino points' 
■Me* of the triangle formed by any three of the four centres of inver- 
MQ oif ellher.*' 

I have next discussed the characteristics of the various curves treated 

of a the paper, and of their evolutes, not only detennining them for 

flu qaertics and cubics of each class, but showing the exact points and 

SBf* which are cusps, double tangents, stationary tangents, &c. and 

^Btt uriTed at some new theorems respecting the osculating circles of 

^Bcfl a« well aa bicircular qaortics. Thus, '* through any point not 

^^B aUipee or hyperbola can be described six circles to osculate tlie 

Wmfm or hyperbola, and through any point not on a bicircular quortio 

cf thf dghUi class can be described twelve circles to osculate the 


A mery considerable portion of the paper is occupied with the appli- 
catiofk of the methods of conies to bicircular quartics. In fact, sinco 
^ ^CMTal equation of the second degree in a, /3, y which I employ 
» the same as the general equation of a conic, only that in my method 
ifae Tariablea denote circles in place of lines, it will at once occur to 
aaj ooa that the methods used in the higher parts of conies apply also to 
>«*»**«»^*i' quartics. I have entered very folly into this part of tho 
flaUeety and have shown that the theories of invariants and covarionts, 
iwnroeation, and anharmonic ratio in conic sections, not only have 
thor iDalogaes in bicircular quartics, but that the very same equations 
and modes of proof which are employed in tho one hold also in the 
othcs; In fact, this part of the paper may be regarded as an exposition 
of a new method of geometrical transformation ; and it is shown that 
graphic property of a conic section has an analogous property 
dar quartics. Thus, "The four conies having double contact 
given conic XT^ which can bo drawn through three given points, 
tail touched by four other conies having also double contact with £?','* 
ICarrespoDding to this we have tho following theorem in bicircular 
'' "*£»: — *• The four bicircular quartics having quartic contact with a 
bicircular quartic U^ which can be desaribed so as to have double 
icl with three given circles, have all double contact with four other 
hicircnlar quartics having also quartic contact with UJ* 

I intend to follow up the mode of investigation employed in this 
paper in kindred parts of geometry. 




Fr^ U:e J:>i IVAltc:: wis V^m a: Bessrillc 
the aieat of hxs hzter, Vi"f^in D-'Ahon, Esq-, on 
His mocher. also <if highh- respectable £miilT, 
Leroe. He re edacaud in DaUzn, vliitfaer he 
ynr, to the school of the Ber. Joseph Hatton, ot 
fiom tiie abode in vMch he pasBed his life ; and, 
of lus derotion to the laboor of many a Tear, the v 
first preffliQia« won at the a^ of ten, vas Lelant 
land/' He continued at the school of Vr. Hutton 
CoUe^cv vhich he did in his fonrteenth year, i 
was an excellent classical scholar, and, even at t 
indications of thoee literaiy tastes which dang to 1 

ICr. D' Alton, in the year 1808, was elected a n 
which, for now close upon a hnndred years, ha 
wherein Irish eloquence has been rocked into a t 
maturity — the College Historical Society. 

Mr. D*AIton early signalixed himself, and his 9 
nescent* HU itUtp was always in the arena, his shii 
the lists; and fm, i may venture to sav, the whole • 
bershipi ho tumeemivtsly was awarded the prizes for 
lego Historical Aocibty. 

In May, IBM, ha commenced the stndy of a pi 
with no good reason, 8upi>o«*d antagonistic to poet 
hod no later than our last night of meeting a sign; 
oxistenoo of tlio most profound and oxact prof'«'«'''- 
mind of one whose ^try inft*"' ' ' 

V «n astfaama a poan 0^ ^ 
arfiriaa tW 
IS14. TUi Uld tnmpt at C^ iiarifliiii Ida 
M^er tftfaft Cafl 

na lilB«7 tarta af 4ba aga «a« postfy. TW p^M a^fba 

fay the IVnnlar ITar, isd tiba ^ritiny mm- 

icd bard vaa Bon IB BBiMa with tiw 

gwu djJMflfa rfflciaaaiUndktaaislWpae&dftr^ 






belbt« a line of a 

bfiiber — ^Longmaa^ 

pay biB ftr it MOO ^UBna. 11«. amiM ^t moan 

DoiyfAitt, Xoore vat weavla^ tiie gof^genM tMna 

dw" a^ by £be 1^ oriiiaawa brilfittt 

Soot by 
icatf IB fas' 

af the Orioitt wbkh wsa 
tn ft! rfhf In 

tad cf bM 

Tbe Lord aTOtt Mas' 

rMsed bi 

B. WebaMrthe 

01 wwitiMio bara baoooka oan* 
; nd -Tbe Lady af tba Uke,"* 
' ml "Thel^offheLaitMin- 
bctos tbe vanderihl tide af kb 
liralled vave IbOoviag aare of tba 
toflarar. Tba MeoeH of Walter Seott aniaeed tba 
of JihB D'AUoo ; be fdt fiiat Irdnd had BMny intene^ 
luiCery, vbicb aSbrdad eabyecto fa 6h WKom-, be eoan- 
BaBadriren, fte bffli aad dalai ofEriaxB bo waymfierior 
ity ta tbeee wbicb the g«oh» of Sooti bad iarailed vith 


the plot wna doaigned to proacnl the most picturesque ecenory of Iir- 
laad. The Festivals of the Church mark the time of each canto — tweln 
in number ; while the Danes^ not being entirely converted to Chm* 
tianity, afforded him the opportunity of describing the rites of Odin,ttd 
other deities of Scandinavian mythology. 

Although I had marked many passages for extracting, time o&ly 
allows me to select one. It describes scenery familiar, I am sure, to 
most of my hearers, and therefore the general fidelity of the dcscriptiTe 
passages can be fairly tested — Ex uno di»ce omnes. 

Dcrmid, having escaped to the Wicklow coast from captivity in the 
Isle of Man, meets with a widowed la<ly on St. Patrick's Day, who giva 
him much-needed sustenance : — 

" Whilt Ereleea, with hnmblc food, 
SefrMbed bim in Iter solitude, 
Often hlf wistfol eye would steal 
Along th« windings ortho vale, 
Where, girt by many a motintain grey, 
Rolled in itself atiS(x;laMy, 
Tbe valley of the lakes displayed 
Its 9brine«, embrowned in thickest shade 
Of circHi]£ mounlninft, that ap[><!arcd, 
With rude stufwndouft height, to goanl 
Thla hollowed region of rrpoatL 
Here in dark horror Lugduff nrae — 
Tha Mathern sentinel — buidc 
Towmd Dcrrybawn, in waWng pride ; 
Between them, o'er its rocky bed, 
By woods embrowned, a torrent sped; 
While with contracted brigfatnefta fell 
From hills, that wutward bound the vale, 
Glaneola's cascade; and, north, 
Broccagh his moaotain mists sent forth ; 
But in tliu east no envitius hright 
Shut out the goUlen flood of light ; 
No interposing fure«t stood 
To veil the rising orb — that rode 
Full in Lhc breacii — e'en now, as fate 
Had pisccd it there a golden gate, 
To guard and gild this sacred ground ; 
While, brightly arched o'er all, and wound 
About the m»untains* tops, the sky 
Ooaad np the enchanted acenciy.** 

This poem won a hearty tribute of praise from Scott, and was not 
unknown to Moore and Byron. 

A few years after the publication of his poem, Mr. D' Alton mar* 
ried Miss Phillips — a lady of good family, whose amiable disposition 
and domestic rirtucs constituted the chief charms of his hospitable homo 
for the greater part of his life. 

In 1837, tbe Royal Irish Academy, desirous of directing attention 
to the too much neglected hist^^ry of Ireland, offered a prize of £80 for 
the best essay on the social and political state of the people of Ireland, 

tkarcriliii-i --"l-?Li.'r_i:il .=rr-vz^^*. - ^^^r ^ rzd^ l-»__ -^ 

rfiBfiraAt.-u. ^l-.rL_i't»r ^^-iZL-Hr-- 

a.".:'-: :--i> :- i-_^fs "z.r z --. '-< "=--. 

T:.- i.irr*- Ti-r. !•.:*. t-.x-ti-t^: m- 

i::vC:r.z*7 .:"l*-:l::u' 

Mr. D'A>'n 7^*'l>h-r'i -t: i^irTi-.-i 

>h...r'.y i:Vr:':i^ H:-- -7 : I? 


8owerbieu!«is, yet it is with aome reason coniudered that Ziphiut 
hiensiSf the only male specimen that had at the time been discoTCKd, 
was the mole species of that genus, and that the species micropt£nil , 
was the female ; the differenco in the great development of the teedh) 
iu the male specimen, and the non-existence or nidimcntttr>* state 
the teeth in the olherj being viewed as sexual. 

The subject of the discovery now recorded was obtained s' 
nn the shore uf Brandon Bay, coast of Kerryr Lrulundf on the 9th 
March, 18G4. 

The skull and jaws, with the teeth, are identical in every 
with the specimen iu the Museum at Oxford; it is remarkable 
being only the second mulo specimen known to the European ~ 
The most viiluablf points in the details given of this discoT< 
the photographs that were taken of the head of the animal m 
ri'ceut st^te> and which have enabled many most importiuit uud 
corded ol>S4?rvations to have boon made nnd confirmed, wiUi 
the peculiar characteristics of the formation of the jaws, and ac 
the teolh, of this very rare Cetacean. 

Thus, of six of these animals that have been recorded as Europcsi 
four were females, and two M*erc males; the two latter having onl 
been met with ou the shores of Scotland and Ireland. 

X. — On the FoBUAiioN op Gbocko Job ur tii£ Beu of tuk Ri 
DoDDEB. By PnoFEssofi Hennesst, F. VL 8. 

[Reaa Aprils, 1867.] 
Tn£ formation of ico under flowing water seems to have been lo 
known to boatmen engaged in navigating the rivers of northern a: 
central Europe. At first it was regarded with doubt by many phy>ic« 
iD(|uircrs, and its universal recognition as a weU-estuMished naton 
phenomenon hns taken place only within a comparatively recent periiN 
Among the propcrtits of water, it would be impossible to nami 
more rcmarkublo or better kno^vn than its loss ot tkusity in pi 
from tho liquid to the solid state. The precise determination of th 
maximum density of water at nearly eight degrees (Fahrenheit) abo 
the freezing point Hppcni-s still further to interpose a difficulty witi 
regard \o the growth of true suhuqueous ice; but, when all the circum- 
stances under which such ico is stated to have boon formed arc fiiU 
taken into consideration, this difficulty disappears, and ground leo 1 
seen to bo the result of general physical laws. 

At the beginning of January in the present year, an instance of 
formation of ground ice in the bed of the Doddi-r* cume under my ob 

* For tbe informalion of reatlen who are not aeqaftintcd with the neighbourhood • 
Dublin, it mny tie necessary to lUt* th*t the Dodder U n itruni which rises ttmong tl 
niouutaint, at a diitAticp, meuiirrd in « sLmi^fhilinf, of about twelve miles 3. S. W. froi 
thccityt end thAt, aft«r iw*Yping round the touth suburban rillagtfs tot tbree vax\m 
lU courw, U filllt into the bay, cloM to th« mouth of the LilToy. ™ 


'Real April?, l?*;:/; 

b the Tear 1600 was cast ashore on the coa^t of Elginahire, ScotUnd, 
i&ae specinu^n of a Cetacean, which ^t. Brodie, of Brodie House, near 
those place it was stranded, considered to be so norel, and to strangv 
ift it! characters, that he sent a description of the animal, with th« 
■Lall, jaws, and teeth, to Mr. James Sowerbjr, of London. 

Tins led to a most interesting discussion among the Mvans at « 
niice at Sir Joseph Banks* ; and, as no Cetacean of the kind had erer 
leffi recorded, it was named ** Physeter bidens," from the peculiarity 
of faanng otdy two teeth — one in the central part of each inferior max- 
iiliry. This rare Cetacean proved to be a male. 

Jn the year 1804 was diiscorered on the coast of Prorence, in the 
hmL state, a portion of the sknll and jaws of a dolphin, which the 
enunent Curier decided to be a species that had no recent existence, 
but was a relic of a destroyed creation. From that specimen Curier 
fiirmed the genus Ziphius, terming the species cavirostris. 

In 1809 were detected, when digging the basin at Antwerp, other 
fossils allied to the same genus. The portions of the rostri or beaks, 
having, however, some characteristic differences, caused Cuvier to con- 
ititute two other species " lonffirottrit" and " planiroMiht.'* 

The skulU with the jaws of Sowerby's Cetacean, hod been placed 
in the Museum at Oxtbrd. From that specimen Doctor J. £. Gray, 
F. R. S., of the British Museum, and who has published so valuable a 
eatal<^ne of all known Cetacea, had figured, Pkyuttr hiden*^ in the 
Zoology of the " Erebus " and ** Terror." Be Blainville, when visiting 
£D^and, on seeing those figures, at once recognised Sowerby's animal as 
identical with Cuvier's fossils genus Ziphius ; and the fact was so com- 
pletely established, as to decide that Pkyuter hidetu was an original dis- 
corery in the living state of a Cetacean that was supposed to have had no 
oisteDce. Hence became recorded in our Fauna the genus Ziphius, 
«nd the species Sowerbiensis. 

\z September, 1826, was stranded at Havre a species of dolphin 
otT to science, which M. de Blainville described, as DelpkinorhynckuM 
itki; and the following year, 1826, was cast ashore at the mouth of the 
Ome, Calvados, another of the same species. 

I>a Mortier described a^ Delphin&rht/nchus micr&pterut one that 
M been cast ashore in August, 1835, near the port of Ostend. Ano- 
^w, agreeing with Cuvier's DelphinorhtfMhu* micropterutj was taken 
at tlir; mouth of the Seine. 

These were aU females, and have been described by Continental 
^iithorities under different generic and specific appellations. 

It is, however, clearly seen that they are all of the same genus and 
species; and, although recorded by French zoologists as distinct firom 


The results which I have selected are taken from the weeUf 
records famished by Captain AVilisinson, B. E., and publiahed wjf 
the llegistrar-Generfd, and I have also ventured to append a ooloHB 
of mean temperatures calculated by the formula, 

Mean = min + 0.48 (max. - min.).* i 

The results in this Table differ very little irom the means of *"«T*lli j 
and minima, otherwise 1 should give them with much more <liffl<^4wwi^ j 
as I am not yet perfectly satisfied as to the general applicability oftift i 
above formula to the determination of mean temperatures. i 


Dec. 26, 

.. 27, 

» 28, 

» 29, 

„ 30, 

» 31. 

Jan. 1, 

» 2, 

.. 3. 

» 4, 

„ 5, 

„ 6, 

„ 7, 

.. 8, 

,. 9. 

M 10. 

„ 11, 

„ 12, 

M 13, 

» 15, 

M 16, 

M 17. 

„ 18, 

M 19, 

,. 20, 

n 21. 

.. 22, 

„ 23, 

„ 24. 

Mean of 1 



Max. and I 












46 6 



































43 a 








19 2 




31 2 




23 1 

21 8 




32 '3 

















29 -o 










^y I 





20-5 I 


22 -4 \ 
38-9 ( 

470 I 


31-8 ( 

26 ■& 
34 1 

Heavy fall of snow, whSehrt- 
niBined unmeltod xaOA ttl 
5th and 6tb. 

Prevailing wind dnring At 

6rBt period uf frost, K. & 
Ground ice observed on w^| 

and close to bank of 
-712 inch of melted 

since Januaiy 1. 
Rain -280 inch, and nfIA 


Prevailing wind daring tin 
second period of frost, N.W. 

• For a discussion of formulfc suitable to the observations in qaeslion, see tfa« foHo 
v<»litme of *' Ordnance Meteorological Observations :" Dublin, 1866, p. 478. 

i- .r-' ;■ iv Z2akc iLt C'ti.ritxi'.-ii Ktwccn iht- risnli-j rtn-riJi li in tjij<i 

able and the f-»rmatioii of the (rrr.iin'l vo u\"U i It :irly rnii.iii^t, J 

pptjA a graphical rLpres^-xitati"!], in ^^ hkh Xh*- <I<^tii d lii> ki fi ii;.*- n-- 

nten's the- marh of mfJin teiijp* tatun-. .-in-l li.t i.!.ti':*.il in..- \\.t 

Mich of nininmiD temptrature. Th*.- two *■ /n\ jn n..<i-i ;i.»- wi il -1. lir.. .1 

/y til* rising and fiillins of the « urvt!' ah'*v< r.r !- 1 \v tin- liuv <.t ii.-*. 

1 remukable f' atuxe in the fi.'>t pi-riofl i^ th*.- ^t:<MMi ;:rt;i* i; i 

tnnperarurv frvTii the IjfJ of Janujiry to tin- Oih : wht.iicf r(-iilT»(l ;i 
nd4e:i tUjT. wl.:- ii h.i4l dn imj^-irt »:.! iutliitt:<L- in hrii.:'iii;» \ir\ -:„'- 
nificart ^henomciia ni-ti:.'.tly uiid*T ol.-* rv.iti-ii. 

Tvwards the clo-**- of the lir.-t wm k iu J lUiary, I ii* «jii» : :!\ '^ .uk- 'i 
on :hL- rli'ht rnr.k of th-.- I>'KlfI».r !» {wnu Ji;itii;;:ir lii.-l J:./h:.;ii.l!;.i.i 
bricres. Th- jreattT part of this portion ni tiji -tp .ijun ijiaiii> <i'j/t i. ; 
■nd Trher\v#-r the current was njii'l, tin.- in- w.i- n-tri't-ij 
to a this i<.r.z:i: il-n? thi. bank«. On brcakin;: a p'ntit.n i.f li.i* lilt- 
ing There tbtrv wa? a swift currfnt, I found r^u;:ii pi. ri-.-t id, ttjii 
hoi ne^dlf. -shaped crystals, juttinpr beneath tht- w.-.ti r. \V:it« r wjih 
flowins ever s-/me ol piecip, but they wer*.- t a*iiy h' d up \v liii 
a ftii'k. On a Mtiiatc-d farther up sfn-an: I ijotiicl niaiiy i< i< ]■ - 
ktt^hed 'f the sttines over which the water w;is d.i.-»Iiiijj:. Still in».n- 
dcyi^iTfe pr»f« of the existence of tnie jfrouhd i<* iinihr the ^tP am 
■^r.t :'urTii-hed sortn after the commenrinient oi tlic thaw. 

On t't.K- of Sunday, tht- *mIi, when the thaw tt.i?. fully 
■:•'"■.^jr•*:-^ I t'.".k a po-itijn a littl*- aV-M one of tiiu wrir«. ai:d "mi^* lied 
th-.- ^rf.akiri? up ind rmioval of tlic if* whit.h 'i^ tl;' rivi r at 
*i.iz X'Arr.. Air< r a .Thort interval \ ri'ttie'd, in addiri'ii t-. tI.* -::. '.tli 
i::r'--'ir ht. i :jr.ii'Mrmiy thi<:k .-ilab* n -^iihin;: fi- lu ti.' bn ikir ,.' < i the 
TL-li'it ;■■•-, >ev"ral rouudi •ipori;ry pi'M-, :ii"t' <.r l*.- oi- . !■ htmiI'V 
Ei'i. :s:*i hiving in isome iii-taijcc^ rii:.-! fi .-niiJl ^!;i'*ii ;i;r:rhi.i t>^ 
■:.-n:. I eouid not at tir-Jt di-cdVL-r m1i»i;((- tlit-e .-i:...-;I irloAiiij: 
T".'::-." 't i'.e had coTne ; l/ut alter anolh* r r-hort iht<.iv:d J -.ia -iinilar 
iniTr.fy.S riv? in !*ueees>ion to iJie ?urla*,e of the wan i lr'-r:i I' low . 
!"::•> ov:urreTif:'e was refnatf d mori' than ouf*; and it uT'i s'tid t!.- 
■■.".r.t:;r. ',f '*tl:-r o>ri.-rver?. 1 inxntly veriti(.d my iuipM-:-i';i oflh- 
II.*- 'T a-kin^ ;:entlemen* who wi r(' pre.Ti nt a-* ti> what tii* y bad m e::. 
i:. : 'r.'ir r.piy completely aeeords wiili what I n lair. \Vii' :i<'Vi r :i 
lirj- -fi.','-:*. of surface ioe was burst by the rapidly rising wnt- 1^ of tli.- 
*rr-i::,. rvizh lumps of the sj)onpy ice were nmcrally di?^ii'..-t d b< mat!:. 
Tr.r=.j •■■■.-uid not have arrived at th'ir pof-ition by driftiiu' down tlic 
nT.r: :..r ihr drifted fra^rmenta were heaped over the ii|ip*r( (]i;i- r,r th-' 
yc •ir.broken «heet-? of i-e. The roujjh pirci-* inii'-t. lia\-- lI- aied Tip 
::.::: :):* bed to the under pide of the hurfac<- ice. and they wt h- di-- 
.'. --: *•: \iew on the removal of the latter from the position it liad b» \<\ 
•.:.t-.ri'.r to the thaw. The mud witli which nio*.t of these fratrnirnt-: wc p 

:'.^; it .! « I ■ the rictit bank f.( the I»- i'l. r. 

til ■ f 


still more conoluBively ou this point.* He poured water into iron hoali 
which were insulated from the inAucnco of soil temperature by beini 
elevated on trestles, and they were at the same time fully exposed 
all sides to the action of a freezing temperature. The inside of 
boiler was smooth, while another was interiorly coated with a few 
of iron and wood. Ice was formed in both boilers along the sides 
bottoms, as well as on the surface, while the middle was still occui 
with unfrozen liquid. From u compariHou of both vtsseU, it 
that the inequalities on the interior of the sei^ond greatly favoni 
formation of rough crj'stiillitie bunches of ice. The residual unfr 
liquid suggests an explanation of the difficulty to which I hurt^ lUli 
with reference to the exclusive freezing of a river at surface and on it 
bed. This phenomenon is indeed only a particular instnnrc of 
general thermologicnl law — namely, that all substances in pn^ 
the liquid to the solid state evolve a certain amount of latent f: 
is thus, after various metals, sulphur, and other substancrs commcnee 
crystallize from a state of fusion, we find, on breaking the crust of , 
matter first formed, that a residuum of liquid cnclo>ed in a soUt 
matrix may be decanted off. With regard to water, this proc* 
been very clearly described by Proft-ssor Curtis, of Quten's C( 
Galway ;t and, he refers, moreover, to the low conductivity of wa! 
heat OS on agency for contlning the eommunication of tlic latctit 
of congelotion to the adjacent particles. If, therefore, from the 
Talenee of conditions favourable to freezing both at surface and aloi 
the bed of the still parts of such a river as the Dodder, ice shuuM 
formed in these po^^itions, its gi'owth will in itself interpose obtt* 
to the freezing of the nud^Ue wat<Ts. 

The explanation here given of the formation of ground ice is^ 
substAnce, the SHine us that propounded several years ago by llic Ul 
M. Anigo ;J but I venture to beliovo that there are some pctuliurfe 
tures in the phenomena which I have described, which may fi 
elucidate the whole question. It cannot be maintained, as boA 
done, occording to Arfigo,S& by one of our countrymen, that free; 
the bottom of cold still and clear water arises from the greater f* 
presented by still water as compared to moving water for the 
mifisiun of radiant heat from the underlying bed. Id a discui 
the physical properties of wattT with reference to terrestrial clii 
different geological epochs, published iu 1859, jj I alluded to the 

* " M«tnolre« da U Soci^to dra Scionces Natiirclln dc SlraslMarff," (nme vi. 

f " On ihc FrcMlng of Water ul Tcmpcrnlures lower ihfto 32' F. :" *• I'biloH^i 
Nagixioe" for DrornitKr. 1866. 

t Arago, " <Euvrc4," vol. vili. § Loe. cff., p. 176. 

II " AUaDtlA," vol ii., p. 208, Juiuary, 1859. Some of oiy couclaaivni 
cUmale Itaving tc«D Utvly reprotjaccd u new, [ nay tw excufted for briefly ctat 
propcrtlc* of water to whirl) 1 appealed wlicji Btteni)*tinf{ tueniablEshthraprrMtcIf 
I, ka ^reat capacity for beat; 2, it* mobility; S, tbc influence ofcv.ti 
deaniion ; A, the inipuniD'ability of watmo oImcoit beat. 'I'be lirftt < ' 
ailiturrd in •rclinii ? of uiy MMy (p. ttO); wbilr tb*< 4ib, now itotlvvn m 




tmtmttm tnm Wdr abore vlilcfa Grmsd lee wu otMerred rtitiv. 

l«l . , 

Wcir fmin wbicfa distances are couuicd. 

IflT . . 

1 W5 feci, trherf eryauls of Ice were found. 

955't fwl, Weir with Ice od stonca. 

lU . . 

4S7« fc4<t. Bathfarnhftin bridge. 

t| raO*. acaicaiU. 

I7« . . 


niDcfl, Tcfflpleogua bridge. 

m . . 


miloi* Weir el Firhouw. 

WH . . 

■Oct, OldbAwn bridge. 

Hi . . 

ft , mDw« oppoiSte lite of parcbment miU. { 



roOae. near BaUjnuMomej Gap. 

K tn ■ddttion to the rough section which may be formed from tfacAo 
nm\tm, th« reiider bears in mind that the bed of the Dodder contains 
■■■• of gmrel, granite boulderF, and projecting rocks, he will be 
irtndtd that the conditions require'] for perfectly mingling the floTring 
T^itr art* All •bundAntlv prosent. The T)oddrr is usually shalloTr, and 
it mtt ID ihift state before the froet of January ; thus the water, in lall- 
TBc «Tcr ''■ - and torrential parts of its course, presented a very 

tab tbw-t i to the rcfirigt?rating influences of tlic air, and lospes 

nf Wot by feiirtice radiation. MTierever the river flows most rapidly, 
it ii alao ahallovrest and mo^t disturbed, and the water is tlieix'foro 
gpMnl at aach places to the full intensity of the refrigerating actions. 
Die eolder particles at surface exchange their positions and lempera- 
tvra vilh the particles at bottom, and a forced convection is thus 
brvi^^t sboat, which reduces the temperature of the entire mass below 
(^ tntxHng point. Another feature in the structure of the bed of the 
ftTvr BCrw ©pcTBtts to bring about condition (2). This occurs whenever 
th* w«t<T reduced below the freezing tcmj)erature arrives nt the back 
ftf a wf -r or mill dam. In this position, the water at surface partakes 
b(Li. .-•n$ (I) and (2) ; but, while it freely loses its heat, it still 

wUu— - .....U Telocity, The water at bottom is now almost perfectly 
<fll, Ukd conditions (2) and (3) arc much better fulfilled than at the 
m&M!i. In this way ground ice and surface ice may both bo formed 
»inij in the same cross section of the river. 

Il Aay be luiked, why should not freering toko place in the water 
Svriai; between the bottom ice and surface ice, as well as above and 
Wl-"-"" '^'^ ■ - :r;;e»ta the utility of attending more precisely to the 
Jl^ of the growth of ice crystals. The general influence 

ol : -iKirittinccsin promoting crystallization is well recognised, 

Wi I ,r experiment of plunging a vcbscI containing water into 

• tn^img mutore shows the tendency of ice to commence its forma- 
'*'*ftom even the most minute projections on the inside of the vessel. 
^^ experiments recently deembed by M. Fred. Engclhardt bear 

I- r ». PBOC. VOL. X. I 


matfci ialiy to the antiquarian interest which attends the Dckhan Caini; 
and, with the bells, cups, and other articles in the Bombay Hoaeoin, 
affords evidence of a period at which remarkable skill existed in the 
casting of this metal. Whether in India it was used preTiously to iron, 
may perhaps be discussed; but that iron and bronze periods existed 
there, as well as in Europe, there can be no reasonable doubt; and I 
esteem myself peculiarly fortunate in being able to submit for ex- 
amination by the Academy the first specimen of Cairn bronze which 
has, to the best of my knowledge, been transmitted to England. 

Having thus evidence of iron and bronze periods in India, the 
Academy is already in possession of proof of a flint period in the remaric- 
able specimens of chipped flints, agates, chalcedonies, and jaspers pre- 
sented to it on the 10th April, 1865, by Mr. John Evans, at the instance 
of Sir Charles Lyell, F. R. S., which were found near Jubbulpoor, in 
Central India, by the late Lieut. Swiney. I have recently also seen 
a letter from Mr. Blandford, a deputy-superintendent of the Geolo- 
gical Survey, in which he states that in certain localities of the 
province of Nagpoor chipped flint articles have been found by him. 
I can state also, under my own knowledge, that at Lingsoogoor— -a 
military station of tlio Hyderabad Contingent, thirty miles south of Shora- 
poor — numbers of flint (chert), agate, and chalcedony knives, resem- 
bling those of Muxico, aiTow heads, &c., were found by the late Sur- 
geon Primrose, near a largo artificial tumulus upon which the meee 
house of the station was built in 1841. Dr. Primrose had previooaly 
resided in Mexico, and was struck with the identity of what he found 
at Lingsoogoor with the flint and obsidian knives he had seen in 
Mexico. His collection was a considerable one, and I believe was pre- 
sented by him to the Museum of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta. I 
am at present endeavouring to obtain further specimens from Ling* 
soogoor for the Museum of the Academy. 


In the llyat Xugger cairn, five shells of the species 7\trhin$ii0 
pi/rum were found. They are ]>erforated at the top, so as to be 
puspended, and the apices of the shells have been removed. Whether 
these were intended to be used as conchs, or worn as ornaments, it 
ia impossible to decide. From the largest of them all the whorls 
have been removed, as well as the central axis or column; and the 
uecklaee, fig. 13, proves the use that such columns were put to. It 
consists of six portions, which have been perforated longitudinally, in 
ordtT to be strung — a small portion of shell, pierced with two htdoa, 
being evidently intended as a fastening for the ends of the eord oa 
which the pieces of shell were strung. With the necklace was found 
what appears to be the upper tusk of a wild boar : it is not perforatctl. 
The use of shell necklaces by ancient races in Europe is evident from 
that in the AcadcniyV Museum; but I am not aware that any of tho 
kind now exhibited have been found before, nor did the Shorapoor 
or other cairns aflbrd unj*. 


rw^rrmrbiblv grtnip* of c*aiTD«; and that, duriiij^ examinatiouft 
mfinl ioftujocvi, by General .T. S. Fraser, Captain, now Colonel Doria, 
tad othen, beU», iron weapons, and potter)-, deposited in lljc Slu- 
of tbf KoyaJ Asiatie Society ol Bombny, hud been exhumed. In 
ire with tny T^•<^^ue#t, Sir Geon;e Yule piT^onall}' superintended 
til' r il>e cairn I now allude to, and has kindiy sent me 

»t. . It. I have only to regret that no notes of the pro- 

fveiia^ Vkani tuken : for it would have been intcret^tingto know the fnzo 
fait eMtflptmtion of this caiiii, and the flepth lit which the remains 
•WD fimiid, &*•. IJuch particulars will, 1 trust be supplied to me 
tc Mft g f , in rv*gurd to other euirus examined at Hyderabad or other 
loolifici in the Dekhuu ; and for the pretjent I have only to oifer a few 
nmrif upon the character of the articles sent to me, which I present 


■re not 8o perfect as some obtained,by me from Sborapoor coimBr 
Ivt lh»T are in some instaneee in fair preservation. The best arc two 
triMfaUr ftrrow heads of large size, Ags. 1, 2. Others appear to have 
Isa i^gaUcr» axid more pointed — round, perhaps, or four-sided : of Lhe^c 
4, anJd 5 are specimens. A rod of iron or steel, twenty-five 
ta IcD^b, was no doubt the blade of a javelin^ such as is used at 
it iliiy by Brinjarriea, or grain carriers, who arc descended 
■aeitnit nomadic tribe. Two small lance or spear heads are very 
- figs, ft, 7 ; and there are some portions of what perhaps 
! \- a sword or dagger blade, fig. 8. The rest of the iron 
u-a art-, uo doubt, portions of larger weapons, probably spears, but 
ue much decayed and broken. 


i^pecimcns of bronze in belU, cupe, &c., were found in Hy- 
none were di-icovcrcd by me in the examination of those 
Sbofapoor district, which only yielded iron and pottery. It is 
to determine what the precise use of the article now exhibited 
ra been; but it has a greater resemblance to a cover than nny- 
■py (ci(i* fig. V>). When received, the handle, which is in the 
of a deer or a sheep, though most probably intended for the 
waa aqmrnte from the cover; but it was discovered that the 
VeluD portions at the feet of the animal fitted exactly into a fracture at 
Dm top of tb« round portion ; and they have been joined as represented. 
Ika ^jwrt**'*' of the lower portion of the article is eleven inches, and 
centre risei three and a half inches from the rim. The thickness 
nftal ia one-tenth of an inch, equable throaghout ; and it 
tm Ti^rv I iirefuJly cast and limshcd, if not polished- The handle 
in« CM f stpuriitily, and joined to the lower piece by solder. 

TWqtuL.'^. — :*e metal docs not appear to have been affected by 
taBc aad it is of a oIcat bright colour under the crust which covers it. 
Thi» Tcry unique 8pc<;imcn of bronze work adds, I consider, very 

blifthcd by affinities of languu^^e. By an Indian newspaper of Mardi 9tli(] 
I observe that, at a mLotingof thoRoynl Asiatic Society ofBombay. 
I 4th February, 1867, Mr. llivott Comae brouglit to notice the 
of the examination of barrows, stipposed to be Scythian, at the viUagBi 
Jiinapaneo, near Nogpoor. Here pottery, spear and arrow heads, bi 
axes, and, perhaps the most riirioua of all, a horse's snaffle bit, snd 
small model in iron of a Scythian bow and arrow were found, 
pieces of curved iron, with loops at either end, were no donbt etin 
irons, ifr. Camac states that Bimilar barrowa exist in other localitiM'i 
of Central India ; and it is very satisfactory to know thai the Antiqi 
rinn Society of the Central IVoviuces is taking great interest in 
examination of these ancient remains. 

XIII. — Os TiTB Histology of thb Test of the Class pAj.uoBiuy< 
cnrATA. By Professor W. Krxo, Qcers's College, Gilway. fj 

[Read April 32, 1867.] 

It is well known that a "canal system*' characterizes many 
branchs — the valves being perforated obliquely, or pcrjiendicularlT, 
their «iirfiwu.'fi; and that, on dissolving the slioll substance of the vaJT< 
each perforation is found to endow a membraneous or fleshy cylin* 
body, called a " vaivaX appendage." 

In the present paper the valves are shown to be ooTorc<l with 
lular (" not a structureless") epidermis. Hitherto the perforations h»TC 
been represented as showing themselves on the surfaces of the ralvpi 
through openings in this covering ; but such cannot be the case. ina»' 
much as the cpidcmuB is absolutely imperforate and ontiro, like that of 
ordinary Molluscs. 

According to previous observers, the prevumetl openings in the epi- 
dermis are each ** closed in" by a ** mcmlironous disc," or *' di«^)i- 
doidal operculum :" it so hnppeni*, however, that what have bw-n takco 
for bodies of the kind are the flattened extremities of the ca*Cal appm- 
dages [the former often broken o£f from the htttiT), Ij^Dgagaimtt or ad* 
hering to the under ride of the epidermis. 

Under ft hand mugiiifier the outer surface of the valves api 
thickly studded with minute opaque spots. Examined with an 
microscope, cAch Spot ia resolved into a brush-like bundle, chp 
short ci-owJed lines, or rather tubule^ radially arranged a^.^ 
uaut centre. The tubules (which l>elong to, and penetralo, i 
caroous Inycr, situated immediately bencnth the epidermis) ar< 
to the apical portion of the perforations. 

When u fnigmral of ten-brntuLi ahell in di«*alvtd. tbo flnttf-BH ex- 
tremity of the csjchI appendages is found to be en* : 
membraneous filrtnu'ut* diverging outwardly. Thi- i 
posed by mofit obwrvers to be "cilia," which ftervcd ibe p 
driving ouniiit* uf writer thruii'^h tlio p' rt')riiti('n* urciccal Bpi 



05 ^ 

PMbsor King pf>TitfMirla that, what whatever office tho filaments niAv 
I •bwT*', the ' n.?€s unf^er which they occur are obviously in- 

Xiblit trith ip^>OAtKl ciliary funotion; Aud in his opinion the 

» be haa addaeed shows tlut they are tho ultimate subdi visions of 
CVcat iirirK'nJiifft'ft. 

"i thomfvlvcs, or rather their tninkfl, are genenJIy 

■ttfu . — . . Thratulina caput-terpeiitit, hitherto atated Xo have 

ite of the (uaal form, they are singularly braaohed, or antler- 

Although something hn.^ long been known of tho branching cha- 
nrter which disttngulshes the eanal ftystem of Crania anomaU, addi- 
tisMi ittfonaatioa on this point is given in the paper. Each trunk ia 
d jj^.. .::.-; I .^ somewhat a» in Tfrebratulinn rnput-Mffrpentui : but ih© 
Itt' id of ending each inabruah-likebundle. arc individually 

tWtainjir<i with a tuft of branchlet*, sub-radially disposed. The 
(bcBcr, as eonnnonly seen, no doubt differs considerably from the latter: 
ttniiaaAiio, however, when the respective bandies of various «|>eeies 
■* cxamiiied with powers magnifying frum 150 to ^00 diametei's : — 
Ivtxaaple, in Terebraiuta citr^a the radiating lines or tubules, besides 
iMBl^^y branohing, shoot right across the comparatively wide inter- 
■pMa, thereby caa-ting the bundles to resemble long-sptned atari, and 
to Mnme a feature which shows that there its uuiliiiig real or absolute 
il t^ «fifler«iiee above alliidod to. 

Aa th9 branchlet-tuftii of Crania atiAmala are obviously the ultimate 
mUrvliQons of the perfonitions, the same conclusion may be predicated 
of t^ brush-like bundles )>eloiiging to tho eo-eallcd " ciliated dii^coidal 
^anda" of other P^illiobi-anehs : in short, according to Professor King, 
Wk ■« aCrictly hrAmologous structures. 

The paper DOtices 8ome otlier point«, which, along with those just 
■triad, alMW that, although much haii been published on the history 
W(ke Pitlliobninchiata, the subject has been far from exhausted. 

XIV--jD» AirmAL Hkat. Bt W. H. CLbabt, Esa. [Abstract.] 

[Read May 13, 1867.] 

Tarn tte, broadly speaking, three groat sources whence we derive 
Biteriaia which, by being oxidized, produce Animal Heat : — 

UnlL CaloriiacicDt foods, &fcs, &c., ingested by Uie inteatinal 

BmoiuL Diaintegrated material derived from muscular and other 
lB<oc«, aa a rviult of activity ; 

Third. Reserved calorifactent materials stored up in the living 
»yilaiH iiamaly adipose, ftc. 

TK*. r*<..w ty{ a number of cxperimenta detailed in thia paper (some 
«f « lid vritth to repeal in order to verify the results), tend to 

*Ct-u-..^.» jirove tliat the production of Animal Heat by oxidation of 

«-i. A. raoc. — VOL.!, k 




that their climate is simiUr to that of the Afiturus. When we 
the Aflturian districts of Irclontl, we fiiul more features ofgoologii 
physical resemblance to the North of Spaiu tlian in auy othtr 
uf eiinal area in Irvlaud. The intlueuce of uUmiiU-, wtiich neeotf i 
mmuuut importauut- iarulutioato Plauls, isvor>' remarkable iu tbft] 
Asturian district*. The author iilu.*tratcd his views by rcfci 
Uap on which were projected the isothermal lines of meau axmi 
mean winter temiHTature for Ireland. These lines were drawn 
aid of obserrationH mode at some new stations, in addition to 
which hu )iad to rely when projecting the isothermal^ ulreudy pul 
Among these stations he especoally refi^rred to Galway, from ita^ 
tion in the West Asturian diathft. From the Map, it nppejirs 
greater part of the anaA of both of the Asturian di8lricl> lie 
the annual iaothermals of o2^ and 51°, and between the winter iH>th(t- 
malsof 45** and 44*^, These are the linos of highest temperature 
Ireland, and the winter linea corre«pond almost identically with 
belonging to the middle of the prorinoe of Asturias itself. On the 
hand, the S4immur t4*inperature of the Irish Asturian diBtricts is 
57**. 5 to 59«. 3 respectively, and therefore from 6" to 8* lower ihi 
of the North of Spain ; whence it follows, that, if Phiul* were int 
duced into an Asturian district from Spain, some of which retiuirvd 
warm summer, while others rpqnired only a mild winter, the foi 
would die. while the latter might survive, and evon spread over exi 
sive areas. The condition of great summer warmth seeuis to be 
cially required for annuals belonging to southern rlimca. as the : 
of the seeds would be inevitably cheeked by a single cold and wet] 
j&er. The growth of perennials appears to de(*eDd piiucipally 
oondition of winter temperature, as theee I'lanlA muy ^preod byl 
and suckers. After reftirring to the generally admitted faet ol 
moisture of the climate of Ireland, the author concludes, from oh 
tious made at UuUviiy, Inni»hgort, in Clew Bay, and Lough Corrib, 
tho annual rninfuU in the West Asturian district must at least ex( 
fifty inches; while obaenrntions made at Valcntia, Killamcy, Ci 
civeen, and Cattle to wiiseud show that the fall is probably still great 
in the South-West district. 

Corresponding conditions exist with n^rd to the relative hi 
midity of the air. If, as iK'fore supposed, ditforcnt varietit« of Plants 
from a southern clime were by accident inlroduwHl into our Asturian 
districts, fur some of which moi!*ture was more favourable than to 
others, the former would have a far greater chance of becoming widely 
spread, while tliu growth of the latter might be cheeked instead of being 

The inrtueucc' of cultivation in promoting or checking the introdi 
tion of wild rUiuts into the A«turian dijitricta was mxl dist^mwied. 
appears from returns furuislicd to tlie Itegistrar-Geoeral ufludaud di 
ing tive years, that tho creutvi^l proitortion of weedy gntund was ol 
wrvwl in the Asturian dAtrict*. and frtjin rtfurn» msHo during 
yean of the relative areas under tillagr. pastuMge, »nd in n Iota 



toluniwi condition, that Ihe A&tuhan dutricU were tbe lowest in go- 
md eokinaion amuog districts of equal extent. 

Ahhtrngh wnniiftli aiid the cla^s of weeds generally aceompanying 
cripc «r at fint i«vourcd by cxUhire, which opens tho »oil for their pro- 
M^tSOD. it •evni* that the tranquil development uf perennial n-ild 
PJuitB ttlufl plaee mi>5t completely where culture is iroperfectr or en- 
iMy nspcoded : whence il I'ollowa, that, if any perennial wild Plonta 
witai by th/dr fanbiU to ihe Asturiun district happened to be introduced 
istothcau their eh*ncp of existin)^ and spreading would be greater than in 
MbirdisCricifl of Ireland. In oildition to the evidence ftimi.shed by the rc- 
tou uf the Jicgistisr-Generair the author referred to the writings of 
ArtlnirToimg, oadto the Agricultund Surveys of the Counties of Ireland, 
il order to «how that the samerfilative condition of the Asturian districts 
vitii nrftrvfice to cultivation hod be^a in existence aa long at the 6ub- 
jKt httd attnbctcd any notice. It was shown by niiiuerous references, 
tkatft^Rot nuuiy well- authenticated instances of the introduction of 
Asto Utroogh commercial and general intercourse have greatly 
^Mod tbe yiora of different countries. These changes were ollen ef- 
isefaa within a eoropamtively fthort period of time, and they were more 
9t ka» eooaplete in proportion to tlio more or Icaa fnvoiinibleaesfi of the 
diautie eoodiuon of the new stations of the introduced Plantd. After 
teUy diMnsang these re«ult«, the author puts forward his views in the 
UbviB^ proponitiunft : — 

IKuific ^^^ p^triwU of prolonged nnd intimate interconrae between 

'Ji» MrtlMtfii coast of Spain nnd the whole of Ireland, the conditions for 

b ri^lftg thc at«<i5 of varioutf Plants into the latter country' from the foi-mcr 

pniMly «xi«ted ; and during the more recent of these periodfi, theexist- 

CDae iaf «ucli ti^.3itti> and ti*»hing intercourse between Spain and the Astu- 

nm : ltd is ho well established, and was of such a kind as to 

noAL.. -_. ... :ion of at'cidentol !*eedB almost certain. Such soeda 

M nqoirvd a warmer elimate than that of Ireland for their germination 

BKtHarily Cuiled, while those which wei'e &uit€*d to the physical condi- 

tioni iolo wliich they were tlirown became naturalized. The winter 

tntbamaU, uimI the corresponding distribution of minimum temperature, 

MSftaad the ran go of these Plants to the two narrow littoral dirstrict^ where 

tky — ' \. The cold and wet summers which often exist in Ire- 

Iftii ' dily destroy sui^h annuals as happened to be introduced 

ftOKi u\c w:iriner summer climate of the North of Spain ; but a few of 
tW pCRfiuials might still continue to exist, owing to the favourable cou- 
^tmit of winter temperature in the West of Ireland. 

Tbft autbnr bnctly diseussed the grounds which we posseas for be- 
Itttiog to a former intercourse between Spain luid Ireland at a very rc- 
<>oteepodi; and he exumiutti, with great minuteness and detail, tlio 
vviHcaee of ftuch intercourse during a more modem period. It appears 
^&oai th4* thirteenth to tho sixteenth centuries, inclusive, Iho \Vest 
nd Sooth- West of Irduud were in close communication with the ports 
of Biscay and the Asturini:. Local histories and traditions, popular 
(*ttry, and unpublished documenta were rcfera-d to in support of thin 


conclusion ; and it appears that many of the stations of the Astoriti 
Flora, where plants are actually found, were also trading or fishing stft 
tions of Asturian or Biscayan mariners. It is also remarkable, tha' 
one ofthoPlants of the Asturian Flora has been observed in other parts o 
Northern Euro])e — namely, Belgium and the islands off the coast of Fries 
land, districts where the Spaniards had considerable intercourse before th 
Kethcrlands had finally achieved their independence. The winter di 
mate of the Netherlands was probably not sufficiently favourable to th' 
development of the other Plants belonging toHhe Asturian Flora, am 
these are therefore confined only to those parts of Ireland where all th 
physical and social causes favouring their growth have long existed in ; 
sufficiently high degree of intensity. 

XVI. — Note ok thr Ibish Glosses B£C£Nti,t foitnd nr the T.tmiaw 
OP Nanct. By Henri Gaidoz. 

[Read June 10, 1867.] 

There have been recently found some old-Irish Glosses, written on th 
inside of the cover of a Manuscript, in the Library of Nancy. H 
D'Arbois de Jubaiuville, the scholar by whom they were discovered, fas 
published them in the *' Bibliothequo de TEcole des Chartes," of June 
) BUG. This eminent French paleeographer considers that they are < 
the ninth century. It is impossible to say from what volume was take 
so small a piece of parchment, which was judged of so little importanc 
as to be used in the binding of another manuscript. "We may suppose 
however, that this leaf came either from Luxeuil in the Yosgef 
or from one of the numerous monasteries to which religion and leamin 
■were brought from the Isle of the Saints. 

These Glosses, unfortunately few in number, belong to a treatise o 
the computus (*. e., Chronological Eules — vid. Ducange). M, B'Arboi 
dti JubuinviUe has only printed them. I shall try to translate them a 
fur as I am able. 

The first is : dotdi eidlae saecht fora mhi Kh Jan. Dot6t is certain! 
an abbreviation for dotoscelad, which was found in a similar formnl 
by Zeuss: doDtoscelad dis hex his for kL each mis (" Grammatic 
Ccltica,'* p. 1074). I assume this toscelad tohc the same asthemoder 
taiaceallad. Cid is the interrogative pronoun, of which many instance 
are given by Zeuss (p. 361). i(W is an old nominative of /o, day. Ac 
cording to Pictet, this word is found in none of the Indo-European Ian 
guagcs, with the exception of the Laghmani language of Oabui, whic 
furnishes us with lue, day ("Origineslndo-Europiecnnes,*' II. p. 588, ». 
I suppose that in the MS. there was a stroke on the t oi saeckt, as o: 
the secht of the fifth gloss. It is for saechtmaine or sechtmaine (c: 
Zeuss, p. 280.) Sechtmaine is, according to Ebol ("Beitnioge 2U 
vergleichendcn Sprachforschung," IV., p. 378), the genitive of a: 


hy^^uc »ecJUman, " we«V.'* /Vris the otd-Irifth prepofiition mean- 
tDig *'»boTe/* Am u the relative pronoan tfw, which Wcomcs a/n be- 
fiw i fef. ZcQflB. p. 348), aud which ia supposed by Cuuo (B^itr. z. 
^^> to he a corruption of Jffm. Cf./or-*aOT-i^*', ** super 
, p. 970. Bi id the 3rd p. s. of the verb snbatan- 
Ure (cl Z^tt&», p. 479). 

I pn ip u ee to read : do to^odad eid hif tawhtmainet for an bi Caleridae 
Jmmii^ '* in oscerUin what [is the] day of the week on which are the 
erfRidtf of Jimaiuy.** 

!■ the second gloss : dofdg eidaM nercai his$ for Kl, Jan., ae/i or ait 
tt, Bnaordijig to Ebel ("Beitr.r. vgl, Sprach." I., p. 159), counected with 
Iks Ssncnt ui/im, ** atrttm." AWcfti is probably misread for nescai, and 
■Mt be divided n-Mcai. This old-Imh word for " moon'* is found in 
ZlUi(|k.247 and 1074), in the Irish Glosses published by "Whilley 
StaiGM, dad iu middte-Iriah, although it is extinct now. Jiina is what 
ZeoB call* the rcIatiTe form of the verb substantive (p. 487). Thcre- 
Iml mad, d^ losc^lad eid aet n-escai bits for Calendat Jannariif '^' to 
■MtttB «h*t a^ of the moon is on the calends of January." 

The third Gloss is — d^idt aepccktfor KL xtu m^s^ which I trans- 
l»lft " to a*o(*rtain the cpact on tbe calends of the twelve months." 
The fourth Olo^ is — dfiios ai»sfseai for xi. KL op. trihlt inchol. 
Tn is an old Irish prcpusilion (cf. Zcuss, p. CIO) couiiected with the 
latia Iraiu. &^ is an abbreviation for hitadan, arc. of the bubst. fem. 
Uiadcn, ** vcfir." I suppose that inchol is an abbreviation for in choU 
nftl ,-. of enlnigud^ ''Incarnation'' (cf. Zcuss, p. 255), all the 

tton II' Latin tcit which accompanies the first gloss we have 

tWrordt "ab ineamatione." I read therefore: rfw ioncehtd aisi escae 
ffr tadeeimmnt diam dxtendtirHm Aprifis tri bliadan in ckolnigtho — '* to 
MMtim the age of the raoon on the 1 Ub day of Uie calends of Aprils 
tiom^ the year of the Incarnation.^' 

Boos word in wanting in the fiith G\ow—doto» hisfcht foramht . . . 
XtL MR. — i* ff. do toscelad lai sechimaine fvr am bi ,,,** to ascertain the 
dij- of the Kctk on which is . . . .'* 

Ia the MXth gloHs we find the same forms again— dbM< aineseai 
ftftrxii, KJ men — '* to ascertain the age of the moon . . . ." 

XtM" only value of these Oloaaes is to furnish some examples of old- 
InA fmrn^. It is to be hoped that these Glosses will not be the last 
tanji .ntinentnl libraries. Irish monks were so numerous on 

Ike ( \vn centuries ago, that they must have lett more traces 

of tfaoi diligoaee and of their learning than Celtic scholars have been able 
to iad up to this time. 

XVII. — An AccouNToy a SouTEURAn? discotebbb atCubraoublt,] 
KiLCHKA, Co. Cork. By R. B. Brash, M. R. I. A. [Abstract] 

[Rud June 24, 1867.] 

Ox Saturday, May 18, as Mr. Daniel Kane, former, residing on 
townland of Curraghcly, parish of Agllsh, and county of Cork, 
earthing potatoes in a field adjoining his house, his spade stnick a 
stone, which, emitting a hollow sound, roused his curiosity. Uarii 
cleared the ground round it, he found it to be a flat slab, of about 
feet, by two fe<?t nix inc-htrs; and, having raised it, he discovered a 
well hole, of about five feet in depth, but partially filled with earth 
(Uhrit: on clearing out this, ho discovered a human akull, in. 
ranced stage of decomposition. In the side of this pit was foi 
irregular circular passage, of about two feet in diameter, and three 
in length, leading into a series of caves, excavated out of the Old 
Sandstone rock, of which this ridge of hilU is composed. Theee 
examined by the former and his meu. with the expectation of t^ndii 
treasure; but, from all the inquiries 1 have made, 1 am of opinion 
no ornamenta or uuplenients of any metallic or other substance W4 

A few days after the opening of theso caves the fact woa comroi 
cated to Mr. Robert Bay, of Cork, an indefatigable collector of Irish 
antiquities, who visited the spot, and made a careful examination. A 
few days subsequeuUv, the same gentleman, iiecompanied by Dr. 
Caulfield, F. S. A., a'nd Mr. Thomufl Wright, F. G. 8., paid rhcm 
another visit, the result of which was published in the "Cork C-on- 
BtitutioD." Nothing, however, was found, exc^'pting some portioo* 
of bone, horse teeth, uud charcoal. On tlie first of June I nsit4:'d the cavei, 
which I found situated io an open iield, on tite summit of a hill, about 
two miles north-west of the Kilcrea station of the Cork and MacToon 
Railway. I fortunately met the occupier of the land on the - ■ 

kindly assisted me in my examinations, and gave mo every iii i 
respecting their discovery ; having also with me one of my oth-jc Astn- 
tantSj and lights. I was enabled, though not without some diilieulty, to 
g<»t a plan and mcasrurementa of the excavations, which I now siibmil 
for the inspection of the Academy. By an examination of the plan it 
will be seen that the whole series of chambers ore quite irregular and 
without order, no two being of the same form or dimensions. The 
well hole at the mouth of the entrance on my visit was broken down, 
and without shape, &om the number of persons who hud vii^itid it. 
Thfi entrance facets nearly cast, and is a circular hole of twenty indie's 
diameter, and three feet in length, through which you force yonr?<'lf 
into the ohambtT marked No. 1, which is in length tiftecn feet, tho 
width four feet nevcn inches, and height four feet, as shown by a iro»j 
"M»t-ion, taken on the line o, ti, whicii shows the form of the cave, with 
dularly tirched ceiling. This chamber, as well as the other chain- 


aad M<n^e«T i* «xcAvat«d out of the Old UuJ &iml»tc»iu% and 
cat m the t ' •' •- rock, the material is uf sluty texture, ondj 

iQCDtiy the . urtaccs arc rough and iiregulur, and in somfr* 

wft and cruiubLui^. The passage marked o leade into chamber 
2. This nnwrnge is iiine f<^t in length, and iwo feet in diameter. 
dumber Xo. "Z ia of very irregular shupc : its breadth, as 
oectiua Uuo s, r, is four fei-t six inches, and height live feet. 
Btt neDe«:s or side clianiber, to the right, the extremity of wliich^ 
Dp with eartii and :<toae6, ^'lieru shown by the dork shading^, 
tiiis cloaca a chamber beyond wc had no mode of oseerlainin^, 
Ko- 6 is five I'eet in lengtli, and two feet in diameter ut one^ 
ei^hteea iDche^ at the othvr; it leads into chamber No. 3, also. 
Ibnn and dimcnt>ioiis ; on the 5cctioD line c, d, it ie four feet, 
^>'ar feet three inebetthigh ; itdimiDishesto a narrow passiige, 
7 OB plan, which at its narrowest port is only sixteen inchea' 
a&d ran with difBcuIt^* be passed. Cliumber Ku. 3 hua ubo one 
tke tide n;oc««e«, aa in No. 2. Chamber No. 4 is, as will be seen, of^ 
imccttit ahape; on the section line a, b, itiu four feet wide, and tliroe 
I iacbea high ; on the right-hand side is also one of the before- 
nocMeHy but deeper and more fipucioud; in its arched roof is a'' 
ar aif >hafK, nine inches square, and nanniiig to the surface in un' 
|5Se direcUou. This ehamber also tenuiuuti-s in uiiotlier uarrowj 
ri inehcj in diameter, outside of which a pit has bccn^ 
iri, so that a person can pa^s through all the chombon 
buag oLiUged to return. 

phui being laid down to scale* the dimensions of any part oi 


It will be aeen by the sections that all the cbarabcrs are of an ii 
ly o/rbed form : the recessed parts are also arclied ; and the* 
tiic«u form rude groina. The floors arc strewed with many] 
tt trones ; and a quantity of hard vitrified material — in fact,) 
ciuikers — were found ; as also many half calcined pieces or^ 
or what is known as the core of badly burned lime. Th( 
IB on arch leo logical point of view is the appropriation oi 
angular excavation, which is evidently not constructed upon any 

aware that most of our forts have aiiifieiol crypts bencati 
, M,i» most dilij^-nt inquiry as to whether one existed on tho' 
; but the universal answer was, that neither in mc- 
Ui^^^uon was a fort ever known there. I also examined, 
most carefully, but could not find in its configuration an; 
of such. A couple of hundred yards distant I foiind a fort cut 
by a very ancient mountain road. Is it possible that two ex- 
such cbse proximity ? 
The gentlemen who preceded me in the examination of these caves 
ftmmrtd tery doubtful as to the finding of the skull. 1 questioned 
Mr. Kane and two of his labourers very closely on tho cuhject, and 
«. I, A, raoc, — roL. X. 1- 


tbcy all declared that a human skull was found ; that they had tt 
their hands; that it "waa in a very decayed state; that it was 
by such a number of the peusantry, and so kaoeked about, 
■went to pieces holore it had been seen by any reliable person f 
men had evidently no object in stating an untnith, and they epoks 
every appeaiuuce of honest veniuily. 

The finding of the clinkers nud limestone cores may at first 
seem to indicate a modern date for these excavations; but 
be slow to accept such as evidence. Lime, for some conei : 
back* has been ihe plentiful and common manure of the coniilr^- i 
is quite n«ual to see the clinkers intermixed with the lime spread 
on the fields. I am con6dent that Mr. Kane's discover)' was not' 
first : doubtless the cuvtm bud been broken into ou pre\'iou«_ 
siona ; and the above materials had found their way in, beii 
plentifully intermixed with the soil, What, then, the ase« 
cnvea were, and by whom excavated, will in all probability 
mystery ; the labour of excavating them in the rock, and the 
of the debrit through passages that a slight man could scarcely drag] 
self through, muiit have been immense ; the motive for doing 
have been strong indeed. The darkness and elosenesfi of these] 
and the difficult communications from one to the other, pret 
once the idea of their over having been habitations. The samQ< 
tions will arise to the theory of their having been granaries 
houses; men would not have devised such tortuous chambers, 
difficult of access, for such a purpose, when they could have eon; 
one simple reocptaole of more capacity than all these put togi^ihcr. 
am more inclined to the opinion that they were tH'pulchral. 
strange and universal belief respecting the bestowal of the dead exii 
in remote ages ; it led to the construction of the Pyramids, thews 
stmuB erections, that covered very small sepulchral chambers, eat 
narn)w and difficult passages. Ic led to the construction of the 
cemeteries of Etmria, whose intricate galleries, and narrow and 
passages, as depicted by Buunis ('* Cities imd Cemeteries of £l 
bear a startling resemblance to the Soutcrnuns of our own 
Again, could they have been used for strange and mysterious rites- 
initiation? Such were common amongst those Eastern races with wj 
the Irish Celt claims affinity. These rites — if we are to believe ^ 
authorities — were always administei-ed in caves, and the relics 
have come down to nearly our own day in the ordeals of St. I'atricJ 
Purgatory, and the Scellig pilgrimages. I am not here advancing 
theory. In our present stage of limited knowledge it would be pi 
ture ; I am merely throwing out iiinls that may bo kept io view, 
pondered over, and which may be found use^l in analysing 


. — Ojr aoirs Rklxtiovsrips or 

^IX, Cb.K., F.L.8. 

(^Bcftd JimelO, 18fi7.] 

rss. B)rQ.SiosKS03r, 

nririidiiijiip which exists between the inflorescences of plants is a 
of Dot a little importance, for sovcral reasons, nnd yet it is one 
bae not hitherto received much attention from scientific botanisU. 
to throw light upon obscure affinities of orders, and aa 
of the position and subordination of plants and diriBions, it 
to merit more consideration than it yet has received, and on 
aeeoani I hare Tentured to put together &omc suggestions on the 
These rentflrkSf however, must be regarded as merely an out- 
t^ "ttf an abBtrifcCt, more or less imperfect, of that mode of dealing with 
tk tfocitioo which tuis appeared to give the surest clue to some of its 

Htfetofore, observers appear to have taken the capi tulum as their start- 
a| ytaaX in «i*^>tng with some relationships which ore not obscurely ap- 
|««Bt, m wdLl 80 with a few other ^utT^i'-relationships, the correctness of 
^hkh 6otm not aeem clear and evident. In the eapitulum the llorets are 
^adc it we suppose them elevated upon footstalks, it has been suid, 
uiafad will he the result. Again^ if the reeeptuele of tlit* eapitulum 
WflBppHRil BufBiTiently elongiitcd, we shall have the spike produced as 
« asun (U3ic« ; and from the spike, by the development of the flower 
Ailki, Uic raccmo may be supposed to bo furuied. If, however, tho 
n^rior pcdancles be prolonged to a greater extent than the upper 
<iav tl^ w«: fiKall have the corymb ; whilst, supposing the peduncles 
tB^nach, the panicle becomes evident aa a result of the ramification of 

To tkii it ha» been added, that the cone is a modiBcntion of tho 
<(dEe, the HMrhis in this in^itance bearing persistent scales; and tho 
jUfX is aaid to result from the rachis of the spike becoming dcshy, 
od hoaria^ the flowers more or le^ imbedded in it. 

WhiUt nuuiy of tho above relationships appear to be natural enough, 
'■Wr affeaome. • -ff* i illy the latter suppositions, which cannot well be 
Sfuded aa ur hie. There ia no particular order of subordi- 

HKiivi varked •"*• ■ -.^..r^t, in assuming the eapitulum asasort of starl- 
it point vT centre, whence the several infloreBcenees are supposed to 

We r ' ■• ' •• * '-^oro those forms which preceded it, and 

mf» itionships by which they are allied with 

Alter a careful analysis of the lower forms of inflorescence 
iVMBl Fhaaerogamia, f^om which many of the more complex forms 
■if be Mttoed, it appeared to me necessary to revert to cryptogamic 

plants, in order to ascertuin their ontecedints. These two 
kingdoms hiive bcou pojmlarl}' regnrded as so tsseiitially wpawtiQ 
aod distinct, that an apology lor so doing might be by ?oni<' ftoa* 
ftidorcd necessary. But with the advimcc o( llic science, and tl 
Vnowlcdgc possessed of the inferior section, so many clot-< 
hove been traced, and so many ties of relutionbhip mndi 
that n Inference to new points of likeness cimnot will bt 
as intrinsically erroneous, or out of the line of progress. The 
of the prest'iit paper being chielly to endeavour to elear up some 
rehitionftbips of the iniloresecnees nmong phnneiognmous plani 
wttle their subordination, those of the Cryplogamia iii-e but iucidi 
nlluded to, and only in so fjr as they may contribute to make 
relationship? more crident, and tend to illustrate ihcirnatural 

On referring, then, to the manner in which the rcpi 
organs are home in the Fucacete, we find that here Ihey are 
together into cavities or conceptaclee, which ai-c collected into 
or leccptarles nl the extremity of fronds. The conccptaclo comi 
cates with the external medium by an opening or pore. The cenX 
portion or axis of the receptacle is frctiuently formed of mucus 
long-jointed cells ; but oceaaionally, however, as in Pycnophycut i% 
bereulatujt, the interior is more solid, and is occupied by a 
cellular tissue, which may be taken iw repnsi'Uting llio pith 
higher plants. Some of the Fucaceo? are dioecious, others diclii 
nnd a like arrangement occurs not unfre(iuently among the lower! 

On examining one of these oonceptacles, it is seen that the 
productive organs within it arise from the walls or pariolts 
that it contains besides a number of filaments or paraphyses, wluc 
in the female oonceptacles surround the siwres. The filaments 
not always sterile. Occasionally they form antheridia, and these 
bo in separate conceptaclcs, or in the same. Whilst the anthcridi 
therefore, are analog^ms Id the stamens, the tihiments may be 
gni-dcd as analogous to the fitjiminodea, or the iilaments of sramei 
when bixrren, and e(»n.'*equeutly to the Horal t-uvclopes, howori 
groat the apparent dillerence, because the stamens are adraittii 
eapulde of being transmuted into such appendages. In certidn PI 
ne?rog:mj(ii»s plants, indeed, the limb of the floral organs iit so mv 
depuupenited aw to make the difference seem much less; thus urca»i< 
ully the calyx i?* rtpresented merely by a circle of hairs, which bear 
elosr mor|ihological resemblance to the hlamonts alluded to. Thrfloi 
vnvelopes of I'hancmgamia may thert-^fore be regarded as reprc«ciUi 
in an extremely rudimentary state* in the oonceptacles of Fuci 

• A* the il 

tA " ( .1.. 


I LicLs aikI v\o» into l<«tc«, U nmr 

rwiirdtlif! theory of dt-relopnicnt, wiU 

— ...-^ vwttiiii it iiimnft of rcpro4l(H:ti<in and 

« '■», «• reftfe«ciitr<t by ilu culylrilonoui ^rowttt of 

'!•* |tUtil, Willi its tiigticr iir^atir^ floral •nrtlo 

.n 1. 

_- the »n- 

^^--•"* ihe*ee4^ ^ - Here* mai-c<l. m? 

> I"'— :, -KecV^ ' . itcoUittnig |b»^ . .^ f„nti8 

, «« . .,( ^lure» >»"'"V. a„d out of ll>« „ j lo regard 

gn« ■ of *ttture* i*^^"":^,,.- a^d out of tlu^ ,, ^^ ^^^ard 



^ „... . , ^..uKt. - ' ^^^ ^^^cU ''^;';^„^^ \.rvin,. " ^^-^\^^ „ indict- 


tlioj be united bo us tu form cups or conceptacles, or aepanitod 
fissures so as to be mure or less isolati^d. These organs may be 
nil over the parietes, as in the Fucacete — within the rim of ihc iso 
peltate proccfls, as in Efiuisetaceic — on the upper surJacc of the p 
near Lbo axis in eomc Pinacesc, or beneath, as in the peltati> scale 
Cycadacpffi, or on the sides, as in their leaf-like prooesaes. Th<*n 
anthej*s arc on the under surface of certain male cone scales 
beueatli, likewise, in the peltate male scales of the THxacea^ TbuVj 
whilst in Fuoaceie they are borne all over the parietis, their arrangemeii 
in higher plants shows that there is no part of the pnrietes of 
isolated processes on which they may not likewise be found. 

The so-ealled ** scales" therefore arc, in point of fact, essontially 
roproductirc organ bearers, and hence should properly be regarded 
pedimcU's. Peduncles, it is admitted, are not unfroquently various 
form ; they ore not always stalk-Iike and round, but ore occasiuDiiU 
llattened and faaciatcd. 

In certain plants, such as Rutcvt aeuleatm, they even assume tb 
oppearonce of leaves ; and, when this is seen to be the case, there is ni 
reason for feeling a difficulty, when in cones the processes become fla tt«n 
and scale- like. 

Taking th(*sc' things into consideration, it is impostiible to agree wii 
Dr. Lindley, when he contends that cone scales arc mctamorph 
leaves. Whilst they differ from tnio leaves in function, in form, ani 
in structure, they differ also in occusionally arising, as in Ptnus ttln^ 
tru, from the axils of degraded or rudimentary leaves. This is what 
occurs likewise in the case of if. atulrutm ; and, whilst Dr. Lindley 
argues that leaves may arise in the axils of leaves, it cannot be denied 
that it is not what usually happens. Schlciden, indeed, in putting for- 
ward the view that these p*'duncle processes of the tone were axillary 
buds of carpellary scales, broadly staled that/o/*'ww in axiUd foUi would 
bo without example in the vegetable world. 

Aooeptingthe cone as a form of inflorescence composed of a number of 
peduncles arranged in a peculiar manner, and remeuihcring the tendency 
to separation of parts in development, certain forms will be seen to fallia 
easily as more highly modified forms of this. Fur instance, we may place 
here, in relationship to it, the superficially dissimilar, but really analo- 
gous, many-branched spadix of Palmaccfe ; and, in fact, if we took at a 
compound firuit of one of the PandanaceiE, where the flowers are bomeon 
a epadiz, we discover (as in FV^ycinctia imhrtcata) a superficially striking 
resemblance to tho strobilus, ariaing from tho manner in which the 
peduncles ure arranged. 


For a bettor understanding of the author's views, reference ii te*\ 
r]U(>9ted to the nccxfmpaiiying illustrations. 

In Fig. 1, Plate I., the receptacle of a Fucus is represented in ver- 
tical section. The reproductive organs are contained in the conceptacles^ 
which, communicating outwards by pores, give the margin an indented 



Lookiikg at this rrceptaelc irom another point of view, wc 
it to be cumpoeed of a cenlral nxis, which dividca out into 
tJb.ut bear the reproductivL' organs. This is tlicirrsHential 
iacxMBiDoD with that portion of the axis includc-<i betweoji their 
Tbmte axial proccsst* iii the presont instance aru not isolated, 
. looked at from without, only an oval body, 
■ J. 
(juafcat, iiowLYur. i>^ - - "rniunied by the division and «cpara- 
IMB of paTt&. Thi4 we may -u| j-rt to happen here by the i^dual 
MblioB id the Axiol procesies already mentioned. The unitod exterior 
^A$ nceptftcle is «pUt ap hf fiasures, Fanning from pore to pore, as 
' ia Fig. 2 ; and we have then the axial proccssea isolated from 
and distinct What waa etictcntial with them — the l>earing 
jeproductar« organs — remains constant ; though these, instead of 
apomA over the whole interior surface, may be restricted to par- 

idivisioii and isolation spoken of do not take place in the Fucacen. 
V# BitsC Look for it in a higher order, and shall readily discover it 
ia tiM ftrobilufl of the £qui:?tUoGfp. In Fig. 3 we have a vertical 
of thia cone. Con^idcixd in this light, its affinities >\-ith the re- 
of the Fucus become ob^Hous, and scarcely require to be pointed 
KWf^lbing remuios the same, except that the spores are not dia- 
the whole interior of a conceptaclc, but restricted to the 
I of the peltate head of the axial process. Of course, as these 
ans i«olated, a view of the exterior of the perfect cone docs 
poree, but tissures. In point of fact, it is identical with the 
i«c«ptacle ofi imagined in Fig. 2. 
MMVOg urrivtrd at this stage, the next modifications are aceomplished 
VjTflB^le cKaugvfl in the axial processes, taken by themselves, or with 

Kd lit the axiA. In the first instance, the receptacle is wholly eol- 
p M iff the plant which bears it. Some diJference has been observed 
WcwtAtlu} laxer cell tissue of the centre and the denser parenchyma 
vhieb fiBronnds it. In more highly oi^anized plants a similar rela- 
fevkiy ii preflerved between the axial and the pcripherical tissues. 

Wrinr from the preceding examples to Figs. 4 and d, we come 
It inliBuXe developments of those forms iu the higher order of 
^PttffMfl. In the first-named figure we have a vertical section of 
^ liAnilw (of C'ujtresJhu wmpfrrirens) ; in the second, a similar sec- 
tMft of tiio strobilus or cone (uf Pinus $yhutrif-). In the galbulus the 
Uiil pnwiiif II arc not so remote in form from what we have seen them 
ttlhsMOe of Fquisetum as not to allow of the relationship being re- 
Mfblnd without difficulty. Here also they ore peltate ; and the only 
nVHckahle differeuco is, that the ovules arc not borne exactly in the 
Uw ipot a« the spores, but a little removed from it. This, howcvcrr 
*«■ i&etitioned as to be expected.* In the Pine cone (Fig. 5) the axial 


an tcrictly analoftons to lfa« OTsrie* of Angiwpmnia, being ii» 
CwiiMirliiu them u •acli, U ti int^mCing to tiote thai the divn-M diitri- 


processes hare become more elongated, but tbcy still have something in 
their thickened extremities to remind us of the more primitive lumuk. 
ThtH is lost or modified in other mcmbcrtj of the same family. 

Recollecting that these axial processes are peduncles, we may dk 
coTcr them in Angiospermia, under various modifications. For inatan 
in Fig. 6, wo have a fruit which bears an exteruid reftflmblunce to 
cone, in consequence of the axial processes coming off in a u^Jinew 
similar manner. This is the fruit oi Ft«ycin«tia tnihn'cala, ontr of 
PandanuceiB, or Screw Pines. Isolation and separation of part? 
ceeding still, we shall have the branched spadix of Polma aa n ; 
form, the spathe perhaps standing for the involucre present in . 
posito and umbelliferous jjlants. 

In the lowest forms mentioned the extreme receptacles are oce 
aily outgrown; and where in the Pine wo have the comp<tuud or uxal 
cone, the axis is sometimes prolonged into a tuft of leaves. Now, in 
Arods we have this condition of things visible in a moditicd m 
In Arum maculatum^ fur instance, the axis or spadix hcarR the 
and the male organs, next a fuw "nectaries." rudimt-ntary leaves 
bably, and tinally is prolonged into a cellular or fleshy club. 

Fig. 7 represents a vertical section of the ca;naiithinm of the Fig. 
The peduncle has been said to be '* excavatod," the tlowera beinj; insi 
Might wo not, however, rather regard a conceptaclo of the Fucos 
a distant antetype of this infloresconce ? That also may pro|>crly be 
a cmnanthiura; for the "flowers*' — i.if., the rcproduriive organa and 
their tilamentfl — abide together in community. Both are caviticA cob 
toining these, and opening to the air, each by a pore, be it large 
smalL Around tliis opening ore tiloments^ sometimes protruding in on* 
instance, and scales to represent them in the cose of the Fig. Thcec in 
further developed forms receive the name of involucres. 

The direction of growth being coincident with tJio directioa 
the axis, the tendency here is to push up the bottom of the cavity, an 
in fact, to turn the cienanthium inside out. In Dunttenia contra^^r 
(Fig. 8) it will be noticed that this process has gone so far as lo lev 
up the cavity, disparting its edges In Fig. 9, the female eapilulum 
Artocarpun itu^isa, the process has been fully completed. These three 
are insfances from plant* closely allied. The capitulum of a CunjKiMte 
shows the tendency described, changing the form of the podunclt; ex 
mity 03 it flowers and ripens. In Fig. 1 0, for instance, the cnmrncm l)andl^* 
lion flower and peduncle extremity are^hown. The i>odunfle i«i **cx 
vatcd" oocaMionally more deeply than what is seen in this busty sketch ; 
lis it flowers und ripens, however, the centre rises into a conical foTTOa 
nnd the globular shape of the head of the perfeclly ripened aeeti is w©U 
known. On following this process attentively, it will be wien that the 
hcales around the mouth of the ca^nanthinm have been displaced so as to 
tkocome the involucre of tho capitulum. 



bution of wliat rcprctcrit Ihc oriilci in the locull u ('Xplicab1« by what ire «m lb«n^J 
T«k«n in tbU connexion, Scbtoidcn'i opiKuUion to Uic th«<»ry of margiital plamttatlna^ 
r«cclvM iup|x>rt. 


Ifdatiaa uad aeparntion contmuiog, we have tUe »implc uinbt;! 
illf*]])«itsuig from the capitulum by the derflopmcnt of foot atolka 
tetheflowen. This natural advance suggested itself to my mind before I 
wmvnn tliAt it had been pt^vioualy notioed. Compouud umbels, from 
nmfflcntion of the pednncles of their simple umbcU, seem tu follow as 
4 Bvttv of Goone, and have been so set down. HowcvLTf I &m not 
jMnMal tfajftt the peduncles ramify into pedicels, and produce Lnvolu- 
|«dl ottiiiaiuklly. The true course of derelopmcnt is otherwise. If an 
firosa a capitulum, and that from a concave csenanthium^ 
[vImm astetypo is a conceptacle, we must return book for a clue and an 
Take an inflorescence, such as Fig. 4, and say that 
In tliCM are five conceptaclcs. Each of these five cavities, being 
ImMdiMide out* ao as to form conical heads (us shown with regard to 
tb Fig), we fthalJ have five capitula. Let them have a peduncle deve- 
Ued to each^ and wc shall have an Lnflorescence, such as that seen in 
fig- U, Matrt€aria camomilla — a loose corymb, bearing composite flow- 
ox Utbme peduncles should arise at one point, and the sessile lowers of 
tit espitula get stalked, we should have a compound umbel of five prin- 
o^taAiatixig peduncles. The involucres of the composite capitula 
^mat the involucels of tlie umbellules, and the leaves in whose axils 
AtKpednBclea arise cluster together to form the general involucre. 

S^ipoainie ^^ ^^ ^^ ^he composite flower to bo prolonged, tho 
npitr •• • '•■ -ht be the result, as has been stated- It might even 
it the scales found oft^u between the floretd become 
[ut V uir of the involucre ? Until the absence of anything to 
be explained, I shall believe it more natural to deduce the 
'vail as the epadix from the simpler forms ; as, for instaucej 
^ the oone the abortive leaves, in whose axils (Fig. 5) the pe- 
Wka viae, becoming bracts in the spike ; then, as the axis was men- 
^icaid It prolonged into a tuft of leaves beyond the male cone oiPinun 
*iUfftri%, M in Fig. 14 we have the axis prolonged beyond the flower 
^^^ leanng it as a glomerulus. This is a cymosc circle of definite in- 

Vbat form anterior to, and yet foreshadowing the cyme of definite 
fnftnnMimi^ is to bo observed ? At the extremity of the axis here the 
71»od»ttiire organs are produced, and the plant becomes forked, con- 
***iajf to dcrelope by axillary growth. Now, this is precisely what we 
Wi« m Ctrsmium (Fig. 16), one of the Floridcie, or red sea weeds. 
IW farcUie terminate axial growth there, and ore subtended by axil- 
bry ramuU in the same way. Any one who compares Figs. 15 {C&ra4- 
^tm) lod 16, will at once observe their essential identity. This is 
idfbtioDal proof from morphology that the favellaj are reproductive 
vjiDii, whilst the tetraspores, immersed in the ramuli, should be re- 
Cvdad «a analogous to bulbeU. 


This arrangement of affinities appears corroborated by the acknow- 
led^ ralationahips of certain families to certain others ; and likewise 

Ll. a-PSOC. — TOL. I. ' M 


by the poflitioxi and priority of vegetable groups as reyealed by g( 
gical research. Thus it brings into some sort of progressiye conne 
Fucoids, Equisetacese, Gomfera, and Falmaceee. Even in membei 
the same family corroboration is received firom previously recogi 
peculiarities. Thas in the Ash order we have the Ash having apets 
flowers, and the Privet having flowers with petals. The infloreao 
in the first case is a raceme, in the second it is the more devel 
panicle. This, however, is a portion of the subject to which I havi 
had time to give sufficient attention ; and the developments of ] 
may not always be coequal. 

Considered from a geological point of view this arrangemen 
affinities fairly coincides with scientific discoveries. For, in the Ia 
and Middle Falteozoic epochs, Fucoids, Equisetacesa, and Gymnospi 
are first found ; whilst in the Upper Falseozoic some doubtful Monocot 
dons begin to present themselves. When, afterwards, the Dicotyle 
make their appearance, the Amentacese are amongst the earlies 
Bhow themselves. In conclusion, I wish to remark that, where 
word " type" or *■* antetype" has been used, I have not meant to i 
cate a fixed form, but merely a remarkable stage, which may be a i 
ing point in transitional development 

R I. A. ruoc. 


A^Templuncliea thralralulnn. 

1>— IL C. ChBpeK E^Ufikihouse. 

B— Cowrugh. 
F— OgliH Fort. 

C— Dally nacrag^n. 
G— OghlL 

[Copied from Ordnance Slap, Galwiiy Shi-i-t. 110.] 


Flff. «, Mo. L— Ooghuui or Boobire Cea 

S frj^HPirTr' 

Kig. e. Ho, 10. - Cnocan or fieehive Cell, coTcrol with cl»y. 


a I. A. PBOC. 


Ftff. b. No. 7.— Fosleac, or Cell built of flogs. 

J t "> 

Ftg. d, Na 11.— Cnocin, divided Into two chambers. 

Fig./, Ko. 19.— Fosleac, with side chamber. 



Fig. «, No. 1^— Ttuee-ctumbered Cnocan. 


Fig. ff. No. 14.— Ruined Cnocin. 



SmftU CloghHTi, Il«ir-«<fnllf South-W«it orOnaeht. 

Hg. t — \iirth v'tvw. 

Hp V— Wc»t view. 

Fit. /.—Large Ckigluwi, H«lf-«-nilIc Sonth-Wtvt DfUiMght. 

Ruin of CritgbAlljr wee. 

Fig. M.— ^MkU-Unt ilrw. 

(Ik. q.~rilUL 





nG>ei3Cct 1^-Ciwaiiitf DnIiifeCcJi.CDtcmwUb tkif- 



F\g. t, Sa IC— Thne-ehiinbeTCd Cdocul 


K ]. A. l*fiUC- 


Wt ». 



FT« 1 n«;6. Flft a. ^14.;. 


Fif. la 


rtB. S' 


voc X. run r. 

Fv- ». Ka R-Kslaed Cmkwi. 

ftCA^IOK Of jac7-<0. 

IIX. — Os TflCE Fbtbzolmt or Faotbusiov or tbs Tovovs, axd m 

DmxTtos TO THB Affectcj> Side iv Uvilatkkal Pasiltus. fir 

Tboxas Hatskv, H.D., M.ILI^. 

[BMdJuMll. 186C*] 
Is the eommanication wIu<A I hare the honoar of submitting to the 
AeadnoT I iwopoBe to diacius the physiology of prutnuiou of the 
toogne, and to endeavour to explain the apparent anomaly by which, in 
a&Hsteral paralysis of that organ, as exemplified in hemiplegia, it 
deriatea in protrusion to the paralyzed side, whereas the featurea, as 
is weQ known, more to the opposite or unaffected side, as does likewise 
the toDgoe itself in all its movements save that of protrusion. 

In mder to render intelligible what follows, it will be necesBary to 
rint with a few general propositions in refeienoe to the action of vo- 
lutarj mnsdes. 

MoBcnlar rontraction consists essentially in intiiiibic molecular ap- 
proximation, by which the constituent particles of the muscle, its 
artous elements, are brought into closer mutual proximity, and the 
extremities of the muscle iteelf are drawn towards one another. 

The range of contraction of a mascle is directly as the length of its 
fibres, irrespectively of tendon and all other extrinsic substances, and 
has been variously estimated at one-half to two-thirds of their length. 

The force of the contraction of a muscle is as the number and dia- 
meter of its fibres, irreapectiTely of their length ; and its effect depends 
mainly npcm the angle at which it is inserted into the osseous lever; 
the order of lever used ; and the point of attachment. 

In no instance can a muscle in contraction carry its moveable, be- 
yond its fixed point of attachment. 

A mascle acting upon a lever at an acute angle, and roovingitinthe 
direction of its axis, may, however, carry the proximal extremity of 
the lever far beyond its own fixed point of attachment, tbe distance 
being regolated by the length of the lever, and the length of the fibres 
of the muscle (see diagram No. 1, PL XIII.). 

Two levers so acted upon by two coequal forces, and moving at an 
aeote angle, say of 45^, would hare a tendency to intersect at their 
point of mutual contract ; if inflexible, and offering equal resistance, 
they would both be arrested at this point ; but if flexible, of equal 
T^fver of resistance, and propelled by equal forces, they would advance. 

' Thii r47'«T wAji li»ld over f»r tbe *' Tmsactions,'* but tbe author not wuhing to 
IcsTc it uir longer DUH*^li*h«<l, it it printed here, though not properly belonging to tb« 
a. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. X. X 


not 'm the axis of either, but ia a liae bisecting the angle formed 
their prolonged axes (see diagram Xo. 2, PI. XllL). 

TC, however, the propolUng forces be unequal, both levers will 
viatc to the side of that which is the weaker ; and if eiihti f 
entirely annihilated, then the two levers, though with dimiiu 
petus, will advance in the prolonged axis of the lever of the uoaUx 
sido (see diagram No. 3, PI. XIII.)- 

The tongue, as a muscular organ, con-iists of intrinsic and 
muAcles. It would be LM^y to show, were that m-fos-iaiy to hi . 
purpose, that the principal of the intrinsic tourcIcs — namtdy, 
ffuah'ji of Douglas, is conuected with the os hyoides Thu functi< 
thc.% muscles is to impart' to the tongue intrinsic motions, by whi 
shape and consistence arc altered; whilst thiit of (he extrinMc in\ 
is to communicate to it movements of place and directioji, to modiQrll 
figure; and likewise of necessity it3 density. 

The extrinsic muscles of the tongue arc the gij/lo-ffUuM, the 
^loanui, the pahto-ffhsttu^ andihc ^ntio-hyo-ifhsiun : these miiecle* 
connected, us their names imply, with the styloid process of the 
poralbonc; ihf os hyoidcs; the Boft palate, and the chin, or body] 
of the inferior maxilla, respectively. The stylo-glossus retracts lb«] 
tongue, draws it townrds the corresponding side, deHecta iia apex »4 
the same side, and acting in conjunction with the corres]>oiuling mn«-i 
de of the opposite side, may expand it transversely, and raijM? 
to the palate. The hyo-glossi retract the protruded tongtio wh 
contracting it in its trnnsverse diameter, and by depressing its edifcfli 
they may render its upper surface convex. The palBt(>-gloBSU8 may tuViti 
the edge of the tongue, and, with the muscle of the opposite side, reodi 
its superior surface irunsversely concave. 

The action of the gonio-hyo-glossi is that to which I would intrti 
the Bj)ecial attention of the Academy. These muscles arise fr^m !^tr' 
superior geninl eminence of the inferior maxilla, by a common 
tendon, from which the fibres of each muscle expand like thi i 
fan; the posterior fibres pass backwards and downwards, to be ii 
into the body of the os hyoides ; all the other fibms pass througl 
substance of the tuii^ue, at each side of the middle line, from i la 
ferior. towards its superior surface, with various, but succcwfcirrlv" 
diminishing degrees of obliquity from brhind forwards; the nntrri* 
fibres, nfitT transversing the substance of the tongac in the directum 
npwarfU and backwards for some distance, are curvc<l forward; whiUl 
those immediately in fruut, wliich reach the apex of the tongue, qi 
likewise curved slightly downwards in the terminal portion of I 
course (sec diagram No. 4, PI. XIII.). 

The absolute direction of the fibres, from origin to insertioa» 
be found to vnry according to the position of the tongue. When thai' 
organ is cntindy confined within the intra dental portion of the mouth, 
nil the fibres oflho gunio-hyo-glossus, with the oxoeplion of the ex- 
treme anterior, pass backwards and downwanls; but wh»n the toujjui* 
is prolnided, or forcibly drawn forwards out of thr mouth, the fttin-a 


I . — - 


. :Lv L Ijv ••: •:.■ : ■i.;:u- :• ::.- ::.j.. >-!i}"i'i i:--j-. :■.: >{ 
t— •: 2.-^-01 ^tlacliliivlit :'. '!.•■ -'.; .. • ' ■;.-';; '•■t < ; I: 

I .':vf: 'l:i^.:.iit: .n vt *:.(• -'r ';■;..-.■ -■n;....* ..; •!;•* 
—i 3...-'!'> ■.! •:: -iv *i-.> - 1- '.i:- :■...; < x :!!;i:."i, i* 

: •';.«: *:» y .iTi r.'A j»'.:. u- ':-■: liiy '.■ - ..■■i i:i M-in- 
•"•';t 'ii-i-.^vO, rti:*tiv«.jv t-i oi.i. u:..-*i.i r. .i*. .;ii ,!■ Mix. ;:i. ::!■■. 

:".' ;- i:.iin':i:r.'.-i. r\:.\ :!:•.■ ii.T-.rv. i.ii:^' -; ■ :- :*:!!■ li mt-. 1 v 
.\ij,T. Ti';::- "■ <i:,**i:.f' . whih »,\i-'* ■:. i::f .:•-» ';';:ti.':'v 
":.*> r:- ::.;:y - i :i..- ■ - hy. i:*.-. \\:i>t- :].*■ ii.*- v-\ ... f.. m\* ■ n 

: i:::.^ 'hv in':-.:j!.;:- r::-:-.-. u:. i r!i-;- < >.vi i'::.- i};. ■ fr ■ !* ■ f 

-3 ll:v. :i:.i at :i««.- '•:!!:■• i iTui- --r !!;•■ )i -iy. i- ].•■.;. i''.;v in u 
.:*..-: '■•.-:i->. iii •.•.i.»r i::*;-- '• - ; li.u- Mi-.r (iiu'ii.*, f r 
■ :.-;!'. \vh».r'. ;i'.t:":i i- :.< *. 1< *- vi;:..r i:-. I'.il "I •' - i.. t Lxi-l 

1..-. : ::l .;■ i.. :: :. : *:.■. .:..y : ■.: : -. : ?;.. .;:. :■; ij j.' . i ^::., _;. , 
-" * •". * ..v.::_'i*. •;.■ j- .. ■-■.• -z. ■- r:. .-•.-- ;ii < ;.♦ , ..v 

■-•:■:.::. -.:■:..■—.:. ::■■'.:. :'^ : i-A\y\ ::'••■• ^ ' •'[ 

'•.'.': 7 ■ ■ •'■ ■*•' *''y ^"' i.i":.* "i. a i::.:*- r:;.r i* • x:-'- :r. j-.k .*■ -* 
I'.'y T.v'i: ':.•■ --^ hy'-ii:".*. wii- iv .,:,viiii^iv i;. •:-•<!.:■ i:;'ivi :..: • -^ 
• ■.:'.'.:■':. ':r.'i '.vh'.r./. '■ ;;- fjiM.'iy. tK<.- In:.- *; :, !,- ..*-•;:;.- : I: 

,.i' : !• a-rr i-'juiicd: ill.- -iv •• Jilt' isriti I' i.:?!. {:i.i ;-::;• ii ri:.:!:i.:ii 

•--::. 1:l«-:-.* , i/iJ .^--i hy-.i'ii adiiiL-rLt, ]ti;i ■.::-•... < j.; ,- . ;.ii.-:ii,-l!:.'.' 

M --; i_'r.:.T ■wlii;-t ii-inji**i:;,L' the prii:- ij-sl ^itii'i::--i: '■.•:■ li;.- 1::;- 
.. --•*-;- it T:.'-' i' i-f f."l "ii .- <>::.' ill. u--;::.'!".-. '.i i". :. . j. ir! li 'I'nv :;-. . 
.1- '■ ^.r':-. t:.-. .;::■.:.• y ' y w::: :i t;;* t -ii^*;"- i- j<i-tr'; l\'i Ir ■:.; ;};■■ 
■.*:.. -.1 :i:.^: ■n.:-"'? :.r- ;i::r*>'! in ro.; ii«ii:,j- ti.r j'.-ij:'.-:.y''-L--.s-i 
- ..- r.T •:.- ^-Iv :::':vv ::-. i.'- in tii it in--.. :■;■ :/.' Hill-'i; ^ i; -. 
'..' ':.'.■- Tiyi*: liiu^ viz. ^'viii'^-ulw-i-ii-^ iiu iii unV.ii'-ra t:.::nr.'. 

T:.:-. :■- 'A:ii f-':- i-vri.' ivl. i- .i very v.-^^iu- riii»l iii*J. i:: i*. n^r-'int ^il* 

'-.:''.' Zi Oi tii' -0 l:!!!-'.!-..*. Ii^i'l ^t!il K -" -:iti''f;i(;''iy i* jr. ;;-i will 

■ .: i.'i :':.'• - .'i-.l. a- an < xi-iar/iTJi-n "f th" v.i-< :*■ iii wl.i ]i • r ■*rii- 
:. ■:*:.'-: .-M".'.- i- ;!■ '■■''.::ij.ii-ii'--"i. Vet. in ii-w-^k]:. - /:._- I'ri*. 
ir ]■:. :, r ::. .iiiV "\vi::tiTi -:i.';<. hi- tiinv th .t I h i\. i. . i ;.:. . - • ..r. 


tuuity of coDsuliiiig, is a mure full or definiu* «jcpofritioii oftku 
jeot to be foiuid than ib contained in the G'hurt passage juet quoted. 

That the ordiniiry rules which govern muscular acti-^n arc not a| 
plicable to the genio-hyo-glos^i niusc1e«, asprotrusora of the 
wiU appear from two cousidenitions : — 

Ut. There is no example in the bodj, unices that farntshed 
these muscles can l»€ admitted a* such, of a muscle carryii^ 
moreahle point of attachment beyond ita fixed point, by ita di 

2nd. There is ab»olut<*ly no example in the body, cxc^'pt to 
ioetance of the tongue, of a symmetrioai organ, pundyt»ed on one 
and moving, by contraction of its muscles, iou-ard^ the tide 

Tlic point of origin of the genio-hyo-glossos being ihe superior ; 
emiuonee. the courwc of all its fibres, from origin to insertion, when 
tongue is lodged within the mouth, must be moi-e or le^s directly ba 
wards, owing lo the prominence of the chin face diagram >'o. 4 :. T 
initiatory etiige of the advancement of the tongue, thcrvforer iuvoh 
DO difiicuUy of comprehension ; it is elfected in accordance with 
law of muscular d^'namics, by which the extrcmitiea of a rai 
iu contraction tend to approach one another. 

The progress of the tongue beyond tlie line of the teeth rantiot 
explained under this law, for it involves Uie transgression of the 
}>oiut of attachment of the muscles engaged, by their moveable piHi 
and in a ratio proportionate to its advancement; but without infr 
ing lliis law, the fibres of a muM'le inserted st an acute angle ii 
a di^t^int point of a lever may advance that lever in the direction 
ita nxis, or at an angle with it, nnd in proportion to their length. &f> h( 
been aln^ody tihowii, nnd will be understood by reference 1^ 
No» I. In this law, I ronrei\-e, lies the explanation of the pn • 
the tongue under tho uction of the genio-hyoglossi muscle*, to uhiuh 
now invile llio attention of the Academy. 

It hrw \nvu ftlnady shown that these muftcles, radiating from 
common pmnt of origin on the posterior surlii«-e of the body of 
inferior nuixilla, are ini^.Tted into the os hyoidc« and infvriorsur&ce of 
tlio tongue along iti- middle line from base to apex, {penetrating its mW 
•taneo even to its dorsum. Fnr the present I leave out of 
deration the nngulurily of the pl.iues of the two muscles, as 
unnecessary to Uie subji^ct uHilrr discussion, namely, Ujc pmtnxsioi 
of the tongue, and in no way (juiilifying my argument. In tbe initii 
lory •itnge of pnotnision the fibres of the two miiac<lM, haring nil 
direction more or h*4s backwards (see diagram No. 4), co-opcnil 
(0 pull the tongue out of the mouth ; the dunuin is deprewed and n 
dcrcd flat ; the tongue Inrcoiues rigid and straight ; the o« hyoides 
raiMHl InwnnU Ihe mouth, and the lip advances Uyond the linp of tbi 
teeth. In the niriher pn>gre'* of the tongue the antrrior fibrt** nr. 
to cooperate, maiutainin:,: only a state of tocic contnu-tion. and rrga< 
luting ihr [' ■ 'he guidance of vnUtion. Ii 

proportivm 'T number of the fa^iiculi 

a nuuu 

I lever by the antagonistic action of the Btylo-glossi, palato- 

id byo-glosai muscles, the two former of which tend to elevate, 

latter to depress it; whilst tlie stylo-glossi, by their course 

) maxginB of the tongue to its apex, and acting in equilibrium, 

straight and rigid in its entire length. In this explanation 

ossible to ignore the wonderful selective power which the will 

i, of directing upon special groups of niusdcs, upon individual 

and even upon particular parts of the same muscle, the 

of contraction, and in greater or lees degree according to 


igto the fan-like arrangement of the fibres of the genio-hyo- 
le anterior fasciculi of the muscles must successively pass out 
as protrusors, according as their points of insertion arc carried 
of the teeth by the advancing tongue; htnce tlie progress of 
ue forwards must be effected with progressively dirainisliing 
ee diagram No. 4). I hare verified this observation in mj- 
wn by the following simple experiment: — 
;ht wooden cylinder was introduced into my mouth, within 
;e of my teeth ; the opposite end of the cylinder rested on 
e; the balance was now weighted, and I found that by pressing 
t of my tongue against the end of the cylinder in my moutli, 
the force I was cajiable of exercising, I could lift a weight 
When the tongue was advanced a quarter of an incli in front 
eeth, I could lift 2^1bs., and when three-quarters of on inch 

oubt this result may be in some measure explained in another 
!t has been shown by Schwann that muscles contract with 
m power in the acme of extension, and with a force diminishing 
pressive ratio as contraction proceeds; but manifestly so great 
nee in the lifting force of the tongue, as that between 4lbs. and 
annot be accounted for in this way. In other words, a loss of 


If the muscles were united along the middle plane as described^ or if 
they were parallel by their opposed surfaces, then, no doubt, they wooM 
simply reinforce one another ; and, considering the direction in wfaich 
their force is applied, it would be difficult to conceive how, under thoe 
circumstances, they could serve as reciprocal antagonists, as is the cue 
with all other duplicate muscles disposed at opposite sides of the mediu 

But anatomy shows that they are not parallel ; they are disposed it 
a very acute angle, salient forwards, and are separated behind by a mm 
of soft adipose tissue as already described. 

The triangular interval between the muscles, as likewise the adipon 
substance which occupies it, will be readily perceived on making a 
horizontal section of the boiled tongue of the sheep, or other mammal, 
near its inferior surface, and through its entire length. 

Pathology shows no less conclusively a marked difference asbetveen 
the isolated and combined action of the Genio-hyo-glossi muscles, and 
the existence of a very decided antagonism between them. 

In complete hemixjlegia involving the face and tongue, the featum 
as is well known, are drawn towards the unaifcctcd side, whilst tbe 
tongue in protrusion deviates to the side of paralysis ; this shows, as 
regards the tongue, an antagonism between its protrusor muscles, but 
of a very peculiar and exceptional character, and at the same time seem* 
to bo in contravention of the law, that muscles, when paralyzed, we 
overpowered by their antagonists, and drawn in the direction of the 
fixed attachments of the latter. In protrusion of the tongue the muscles 
engaged are mutually co-operative, and corrective of one another; they 
act upon the tongue as upon a rigid lever, but acting at an angle, each 
tends to carry it forwards and to the opposite side ; acting, however, 
simultaneously, and with equal force, they correct one another, and 
carry the tongue directly forwards, that is to say, in a line intermediate 
between their respective axes (see diagram No. 2). 

In the event of one of these two forces being suspended, asoccursin 
hemiplegia, the opposing force being now the sole agent in protmuon, 
and free to act without correction, will carry the tongue forwards and 
to the opposite or paralyzed side, that is to say, in the axis of its own 
proper motion (see diagram No. 3). 

In case of partial paralysis of one of the opposing muscles, the tongne, 
being in some degree governed by the weaker force, will advance in a 
direction less decidedly lateral, or at an angle with the common axis of 
motion of the two muscles, determined by their relative contractile 
force, and directly as the difference in force between them (see diagram 
No. 3). 

Granted that the genio-hyo-glossi muscles are the sole protrusors of 
the tongue ; I submit — 

1st. That their action is peculiar in this; that whilst in the first 
stage of protnision they act, like other muscles, by traction; in the latter 
stns<*s ^*"'y "f**- *'.v propulsion. 

2nd. That in propelling the tongue for^vards they act upon it ns a 


Irrer «f the fir«t order, the anterior extremity of which projects from 
dtt SK^b : the posterior extremity within the mouth being aetcil upon 
by the p?^iitra«<»^ and the fulcrnm constituted by the palato-glussi 
waatHjt^ («ee d:3:grain Xou 4). 

Snl Tn£ G^nio-byo-glossi muflcles are disposed relatively to one 
■ctaer at a very acute: angle, salient forward?, and therefore taken 
■saaselr they act npon the tongue in protrusion, nut in the dint*tion 
ffittaxif, but at an acute angle with it, carrying it to the opposite 
■de: bTit actii^g conjointly, and with equal force, they arc mutually 
CKnrtiTe of one another, and carry the tongue directly forwards. 

lad. 4th. As a necessary consequence, when the protrusor muscle 
rfsie^e is paraiyz^, the other, acting without correction, will pro- 
Hide the tongue towards the side of paralysis. 

XX. — Cataz>ogcc of 101 DaAwjxGS or AacniTCcnrmAL AsfTK^rmRs, 
nam oaienrix Sketches, rKKsKXXEn to the Libbamt or the Rotal 
IsxsK Acinnrr. By Georob V. Dr Xoter, M.R.r.A., &c.. District 
Snrreyor, Geological Surrey of Ireland, to form Vol. IX. of a 
*i*pili*' donation. 

[BttdXorember 11, 1867.] 

Melii/ont Ahlfy, Co. Louth. 

No. 1. View, looking X. N. W., of the choir of the great church. 
His i»':iilding has been erroneously regarded by recent writers as *' the 
frtat chorch of Mtllifont Abbey," and surprise is expressed that it coul J 
LiT« c«:'i:ainc-d the eleven hi;»Ii altars recorded to have l>cen within it. 
T> acy cartful observer, it is evident that the building in questi<jri is 
merely a fA^ir of what may have been a church ol* noble proporti'/us, 
poiv.bly of forty feet in width, and twice or more that in length. 

Xo. 2. Plan of the choir of the grt-at church. From this it is evi- 
dent that the so-called "doorway'* is in n-ality the choir arcli ; its 
r*<.e*sed pilasters being all on the interior face of the wall, the external 
por.ion being flat — a style of architecture unknown in the construction 
of oburch d'jorway?. 

The remarkable narrowness of this choir arch is no doubt the re- 
sult of careful design, with a view to render the choir as sacred as 
w.^ible, and allow but a glimpse from the body of the church into that 
cere sacred portion of it, which glittered with stained glass, gohl, and 
fresco painting.* 

Xo. 3. Choir arch. 

Xo. 4, "Window in south wall of the choir. 

Xo. 5. Quaint figure of an animal carved in high relief on the key- 
ttoEt of the outer arch. East window, from the same. 

Xo, 6. Pilasters, X. W. of the choir. 

• 5'-'! ■■ WiMe't Bcfluticfl of the IJovne anil Bl.i* kwatcr." 2n(l cdilion. 


No. 7. Pilasters, interior of the choir. 

No. 8- Piliwtors, intmor of the rhoir. 

No. 9. B;iso of piloftters, angle of choir. 

No. 10. B:iK(; of angUf pilasters, N. wiudow, choir. 

No. 11. Base and capital of angle pilaster, south window, ch< 

From the peculiar grace of form, and deep under-cutting of 
foliated capitals of the piloifters supporting the groined roof of 
biiiUling T am illustrating, as well as from the presence of a broad 
rib running down the external fact' of each of the pilasters and th 
bases, as well ta along the upper raargiu of the ab«cus of the e^ipilaU, 
is evident that this work is not older than thr beginning of the Idl 
century. Bloxhnm, and all writers on Enfflish Ecclesiastical Ar:hit«« 
turc, tlirect especial nttt-ntion to this marked featiirr, as being one whic 
is of the utmost vuluu in determining the approximate age of a building 
nnd it is a surer gtiidn in this respect, than even the form of the n»«)ci 
ot»-'d iirch, us we shall doe presently when describing the octagouiil build 
ing called " thu Baptistry,*' aud which is one of Uie most intere.stiDg 
the ruins at Mcllifunt. 

No. 1 2. Pliin of the octagonal building erroneously called "The Bap- 
ti»try,'* S.W. of, and closo to the choir. It is absurd to suppose rhrtt un 
abbey should be possessed of a building the u-te of which was jr 
to llie UKUik:*. We have here undoubtedly the chjipter house ol i 
munity, with an apartment over it, us at Well.^ cathedral, and else- 
where in EugUuid. It is perhaps worthy of note, that when themasonr 
n^nchinl to the height of a few feet above the crown of the semicircuU 
arches on which ttie upper floor of the building stood, the architi-et i 
pt-ars to have cheeketl the accuracy of his work by laying an octago 
fmme of limhor over the arches, and to have enclosed it in the masonry 
when^ the building is broken through, on the south side, the presence o 
this mawive frame work is indicated by a square hollow in the thick- 
ness of the wall. This is at least the roost apparent explanation for tho 
exii^tenrr of tliis lingular stjuare hori/outal tube in tlic thi<;kues^ of tho 
WttlU over the semicircular arches. It may, however, be an horizontal 
flur for warming the gniined fti-»or over the arches, and was ooDQeot«<d 
with fMUui' tirrjthu'f in (hat j»ortion of the building now destroyed. 

What yet rtMuaiii.H of this octagonal huildiiig shows that it was open 
to the ttir nt iu bawement. but groined with stone : the upper story 
thuM formed having b<*eu lighted by alar^ iq>erturc in each i^ide of tho 
iictngon. A«'<'»'*»* to thi^ tloor must hare been by a passage from tho 
main In ' the mvuthcrn side of the octagon, every trace of which 

in uitw [-■ ■ ^ of blue au<l vermilion may yet be swn on the ©kpilala. 

No. l*i. Plan of the nhutment and arches at the base of the octago- 
nal building. 

Nu. 14. Cap itf pila«t(>rs at t)ie hasoiuent of the octagonal building. 

Nt>». 1 A 17 Tap of pila5trr from the same.] 

No. IM. Ma«iw»f pilajitor. ,» 

U it wiirlliy i>f uoto that xYn* style and ebaractex of tho caps of 
tho |iila«(pr» fVoin thia building are preciaoly those of the caps of 


lie piUitcn from the interior of the choir of the great church of the 
Lt«d ahber* though tho arches are semicircuUr; while tboM 
choir aro ucutely pointed ; the same uarrow ilat rib (Fig. II) 
down ih ' ' ':i- pihistora of the ficta*:onal structure, and 

pfQlock(Br«>d - and the same eft'ect of li^fht and shjidc in 

Uw dtfc*--^ ila of tho ])ila»tcrd in hoth huUdiiigs ia 

freqtitfnt. iug holes into the stone ; the mere form of 

Ihe arch ' ijjiiicailun of comparative age, an some recent 

«TSt«n ;; would have us suppose. The M'liiiciiTuIttr 

vch b«a U«u bi'lei;ttd in the construction of tho octagonal building, 
iHBply to kc^p the structure to the requin^d lownoHA of height ; while 
li« wthjlect maj- possibly liave supposed that this form of the arch was 
cttooger or murt; eifective thau that acut^^Iy pointed. Be that as it 
VKf, the de^r&tioQs of the capB of the pila^tfru, both externally and 
biSemillr. with the occurrcucc of the fl:;t rib on the columns, prove* 
toadefu ' that the oitttj|:oual building at MuUifont ia of the 

»inw stv , loir of tho great church of the same estAblishrucnL 

19-21. Caps of pila«rej-s, groining of the octagonal building. 
-\i,. 22, View of the northern gateway tower of the abbey. 
Xo. 23. Plan of the same. 

Xo. 24. Tomb slab with foliated croes, from the gfrayeynrd of St. 
fienurd's chapel. 

ArdiolUt^h Old Churchy Kaoan. 

No. 25. Arches at basement of the oct-agonal building at Mellifont, 
•nd choir arch, Ardflallagh old church, Navan, for comparison. 

Xo. 2(5. Capital of pilaslcrp, choir of the great church, ITellifont, 
«nd capital of pilastera, choir arch ArdsaUagh old church, Navao, for com- 

To any one who has studied the salient points of construction and 
ditiontiua in ecclcfiia*tical architecture, the similarity of design and 
ikill eYiDced in tht*e two capitals of engaged columns is sufficiently 
Kri king t^.» rt«sur(? us thtit they are the work of the same school, and 
The ancient parish fhurch of Ardsallagh or Ard- 
1 tofihe swallows) is of two ages. The choir, includ- 
thc 13th century, as is evinced by its semicircular 
I and deeply undercut mouldings, with the narrow 
! iwn their external surfaces, and that of the pilastera 
: .illness and careful dros(<ing of the stones forming it, 
■^ of the windows in the X. and S. walls of tho chairs, as 
; iique peepholes which pierce the walls of the choir nrch 
•I wall of the choir itself. Xor should we overlook the fact that 
'» tooth" moulding is present on the capitiiln of the choii^arch 
and the same ornament fonus u marked featun* in the 
of the wiDdovM in the choir of the Abhev church at Melli- 


a. L 1. pioc. — VOL. i. 

92 i 

As an example of the exuberant fancy of the Bculpton of the ISfli | 
century, I may mention that, at the springing of the choir ardi modi- « 
ingfl, south side, we see a clever representation of the celebntki i 
of the Last Supper, our Lord being the central figure, and reprenntii | 
as holding up a knife in his right hand, in the act of cutting the brad, 
while the figure on his right is about to take up the cup of wine ttm. 
the table which extends in front of the throe figures. The coneipoid- 
ing carving represents an otter huntt and is a most spirited desiga; tbw 
dogs are crowding eagerly over each other, and seize a female otter ty 
the head and neck, the animal being in the act of protecting its cub, ly 
clasping it tightly to its side by its right paw (that farthest from i^ 
pursuers), and close to some protecting buUrushes, It is difficult tom- 
dorstand what connexion there could he between these two designs, nd 
we must therefore attribute this incongruity to the fiincy of ft* 

No. 27. Plan of the old church of Ardsallagh, Co. Meath. 

No. 28. Cap of pilaster in choir, showing the Otter hunt. 

No. 29. Window in the west gable, which originally lighted the 
apartment or dwelling-place of the resident ecclesiastic.* 

Slana Ahheyt Sfc., Co. Meath. 

No. 30. View of two rough upright slabs of silurian grit in the grave- 
yard of Slane Abboy, Co. Meath. In the centre of each slab a calcarioui 
layer has weathered out down their edges, thus forming a rude groove. 
A rec(!nt writer on the antiquities of Slane calls this an ancient grave, and 
B^MiTia that the stones are six feet apart, and states that the rou^ 
grooves I have described were intended to receive the ends of flat flags, 
to form a kind of roof to the structure. Setting aside the inaccuracy of 
the first statement — for the slabs are only three feet ten inches apart — ^I 
do not hesitate to say that I believe these rough flags once formed the 
doorway to a large stone beehive-shaped hut, or cloghaun, possibly 
the original house and church of St. Ere, the patron saint of the 
place. Doorways of this rude character are still to be seen in the 
primitive beehive-Bhaped churches on the Islands of Arran, and on 
Church Island in Lough Curram, Co. Kerry, as figured and described bj 
the late Dr. Petrie in his work on the " Round Towers of Ireland. 
Th<' writer has also figured and described similar remains, as St 
Kevin's house at Reafert, Glendalough, St. Gobonet's house or churd 
at Ballyvoumey, Co. Cork, and St. Bridget's house at Faughort, Co 
Louth.f One large rough slab belonging to this ancient structure ii 
yet to be seen in the interior of the abbey church adjoining, the remain 

* See paper by the writer in the " Kilkenny Archnolopcal Journal,^ vol. v., p. 27 
On M>me Peculiarities in Ancient and Medieval Irish Ecclesiastical Architectore. 

f See preceding volume of these Antiquarian Sketches, Library of the RoyaJ Irial 



ipiftf doobtlcM bccA lued ■■ bcvl-ilooei on accoont of 

^U CwBLg in fltt&iiAt(»Le- ; mtricmte intniAcvd pattern of pre- 

^ piaflAbly li>th or lltb cfrntuiy, from the wall at the* h.w^ SLme, mid to luTe bcrn lound iathegnre- 

t± Grwmid pliJi of Skoe Abber. 
33. GncE&d plan of SUoe Abber cIiiutIl 
Ul. WeA door in4 wuidoT. Tover of ditbi. 
Ik ^, Shield besm;; tbe r^ral umi of Enslvid, frvm the ez- 
^tbe santli wall of the mbboi*» ■pftrtm^aU. ^Ua« Abber. 
ka euT-319 tends to £je the date of the erection of S$Une Abber 
sit wew stands, and &r the foUorin^ i^sson : The shield is quaitc-nrd 
-^^Mad 4ch «eic« d^'TH'-de-Iis ; Sod and Ird three Uons **paMant'' 
'^^iJaaV We kn'jv from Tanoos sooner, ccins* Ac, that Hi*orv IV.^ 
IW so I4I-, T^* the Lut ^f the Enfli^h kiofn vho qo^rtered f«jr hia 
■»i ^ £rll " 9i^m«'* of il^nr-de-liji lor Frsnc^* : and this fact t^iken ia 
^aac^u mth the occiunxice of tbe chestnut floirtrr ornament at the 
laecf Ui^ shield, is w^]l nish ra&ient pruof that the building datea 
Mhfin^ b:M£.)i thziiL the end of tij« 14th c^ntorr. If any additional 
(nti^-:% f'^r Oit probable tctara^^j of tbu etat^m^nt was wonting, we 
fan it iar-pli^ to U9 in the form asd mouldingi of the windows and 
ioisvij Uk th*- 3Ciiath wall 'jI' tL<.- ar>V_r. 

y i, ■V- Wi::d^-w. froiji tht *ouiL wall of the aTjbey. 
Tit trc-*3ij" l'->Iii:ed uncifiiiEi-jc hi thv drip n-jgul^iiof; of this win- 
iew 13 Terr- -;hirarTtrrL*ue of thr ptri-ni 10 which I riritr the eiecti'-n of 
ibe preset buii<iic^. 

Xo. 37-, from the same abbcT. 

Xo. 3%. l^T^^ oval opesing ntar the summit of the $ide aisle wall ; 
ibwT church. 

5"o. 59. The Priest's tomb, from the graTorard uf SlaneAbuy 
ehv^ The name on this tomb »lab i.« Sl1c>rSlAX. th->ut£h an-cciic 
wnser on the antiquities of tb:$ di^tnct calU it Kkkwan — an t-iT<>r 
cf CO areat importance, yet one which a writer on autiquitii::! shuuM 
Lot have made. 

y-j. 40. liecorated kev-^tone to an arch, now built up in the gate- 
pc«t to the graveyard of the abbey church. 

Xo. 41. View of the decoration on the left i^ide of ornamental key- 
sCoc*. gatepo«t to the graveyard. Slune A.bbey cbua-h. 
Xo. 4*2. View of the right aide of same stone. 

A recent writer calls this '* a face of a nun," though for no appa- 
TC:nt reoiKin, as the religious establi>hment with which it is associuttd 
Wi,- 'xcupied by canons regular. Possibly this carviag represints a 
t^TLjl'- face, though it may be that of a youthful chorister. The hijrh 
U.:;i'.e'i orr^ament over the head i» purely archittctural, and thcdic-ra- 
ti-ii it either ?ide of the head represent grotesque animals with large 
cla7s and richly toliated tails. 

Xo- A'^. Corbel representing the bust of a bishop, or mitred abb^^t. 


Btory shows that it may not he older than the close of the foottBoft 

No, 63. Soath doorway of Knockcommon old church, near Dukdii 
county of Mouth. 

No. 64. Plan of Dowth old church, county of Meath. 

No. 65. South door of ditto. 

No. 66. North door of ditto. 

No. 67. Small door leading from the north wall of the chiirrf 
same to the sacristy, which ia now totally gone. The two n 
doorways to this church are semicircular-headed, with the ni 
plainly chamfered. That now illustrated is pointed, and its Uj 
recessed and rounded — a moulding somewhat characteristio of As 
end of the 14 th century. "We have here another example of theintif- 
duction of the semicircular with the pointed arch in the same bvfll- 
ing — a fact which is apparently a stumbling-hlock to some nenl 
writers on the antiquities of this district. 

No. 68. Ardcath old church, county of Meath. 

No. 69. South door in nave of Ardcath old church, with nd 
window adjoiniug it on the west. The doorway is pointed, wift 
the angles chamfered ; the window is semicircular-headed, with ^ 
angles also chamfered. AVe hare here, therefore, another examfiB 
of the combination of the two forms of the arch in a churdi d 
one period. The date of this building may be late in the 14tk 

No. 70. Doorway in south wall of chancel of Ardcath old chnnL 
This, like the small window just alluded to, is semicircular-headsd, 
but the angles are uutouched. 

No. 71. AVindow in north wall, and chancel window of the flame 

Duleekf County of Meath, 

No. 72. Ancient cross in the graveyard of Duleek abbey church. 
This small, but beautiful cross of the old Irish type, possibly ninth tf 
tenth century, is well worthy of study, and belongs to the cdass called 
" Scripture crosses," of which we have such magnificent examples st 
Kells, in the Co. Meath. The west face of this cross is that which I 
have illustrated as being the best preserved and most interesting 

As usual, the space ut the intersection of the arms is occupied by* 
representation of the crucifixion. Over this the figure of a cock beneath 
two seated figures reiiresents the temptation of Peter. Below the cruci- 
fixion is a biis-relief representing the betrayal of our Lord by Judai* 
The device below this I cannot explain ; but that filling up the lowest 
compartment on the shaft is clearly St. Joseph with the Virgin and 

The most remarkable cun*ings ore those in the small compart- 
ments at either end of the arms of the cross. Each of these is filled 
with a sitting figure — the one on the right holding the short pastoral 

dbvRlft, in 1687. 
k "TC FoBt «t the wua» dnucfa. 

k- 77- EflcT csrrcd in lov rcfief c« tonb sUK now Ijiag in Um 
•f tb« »bbc7 ^onk. Tb* dttto of this ctfriag c«mot be 
tiM 16tk ocnCttrT*. The wtitTBg of tho fignro u nUtcr 
it iiiMgti of ft loooe ^vncflit mditag to tJao nUo^ witb 
OT«r tluA » oMiUier sftd itiU Ioomt drvM rMcluiig to 
aad ovxT all U A loaf fall do«k ftUiiiK ti|^Ur to Ihs thmaC 
1 mem, to »haw ibe umtr ciothiag. Tb« rignt bjod reaUon 
mM hip^ wfaQc the left band grupe a mamro croolc-hMKiod tUiT. 
' "^ rrrtintipg ooiivards. Tbe mttrr U of lofty proportioQii, aad 
r davoid of SBJ onftment or jcwcnery, if we except two brnad 
■^ «bSdi flutter biJuDd it. Orer tb« right ahoulder in a abidd 
ATVonAl bevxDgt^ bat fiumjoantcd by • belmet is profile, and 

vith « i»cnn«id boldirc ' ' '♦ •'"• '■ '"*^ * ^'isa In tho old 

of TiuUnuigb* oear K me to iho mo- 

rrof tke CjobOj of >f«*Bit> <:■■■ -* i"i^ ' "^st a memutiij. I 

rtkb fBct tor wbatii b worth i - .* determine the Dame of 

Mdoo^iCio whooe tocnh I hare lii -• r it'(^i. 

K«. 7ftw Tbe Croat of Da]e<k. Xhi» is sot, properly ap^akinir, 
bat ntber a rectaogular mooulith^ with dcxor. ' \. 

u^ riritinn oo its 8. 'W. fiice atatea that it was ' y 

I Dvvdall. wife to WtlUam Ehthe, of Athcam, Ju.^ttco ol iUr Ma- 
MOmrt of Common ' FU^'s/ for him and her k, d, 1601. Hr dc- 
sd the i5th of October, 1599." Thia pillar ia decorat^Kl on lU X.W. 
S. K. facc« by mde falt-length figures of saints, the lowest btiug 
^ af 8iC ILenane, the patron of Duletk. 

t^ Ifa 79> Tablet commemorutive of the building of the bridge of Dn- 


>' ^ - ■■ - ^ Wall of liie »aifi old chuivli. 

Ncv. S4. Rtn:.^::' _i i. . ^ -i wmdoT of tlie said old ehurcU 

H:id chi? ccn^^ecntted boildiag, ertelcd &cd used t'ot ^uct^ 
br the pirCy oi one of oar «KMBt aaUcat, hem oon-verted into m 
storehouse tor the rv<«ption at ttw ** frixite of the earUi/' I fthonld 
feh S4>mewh;it rv^i^m^d «t iu a^polktidft ; bot Uiat it shofUd bo 
by the odour of vattl^, tad tke f n v T arb Mlly taoj Inagnvge of , 
and stable boy>. i< ^^siething not ezBctlj comixtentiablc, CT«a . 
s:riotr>: arounds o:' o-oreTUPOoe or eeoDonj. 

>\\ S5. The white cn>& on tbo titmhiHts near Bubck, Ghk 
vW. facx\ 

Xo. S6. The sainc, ^h:>«ia$ tibe E. fte& 

This cn>>^ Uiars thie arms of Bktlie aad DoirdalL From tlw 
ontlmr. style, and cbaracter of l]» work* os mil oo thr allii 
crucified tigtirv, I an lod lo tldaj '^~**^ iu daagn u lulinn or Fi 
certainly not Irish: li* d^to cv luUL thib dooft 

16lh century. 

Xo. 87. The Tr:iy»de eraos oft 
cross of Duleek. is a Tnonolitli elo 
a stepped plinth : it hears, tbft 4t 
Dowdall for horrk-lf ^nd IimImv 

No. 88. InsiTiptioti oa tta 

Xo. 89. East window of db 
(resrored^. - 

Xo. 90. Tablet frx>m tho r*^ 
old castle of IXirlins'.Mnn, Co 

Na 91. Tablet tV.^m the 
the death of Dame Jrjicl 8«I* 

No. 92. The Tmicho tot 
of Clongill. Co M.aih, 

In the month of Aa£;u*it. Ift6d, oa this qiuuol o&d inlercMU 

ing tomb slab; and. *hi commuiiiralifti* uw Jiscovcry to th* iJrv. Dr. 
Brady, he kindly inftiniied mr tU;*t it was commemorativp of tiie 
of the ancestor of tlu' rtiiiit-arty fjimily. The sbii'Jd iKnrn tu chief ■ 
lion pass;int, with the Miti in ^Irndour OTt-r it, Thu lower portion 
the shield is parted per pale, the dexter ride being wm** witli Tudor 
and the sinister filled with the emhlemfl of 8t Joseph'* !ntdo^-the 
the chisel, the hamnier, bit-and-brace QQd square. Tho If^ond U «a 
follows : — 

nic JACin jACOBis . trtkcsb . ci^Korcrfi, 

RECTOK^ tfU*lNimi . IirJtTS . ECCLKSIjR . M, 
CLOXGKLI, , t;i I [ ].T -.rm . RT * lIJtlCTO - OCOTtWO 
GENTE . WAIVS . riM , ^Ei . LIBEEIS , ftlTI. 
UGNSZS iLEAJiTII . JkfiO. DOUIME , 1631 . 
yECIT. * * * COTffPtRE . 

MootH. lluo, 
leo high 
M ctxvt£<l hf 
ly of AtbfUkm, j 

jtaon, ncor Bruglicdo jgj 

jottovsi» commomonii 
r DonMtif , A. Kt. I''.*T. 
rpysrd of the old lihunk 






^{L &3 Ioab5t':>nfr oi Airxander fiAn:iew&], in the gnvejard of tht- 

<iitt3:i ■.:" iivC«=rv?"T-,-wi, -.••jactr of Mratb. 

VsM i":.-.r. T-*-rf. y.i r-.-jj* th*- imii'f BoiiiLWiJ Ai**! Ntitrrvulf. iin^j the 


■• T'?<' £up-»'' tf' ih r id f-f f'tr." 

It* I nrrczlj ?■-.*:•— ". :* it ?:.■ ir.-'t" : 'i.- 1 ir:.:;\ . > !;r :! i. : 
fclriii i«l^nit: :. i :i-^- jini ui ir B^in-w*. ii. it > rn .*t Ia- !v a 
ttC£ -ii t:^ z--r: .-l ':*•: ^.'^.'y.^jT ••t ih- n:-.!.ii!i.t •.: r . !■.. ::.. T:;--rv --t 
jfccB»mr:4::i"r-,i.-rMt- i I -h .wvl rh^ «k. *■ h -r :L:- T-.n.'-. ■■. 
iBezSrr ■ : th- B-iTT-'.^ii itn^ily, hu: h' wu^ i.-.t avrirr th.i! !L> 
,■ Jbtonj - rt:' ::m-— i a j-art ■.■! :Lf itriLoriil li»:irihj« -•! !h<- laUiily i:i 

Sj :-'4 ESri-:-- T Frauii- PIiiLkttfiL'll.i>wii... f';i:i.. -iii.- riuLktt. 

rflbci, l-=-arir.g da'-t l't>2. Thr la'iy'*- hi ad-dr- -* iji^-l ;;. ijt.rjl r-.-T- 
tae ii x&L-^t t'l:»^'ora!*., iiiid tLaracvri-tiL «.•(' tht- j" r:-"!. aii'l •i.i- ■ arrii-** 
slair ter ri^rnt Land. Th*- malt- tiffuro i» arnjtil w;tli h'ltf" « 'jat and 
flCaK. tie -fw.-.Ti. aiid "hitid with the TiuLkt-t iifilj'. >i« :r;^ ol i .-rivin- 

Ai-r ov- ji'.bt Piji.k'" inii*. Sir IJ- rr-'ir-i Ji .;k- ,'!-.. ^ .n, ;:/.r, -:;i,j 
»^-> . :: ".":-t -V'i--:: ::. t:>.- ■* Ilv-^ir. l\:.i;y .T-*in..u." \v^r:i -k..:-}..-. 
^-■ri^^s t:-v v.iK -u- m-'-:;!! ."i'i-.r.* wr.:''! :}.<.--. iii:.^ m.o* rw..i,t a* 
cf*-''-!.': z^^ri'-l' O:.'/ Turi'ty, i. t i.. :: ...1 ii. ::..*. rijj.iJk-. \iz, 
iz, cLi^: i" ca.-'!-. . wi::...:*: ;hi; h-.iA .'.'-xt-.r. i- t ■ *■ - . :. ■ u :h'- 
Bfin--*..Tri. ':r.«-- i:*-'^r >lir.t. t .' ■■1 M- nth, a:, i :- !l^';ri'i ;i!:..:.--t 

y-.. 1-0. E&L-iv- ot Walur Truiiie- r.!.''i (VI.. :::.. Ii.1t. :-. hi- y\iU . 

fe.z, -V^ Cr-iiv- •'.-cl. :u th'.- '.M . h-.jr. }. '-iCi i;;-..v--.^ :,■. ■ umv ■ t M- -ith. 

▼;*j. i^'*: 1 •..*?, Thv iJJ.Uf; Hir^iP- i- -ll-. — 1 i;j ISiM" - ■ .;* ;i!j'1 p li'M^*, 

■r.ii :i-j :iL.:*:i ^:-r^'.: ar th*- :.> ..-k ; hi- :■ j- -ir-. ■ :.. 1-. d ::; I..:-- j.;< k 
'yx.'.'r. 'xI'.'l. irirr:;:* j:'-;.!!-":* ar.d *;•■;!•-. II- i- wir):...-;! ;i -w- r-I. .i:.-i l.> 
iiti^i'. -xit'^ Vint.'i vi- -r. i- ■;■■:. vli/.:-.-:..!!. Th'- dn — "l' '.!.«. f. ri-al^ 
i* .'^t*: .r;:ir'-i.''.ri-'::'. ft *).r y^.nA. It - il-:-:- nl a 1 «i-"- • nj.. ..r 
'::-'-.: till:--' bl.-'^* ':.■ t.i^'W=, tl.* liaLiJ;' j'*-* aj.]- :ir:r;i: ii; !:■.!,!. ai..! 
h.'.:^::!- -ij- •!• r-.V-. t::*!-; ».-xj-=-in;r thr tir.'i-r j.-T'ii. ■.■:.!. Tht fli-.- 
L£--. r-.n. .:k-i;-iy };i;;h h<.t.l-. 

y ■. i?'-. Ij.*' rip:i-»R 01; th-:- rrui*-r- t-'-ruh *3t-. li'i"'] .sli. vc. 

5:. C-T. >htf-ia-Da-i;:i^. huilt up in th*; ^''UTh u.ill ..i t;.o c-Id n;i!l a* 
P.:^^-..-^^, on •h»- BoatjC. ntar Slant. 

>'-. C-S. Grrinitc j-linth of ^ir.all cro^» in Tcrm^i.fcfhi;. irrrivrvai-i, 
r L .::.. 

y ■ ;*:•. '*.':.'ir':h 'f S». M*"!!. Ar-::::r::. '"'■■•. T.^r.«-r r-l. 

y-. '"'I. ]' -or^ar of r>t. Fiarm:.*? -.i/ir-^h. ■.* Kiilal-j*. T:.;- il^.;«- 
^rt.v.-.-:. :.- sri^f-r;. as "howin^ that -he i-ii i-*ir« n* eirh-T 9-:-]o "i 

L ;. A. lE-.i — T(..L. X. r 


the doonraj^ are Btilted. after the Anglo-Saxon manner. For 
illustrations of thia ancient church see previous volnmc-B. 

lOl. Ancient font of yellow sandstone preserved in the 
of Killaloe, From the outline of this font, the Greek form 
croBS on it, and the style of tlie foliated ornament coToriug it, 
tion of which is in low relief, and the remainder "grave en 
I heiieve we may regard it as 1 0th century work, if not older. 


LAND, liy Htde Cla.hke» Corresponding Member of the Amt 
Oriental ISoeiety, Member of the German Oriental Society, 
of the Philological Society of Constantinople, and late Preadcnti 
the Academy of Anatolia, &c. 

[Rend November 11. 1867.] 

Ix begging aceeptance by the Royal Irish Academy of ao 
of my papur on the Ibenans iu Asia Minor, published by the 
gical Society, I am desirous of enlisting the interest of the A< 
the extension of this branch of study. William Von Hurnbolfll 
the existence in Spwn of the Iberian race, which he identified ^itli Ha 
present Basques. I have pursued the like investigation for A^ij 
determining the existence there of Ibcriana, who preceded the Gr 
and showing their identity with the Iberians of Spain. I am 
applying tliis conjoint evidence to the investigation of the 11 
names in Italy and Greece, oompleting the chain of Iberian 
in southern Europe. 

There remains the question of Ibenan extension in Europe 
the limits of Aquitania, and none can work this better than the 
hers of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The Iberians in Asia Minor, Italy, and Spain, presented ej 
of communities iu a high state of culture at an early epoch; and 
question in. what influence they exercised beyond their present knc 
boundaries by colonization or by commerce 'i* So long as they 
undisturbed by the pressure of invading nations — first the Oi 
afterwards the Latins and the Celts — a race which hftd 
through the great southern peninsulas and the islands 
linue to advance, particularly by 8**a. 

Thus they would be led to Britain and to Ireland. I 
to the belief that the Silures were the remnant of the domini 
Iberians in Britain. I expect that your researchrs will not only pi 
an ancient Iberian colonizaHon of Ireland, but the exifttence tl 
of descendants of such race in the present day. 

If this point can be determined, it will offer a key to many of 
difficulties of ancient Irish history ; it will exhibit an ancient and 
terior civilization yielding to subsequent invasions aa in other 
of Europe , it will show us the Iberians there, as elsewhere. 

gold •ii^zznss of the i«Lm4, and tumishizig ornament^ uf tlmt mi'tal 
1 fill limbic to rhtir **ate of culture. In my viiw it i* Tl. th<.- n».artr 
>. rather th:tn to the di-it^mt Phoenicians, wt- art tu I-hjU f<.<r thu 
ifeiE^ pion£r«rr* of commen.-ial intt-rcour«e in thosv q^otjhs 

To arrive at a eound judgment on thi^ subjirot, a serits <jf r*si::ircbt;s 

<JE.e m':«: iinph>rtant brunch is the coUi-clion and analy*:« -t' th« 

tipoeraphiool nam€« in Ireland, to bv obtained fr'>m the UrdnunLC 

SsTTfrT. atd other authoritit-ii. Every name should be invtstifruied, 

erg* the E.a=iv* 'if ii».Id*. Undoubtedly thi^ niinn.n- 

, dbosre wili bt fjund to be almost wi:houl eicejition llibtmu-CVltic. 

, wad. BTSch of it m->d».ni: but in invc-ti^utii/n it will yit-ld rc-^ult^ 

I iliTi I'liiJ ^^ Celtic o*-cupation, and even in that re-pc<t tho 

■ tmSenoT po*.«< «-ion by another race. 

I BAVfe ob*trvcd it is a \^w in topograxthical nomenclature that 

wifcTr a race, altogether foreign in language. enttT- a couiitrA', it 

ip^iij&A a ?y-=Ttni of terms to the Httlemtnt!* of tht- li.rnn.riy vx- 

iasxa^ reject^ird race. Thi« is what we ob^er^'e in Kni^litud. wlier*.- 

VQfds purely English or Anglo-Saxon ;rive ten^ of thousands <>f 

meaux* of Roman occupation, even to the nameis of wi-lls. Thi^ 

UMiiml itnrr follows a law conf'^rming to that applied by the Gtr- 

■fluc population to the Roman colom(-<> on the Uhinr, and their 

«clier&. Thus such a term ari Odd Harbour will be fuiind ex- 

S£££ve!y distributed in England, the Xethcrlaiids, aiid \Vr?tvm 

Oenn^jiia. The »ame Uw i« fjund in .\si;i Minor in its appli'-atiou 

6T the Turk* to the sites of (jfL-tk cities and i-tuMiiihnients, 

»htre we have Ak Hi«*ir and E-jki Hi^^ak. reprtsoiitiiig the Whit- 

CLe«ter and Old Chester of the Anglo-Sax'-n**. 

Tie word; mu*t be carefully analyzed and clas-iituMl. compounds 
bexz entered under each of their element*. Tiie rl;i.'-*iii' :ition will 
ic*;ludc the name» of each class of object, as rivers. hilU. towns, liomc- 
steads. fields, well*. &c., and it will distribute each fi^tt intu its own ».Li«'s. 
It L* then neeessar)- to eliminate all the modeni naiiU!*. and carulnUy 
mnuufi what are recognized as more ancient names. All name 3 
cecurriiig since the English Settlement must be excludt.d, and llie 
sitietl residuum carefully r^tudied. It will must likely I/l- founil that 
certain terms occur more or less in groups, and tlie detaiU of >ituatiou 
TiL afford ground for identification. 

I: will most prjbably result that there is a rcj-iduum, containing 
fir?: Celtic words, expressive of anterior settlt-ment ; and, secondly, of 
Tord* doubttuUy Celtic, or other than Celtic. 

In my opinion the names of the great rivers in Ireland, claimed a* 
Ctlti'-.-. are not Celtic, but conform to the names of rivt-rs fuuhd in the 
L-L-C^ltv. or Iberian area. The determinatinn <d this point is ver}* 
Cr^lr^K*: : for it hd-* generally been av^amerl tlint the names «»f thu great 
r.-KT- -A H'-rth-westem Europe are Celtic; )iit t.hv explanati-ju mI the 
r.i"^-:- ■:■■; fhe ri^cr* ot Spnin. Itnlv. iind A*i;i Miii-r. li is I" bf ^t:»i'.'l 


on sucb hypoihesia as a basis, whicb, in our present kno^ledgQ 

The ethnological evidence constitutes another head of the intt 
gation. There are diversities in the physical aspect of the Irish p 
latioD ; and it is well worthy of inquiry how far any portion c 
with the type of the neighbouring Bast^ues. It will be dosinrf)l< 
persons having examined the local population to visit the Basques, 
again return to cotaparc tbeir observutions ; and if BaR]ue oo-open 
can be ubtuincd it is desirable. I had long hoped to have takes oil 
of such an investigation myself. 

Not only the Spanish Basque country, but the French Basque 
tr}', should be examined, and also the mixture of races on the ttoalk 
If members of the Iberian rare be found in Ireland, they may not 
form to a general, but a special or local Basqae type. 

If this investigation succeeds, it strengthens the tests for Celtie, 
it may result in tho discovery of the pre-Iberian typo in Ireland. 

It is very desirable the attention of the Academy should be di 
to the Ligurians. These Ai'o a race ancient in Europe, and whic 
been little investigated. Although long since divested of politic 
portiince, it still affords a con.sidorHble portion of tho populati 
South-eastern Prance, Switzerland, and Italy. I have thought I 
resemblances to some exceptional Irish t^'pes among the Ligurians 

With regard to existiog Iberians, I may observe that I regard 
Greeks of Asia Minor as descendants, not of the Hellenic populA 
but of the pre-Hellenic, or barbarian population. 

The formation of D'eland, cut up by baj's and estuaries, is ret 
Torablo for the preservation on its wide coast of remnanta of an 
populationa. These are preserved even on restricted areas, and in 
small numbers, where geographical or other limitations check I 
marriage. Wlierc intermarriage takes place, the majority will ou^ 
and replace the minority, even if it be the conqueror, fiuch has 
the fate of the Lombards in Italy, while the Siete Communi ftill 1 
a Teutouic origin. Such has been the fate of the Goths in Sjioi] 
Franks and Burgundians, and of the Varrgues of Ruaaia, whom 1 
termined to be the Varini of Tacitus* and consequently that tribe 
nearly allied to tho English. (Angliet VarinL Tacit Qennajua.' 

Ireland is rich in archaeological remains, and should anycTidea 
obtained linguistically from topographicjil nomencbiiure, or ott 
gically from living races, each kind of testimony will throw I5gl 
tho other. It is the accumulation of facts alone which con give 
true insight into the obscure portions of the history of men. If od 
else is obtained from these researches, we must get better dntn fal 
occupation of Irolnnd by the Hibemo-CcUs, and we w i 

elucidating the comparative Iji«ton' and chronology of W« -fl 

of anterior rappfl, of the llK-rinns, LignrinnR, Celta, and ol iliosti 4 
displacements which, airccting Europe from one end to the othfl 
themselves represfut the wares of migration which hare moTM 
mighty empires of the East. 


Xm- — Ajt Aocotnrr or rax Oohav Chaxbes at Bzxnthoon&v, CoTnrrr 

ot WATtaroRD. By Richakd R. Bbash, M.R.I. A. J 

[Read NoTtmbcr 30, 1«67.] ™ 

Xkb Sootemin of Dnimloghan is ailnated on the townland of the same 
DBiitv, ID the parish of Rtradbally, barony of Decies without Drum, and 
0>. Waterford. The rite is a gontly rising ground to the north of the bog 
of Drtnnloghan, an extensive ]>eat busin, surrounded on all sides by hills, 
tbc most remarkable of which, a bold and sing:ular looking ridge, riatng 
cttit of the bug, gives name to the locality — Drumloghan. the "ridge 
of the longU." The scenery is wild and lonely, being destitute of trees 
or pltttations, and surrounded by hilla that seem to Bhut out the busy 
vorldfnim this weird-looking Bpot. Here are sorao relied of a remote 
■ge^an irregular piece of ground, approaching a circular form, enclosed 
by a rtide fence of earth and elones, and grown over with elumpa of 
irifnt white-thorns, intersperwd with rough unhewn etones, marks the 
tbt of one of thow anrient burial places known as Kiileens, or Ceallu- 
Itighs, and which are uncoosecnitcd cemeteriet! appropriated to the in- 
•-*-"'•• f •■' ^'iptixcd children and suicides, and which many well- 
.iries believe to hare been originally places of pagan 
V i ij'.s one is termed by the neighbouring peaeontr)* Killeeno, 

n : ilatton i» usually applied to them in this county as well as 

in I ortt ; while in that of Kerry the name of Cealluragh is generally 
und. Here, however, at present there is no appearance of interments, 
DOT hfl- ■ '-n within the memory of *' the oldest inhabitant ;" yet 

mkAi i' ionul sanctity of the spot, though entirely devoid of all 

■i -'xiatinns, that it is carefully preserved and regarded 
.' ueration. 
under tlie fence, at the nortliem side, is a flat stone, 
•un<i, its upper Furfaee level with the grt-en sward; in 
- an artifiriol cavity, 5^ inches in diameter, and 6 inches 
iiy filled with water, and containing also a quantity of 
TwUTr ofiorings in the ?hapc of buttonti, marbles, pine, needles, berries, 
IM^ dopoated there by persons using the water as a cure for various 
ikka dueascs, and especially for warts, poljrpi^ &c., for which purpose 
prrsons come fh>m a considerable distance. 1 saw a man there with a 
polypus in hi^ nose, who, ai'ier Irving various surgeons, had come to 
tmX the efficacy of "the well," as it is here called. The peasantry 
ifino that this cavity in never without water in the diyeet summer, and 
Ihat it never freezes during the hardest winter. 

Abont twenty yards to the south-east of the Killeena is a rude block 
of «tonc, upon the upper surface of which is a basin-shaped cavity, 
perfectly circular, and ten inches in diameter, nnd certainly of artificial 
formation. I* is of that class of monuments usually denominated 






rock-basins; and. though no tradition attaches to it, the peasantry 1 
upon it OS a sacred stone. 

The KiUeena appears to have been originally enclosed, orrathei 
eontoined within tho area of a very extensive rath, a segment of th4 
enclosing fence of which still exists to the north, and a further portion 
of it being traceable, though overgrown with grass, yet still elevatiNfl 
above the general ground level. It was in the process of romovinJ 
this fence that the tenant farmer, Mr. William Quealy, di»covpie< 
the Soaterrain ; and, being a person of considerable intelligence, hn 
immediately stopped the workmen, and communicated the fact to Mr, 
Williiim Williams, of Dungarvan. a gentleman well known for his an- 
tiquarian tastes, who lust no time in proceeding to the spot ; under hii 
direction, the chamber was carctUlly opened, the earth removed from 
the interior, and also from the exterior, when, to that gentleman*^ 
great delight, ho discovered a number of Ogham inscriptions on thf 
side pillars and roofing stones. 

IJr. Williams immediately communicated his discovery to me, and^ 
on Thursdoy, September 19th, I visited the locality, accompamed by 
Mr. George Atkinson, of the Department of Science and Art, South 
Kensington, Mr. Williams kindly accompanying us. 

The monument resembles that class of our megalithic structurel 
known in this country as Lenha Diarttiada agtu Qhraifmc, or *' IHanaid 
and Grainne's Bed ;'* it lips east and west, and was completely covtired 
up in the fencu already alluded to, being about half below and hall 
above the natural surface level of the ground. 

The chamber is an irregular parallelogram, slightly curved ii 
its length, which is 9 feet 10 inches; width in the ceutre, 4 feci 
10 inches; average height, 4 feet 4 inches. (See Plan, PL XIY ) Ii 
consists of two side walls, formed principally of rough undressed upri^l 
pillars, the irregular spaces between being tilled with coarn) uncemcolec 
rubble masonr)*, the east end being built across in the some TnaniMM i 
The roof (sec PI XV.), is formed of slabs of undressed stono, lai< 
across Hotel-wise, and resting on the side walls. The original entranoi 
appears to mc to have been at the cast end, where there is a portion o; 
a covered passage, 5 feet in length ; 2 feet 3 inches in width ; and \ 
feet 2 inches in height, the east end of this passage being stopped V 
the clay bank. (Pis. XVII, & XVIII.) These narrow pasaugea, o«] 
as they are usually designated by the peusuulry, "creeps," aro tot] 
general in rath chambers : they are sometimes of very considernbl 
length when leading to a single chamber, and usually connect a numbcl 
of chumbers : in many instances they aro so low and narrow, as to ublig^ 
the explorer to creep on his face and hands; hence the very appropriate 
name given to them by the country people. 

All the stones composing the chamber are perfectly rude and ua- 
dresaed, showing no tool-mark whatMtever except the Ogham Bcorosj 
tbew arc found on a certain number ol the side pillars and rooflai 
atonea, and under such circumBtances as plainly indicate that the 


rcre aaed as mere building materials by the conntructont of this rath 
?r, as manv of the inscriptions were so plarcd, that they could 
W have been seen but for the removal of the euperincumbcut earth, 
u chcy were on the top angles of the roodng stones. 

And here I would remark, that it is most desirable, when disco- 
T«ia of Oghams are made under such circumstances, they should, if 
ywable, be entirely uncovered. 

Before proceeding to describe the monuments of Dnimloghan Souter- 
niii, I would wish to make a few remarks on the obstacles that have 
hitherto attended the development of this branch of our national anti- 

Wben the attention of Irish Archflcologiats became directed to this 
wbject in the last centur)-, much discredit was attached to the pursuit, 
in consoquence of the circumstances under which the Collun Mountain 
i&DOTery was brought under the notice of the learned; and from the 
mtstaken belief, then very general, that the inscription there found was 
library, public interest in the subject died away. 

The subsequent discoveries of Mr. Felham, though very remarkable, 
Ciilcd to rc-awaken the attention of our antiquaries; and it was not 
antiltlic later more numerous finds of Mr. Windelc and Mr. Hitchcock, 
ad the learned papers of the Kight Kev. Dr. Graves, showed that tho 
Og^Mm nomamenU held an important place in our national archicologyp 
&t a more general interest was awakened to the subject. 

It has bc«n to me a matter of some sorprise that our very best Irish 
wholan have given scarcely any attention to the translation of those 
hwriptioiiii, and I have heard it stated that .such have on many occa- 
lioM refused to offer on opinion on, or attempt a translation of, copies 
cf iaicriptions forwarded to them for that purpose. Such a faet has 
had a Tery discouraging effect on the study of these monuments ; men 
ollnmibler pretensions naturally shrinking from a task avoided by men 
«f p«ater learning and experience in Celtic philology. 

I rather think, however, that other important and pressing literary 
obligttions, occupying the time and attention of such men as the lat« 
PfofoKors (yDonovon and O'Curry, prevented them from entering on 
ftwr fields of investigation, rather than any inability to coi>e with a 
aUijeet which I believe cither of these lamentc^d scholars could easily 
Wi« maateredi had they turned their attention towards it. 

V^ilo it must be admitted that many of tho inscriptions are im- 

'.f translation, it is equally a £act that very many others, from 

■ f ritreme brevity and simplicity, can be easily understood ; tho 

'-Jure of many attempted renderings resulting from one or other of 

Uir following causes : — 

Pirslly. An ignorance of the true nature and intent of the monu- 

8e6ondly. The linguistic difficulties presented by the obsolete 
(laedhelic in which they arc inscribed- 

Thirdly. Ignorance of the contractions used in engroving on a 
material where brerity was essential. 


Fourthly. Imperfection of copies, as well as of the i&sortptiosft 
thcmsclros, from weatherwear and other injuries. 

Fifthly. The pre-conceived ideas or prejudices of the traDslat4)ffV, 
leading them to imagine what the inscription ought to be, and thesM9 
torturing, misplacing, and misreading the characters in every poceibU 
way, in order to bring out allusions to some local historic fact, or to 
the name of some famous mythic chief, king, or druid, or of some deity 
supposed to bare been worshipped in pagan times. 

B«jecting such illusory modes of investigation, and taking up tfatt 
key alphabet from the Book of Ballymote, aa adopted by the Right Bev. 
Dr. Graves ; and, with its assistance, comparing and carefully analynng 
a number of these inscriptions, the candid and patient investigator 
will, I think, be led to the following conclusions : — 

Firstly. That the monuments are almofit exclusively sepulchral or 

Secondly. That in such cases they seldom record more than the 
name and tribe name of the deceased ; with occasionally bis profeasioii 
as a warrior, a poet, a judge, and sometimes an exclamation of griaf, 
as *' alas," " woo is me," &c- 

Thirdly. That they ore inscribed in the simplest and briefest man- 
ner, connecting words scarcely ever used, and words irequently ex- 
pressed by initials. 

Fourthly. That the word " Maqui/* the genitive of son, occurs in the 
majority of the monuments in some or other of its forms; and that 
where it thus occurs, it becomes the key word of the inscription; as 
before, and after it, we arc sure to find a proper name: and that tKe 
position of this word dictates the position in which the legend is to 
be read. 

Having premised thus much, I shall now proceed to describe thff 
inscriptions. In the accompanying plan and sections I have numbered 
all the large stones, both inscribed and uninscribcd, and shall com- 
menoe with the rooliug slabs. (See PL XV.) 

Roofing Slab, No. I. — This stone is five feet in length, and nine 
inches by eight inches in the centre ; there is a large fracture in the 
upper front edge, and it presents to us two lines of characters on the 
under angles. The iusGription commemcos un the front angle, aboat 
two fe«t from the end ; three strokes of the last character are on the top 
edge, and is as follows : — 



M A If 


O A 



The second line on the opposite angle 


Z M A 


are dcsrij evt* and peHiectlj legible, m that thcrv 
ctcrwiniiig their rdnesL The inscriptioa appean to 
two indiridiul*, and I read it as follova : — 


are of a peculiar type, sot foasd in oar anoala and 
hat are quite concistcDt with the names usually found on 
rnnaaenta. The equralent for "Son of varies from the 
.famala cd!* " Maqi ;** connecting the first two name^ it is " Mag ;" 
■ Ae BMOod iBSta&ce it is the common fonn of ** Mac.'* I would here 
w^mk that, wbile ** Maqi,** the genitive of Mac, in the form mi*^l gv- 
watStrvttd. in these inscriptions, the word in all it.4 inflecnuuA is 
jhnd abo on thexn : thns we have "Maqu," "Mafio/* "Mji^e/' 
«Vaq," and frequently "Maqqi," aLw occasionally **Moc" and 

These ifeames I hare failed to identify in any of our ancient records 
to whkh I haxe access. In the '* Annals of the Four Mu>ti. rs" I find 
twa nun I ■ that hare some fiimily resemblance to that of the tifht on 
Ac vaunneiLt ; they are those of Mantan, slain by Eremon at tho 
telle of Breogan; 3606; and Manach, a priest and woodman to St. 

Bfttjtnj Slttit yo. 4. — This stone is of irregular shape and dimen- 
■aaa, and is five feet three inches in length, and seventeen inches by 
tan inches in the centre ; it has two lines of characters on the upper 
Skgles, which were consequently concealed until the j>uperincumbent 
cardi was remored from the top of the chamber. The inscription com- 
«*«*»** on the firont angle at two feet ten inches from the end of the 
sume. as follows : — 

I! :. ■ 


It is then taken up at the opposite angle, coninuncing two feet from 
the end, as follows : — 


There is a fracture at the top of this stone between the letters O 
»r.d F, where probably one or two cbaractc-rs were irsf ribtd. I hfiv** 
attempted a rendering of thi? in^ription, which 1 submit to the yulg- 
ccBt of those learned in Oghamic lf«rc- : — 

■• MEEPS r5onc, soy OF urcoi, [rsDjETHis] stonf. Mnt" [^-f.] 'Ms 


•CiI," according to CBrien and O'Reilly, i« */'</, tlumlfrs; 
' L\' U ohxion^}}' a «ton/, a Jfaff ; "To, Toj." arcording to the fjmie 
a-thoritie?, is iihnt, muff, tfumb. 

S. I. A. FEOC. — VOL. X. <i 


I make no conjecture as to the imperfect portion. The n 
t^noiic I have failed to identify ; it has a family lilceness to the foil 
ing : " Uchadon, A. M, 3650; Ugaiue, A. iL 4546, 4567; Uirgren, A, 

Roofing Slahj No. 6. — This stone is five feet four inches in 1 
and twelve iooheB by Beven inches in the centre ; a fair and re 
shaped right-nngled pillar; it hns two lines of characters on the un 
angles. The inscription commences four feet from the end of the 
at one of the ungleSi as follows : — 

- | n i t IM I II ' 1 *' 


The last character is on the top of the stone ; it is taken np on 1 
opposite angle at two feet nine inches iVom the end, thus :— 


H t M HIM 


M A 4 I I n I 

This inscription is exceedingly simple, and reads — 


Other readings may probably be suggested, as •' Sae Tad, wob 
Ini.'* The word Sae may be confridered an Oghamic abbreriatioa 
•' Sagart," a priest; or *' Saoi," a learned man ; and " Tad," ft p 
name, equivalent to "Tade," "Tadh," " Tadhg." 

Kany of this name ore found in Irish History, beginning 
Tadhg, son of Olioll Ollum, A.D. 195. I incline, however^ to 
more t^imple form of the inscription. 

JRoofing Slah^ No. 7.— This is averj^ irregular-shaped etone^ 
ing four feet six inches in length, and twelve inches by eight inohct 
the centre; it has three lines of characters — two on the upper so 
the third on one of the under. The inscription commences two 
from the end of the stone, as follows : — 



+W — h 



o s 

A M A Q 

It is continued at the opposite angle, commencing two foet 
inches from the end, thus : — 


t m il 


T A 




The third line will be found on the angle under the Itst. rommf: 
iug also two R*«t four inches from the end. thus : — 


\m ^^^ mm mi mu 

a V s c z 

-well ei&tv mad quite kgiUe, and do controrenj 

M to their -values. X bave Tentnred on m mding of a portion 
_ inscripticm ; the rat I omSlem mj inability to tnui- 
IxeM&il — 

" CV-VAJ.BO wjl vaoi or u v. 

T^m, " Cv-^mlec of the tribe of the Son of Get, the leaned Brehon." 

TW pi^x ** Cu'* is "very ueoal, at leaat Tory iSreqaratly foond to an- 

Ml hisboric names ; many ezamplet will be! Men in the '* Index 

Tiiiiimr of I>r. O' I>onova&'8 " Annals of the Four Hasten." From 

^ pecnliar yoation of the letten '* ee," I take them to be an archaic 

IsKn of "- Ta^** which, according to O'Bsient " signifies any male deacend- 

■tt, whether eon or grandson, or in any other degree or descent from 

t cRtam ancestor or stock." This " ea" I haTe fonnd in the same 

upon other Ogham monuments. " Get" This name is found in 

•Doent authorities : according to Keating, Mac Ceacht was one of 

like thieeXnatha I>e Danan Sings of Ireland when the Clanna Miledh 

haM. Again, we bare Get Mac Magach, who slew Connor Mac 

5«aBa with the mythic brain ball of Mesgedhra, as related in the 

teboric tales called *' Oitte," L e., " Tr8gedie^*' and which are to be 

tonad in the '* Book of Leinster.*' We have also Mac Cecfat, one of 8t. 

KtricVs smiths. 

It also occurs as a prefix to sereral names in the " Annals of the 
Tear Masters." " Ai/* according to O'Brien, '* the learned," ** Desrad" 
the same as " Desmt, a judge" (O'Keilly's Dict.^. the D and T b-.;ag 
ecnanutable in the Irish language. 

The other six characters in this inscription I have been unable to 
raider with any degree of probability. 

Moojin^ Slab, So. 8. — This is a coarse and very irregularly*6haped 
flcne, three feet nine inches in length. The inscription is in one line 
vpon an under angle, the arris of which is very irregular and rather 

Mi l. I I i M 1 1 mil Ill >-tf 


The rendering of this is very simple, 


I hare been unable to trace these names in any of our ancient 
pedisrees, as far as I have been able to consult thorn. 

We are fWmiHnr with one of the names as a compound in that of a 
cViebrated mythic personage, the Dag-da, a deified chief of the Tuath De 

Piinannfi. We also find it in Dag-nime, son of GoU, son of Gollan. 
A. M. 36d6 ('* Annals of the Four Masters'*). 

This last finishes the inscri hedlintel slabs. I shall now proeee^^ 
describe the inscribed upright stones, which principally compoM 
walling nt the north and south sides, t-aking them in order as they 
numbered on the accompanying elevation from the entrance. 

South side PtVar, iVo. 1. (PI. XLX.)— This stone stands at the > 
trance of chamber^ and is rough, and of irregular shape; it is 
feet, six inches in k-ngtli ; and twelve inches by oine inches in 
centre. The inscription commences at the bottom of the stone, clow 
the ground, runs up ooe angkt across the hoad, and a short way doi 
the opposite angle ; and is as follows:— 

B I 

B IC 4 

jim-/ g/ I m il / - 

u n 



r:; ►* 


which I render aa follows : — " Bir son of Mucoi [in] red death," " Rot 
according to O'Reilly, is '* Red ;" " Aise*' is "DeatK" This was pro 
bably the monument of a warrior slain in battle, or burie<l whcro 
met his bloody fate. The inscription is singularly archaic and exprQ»« 

The name" Bir*' I have been unable to trace, unless it may be a form' 
of *' JJar/' or "Barri," a Munster name, recognized in St- Finn-Barr, 
founder of the See of Cork. The patronymic '* Mucoi" I shall refer to 

Svuth tide Piiiaff No, 3. — This is a rough triang:nlar-8haped etoae, 
three feet eight inches in length — and thirteen inches by seven inchee 
at the bottom ; while it is bat four inches by three inchcs^at the top ; 
at present it i^ bottom upwards, the inscriptions commencing two feet 
from the thick end, occupying a space of one foot^ eight inches in 



M A 


The inscription is well and cleanly cut, is in good preservation « 
lliere is no other trace of letters on the stone. 


name appears in Keating in tlie form of Kaoi, a ekilful harper, 
julo Ireland bj the Clauna Miledh. The chiefs of the invailors, 
id HcrvmoQ, disputed about the right to retain so excellent a 
in their service ; which was decided by cflsting lots, in favour 
We find amongst the gnest* assembled at Tara on the 
of tt greet banquet given by Cormac Mac Airt, aa described in 
of Bollyinole," the namn of Nia-Mor, a Kingof Connaught ; 
UAsav of Enna Xiii, u king of Lcinster. It is stated in the 
r Invaijiona/' that the plain uiMrtgh-Tuireadh. theeoeue of the 
bsltJe between the Fir-bolgs and Tuath Dc Danans, was anciently 
■ Magh-Xia." 

8mi/A ti4U Pillar, No, 5. — This is a coarse-grained, irregularly 
" orai flag, three feet three inches in length, and eighteen inehca 
width ftt centra; it hns two lines of characters on its front angles, 
£rom the bottom upwards, and commencing as follows: — 





O D A F 



D £ 

A P 

There is a fhkctnro in the top of the stone^ and the lower part of 
^ itmkrft forming the Q are obliterated, or knocked off; but the 
oppa end* of the five strokes above the angle are quite distinct, and 
•lib the letters M before, and O followiug, formed the word Maqo. 
IWA tt wflntin;*: bnt this may be accounted for by the injury to this 
W ' h we have other instances where this vowel 

W u .ime word. 

The icf^etid is very simple and reads— 

•' ODAFE, sow OF DENAFE." 

Theae names are of a hopelessly foreign cast ; I can make nothing 

A'ffrM suie Pillar, No. I. (PL XVI.) — This is a rude, unshapely 
line of conglomerate, much weather worn ; it is 3 feet inches in 
■Bf{Ui, 10 izichea wide, and 8 inches thick in the centre; it has only 
twM» dkaracUn on one angle towards its top. 


Thr Tipprr part was broken to make it fit into its present position ; 

It! i irt of the angle is fractured; this, and the natural weather 

so friable in \\s texture, will account for the disappcftr- 

ofthe remainder of the inscription; the letters that remain are 

I^ch worn down, but are still legible. This is the second instance 


North Side Pillar, No, 4 — This also ib an iiregalarly-ih^ed dtb, 
standing on its smaller end, which position must have been its onginil 
one. It is in length 3 feet 7 inches ^ 1 foot 10 inches by 8 ineheiit 
its largest end, and 5 inches by 5 inches at its smaller. The ioaoop- \ 
tion commences at 1 foot 2 inches from the bottom, and oooiiiniei j 
round a portion of the top. \ 




A O 8' X A Q 

The introduction of the character expressing the double 
9t I cannot account for. I have found the double consonant 9§ n 
a similar position on another Ogham monument ; whether th^f 0* 
errors of the engraver, or have a peculiar signification, must zemain fiv 
farther investigation. 

The name Deago on this monument is a singular one, which I Itf** 
failed to identify among our ancient names. It is, however, a ^ 
markable fact, that it is found on one of the monuments in the Gc** 
of Dunlo, county of Kerry ; and still more remarkable, in oonnfilk^ 
with the same tribe name. The inscription from Dunlo is ai fill' 

lows : — 

-^-iii i II " I ' ^^^^ ^ " III I III ^ ^ ^ ^ I I mil 



The constant recurrence of the tribe name of Muc, in its 
forms, is worthy of observation. I have not noticed any other repettad 
but this. On one of the Balliutaggart monuments we have " Moo- 
coe ;*' on a lintul stone in St. Seskinan*s Church, county of Waterford* 
we have *' Muc ;*' irom a pillar-stone at Bumham House, county of 
Kerry, "Muce;" on two of the Drumlohan we find it is " Kuooi;'* 
and on one " Muco." The name is evidently that of a tribe very 
widely diffused, from the extremity of the county of Kerry to that of 
Waterford, and found also on a monument at Flacus, county of Co«*1l 


Sft: IS Oaedhelic for >>oftr; and the custom of taking familr nsme^ 
fen ari*^*'* '«*&» prevalent in Ireland, a? well as in othi-r countries 
m "Hm: r^vytistchn" s-vn of the fox ; •* Mac Cue," sion of the hcunfl, &*■. 
T V^ th^ \y>&r 'was held in grtat estimation in Inland, if nut wtu- 
9LT TCTftTtn^ed, we ha^ e strong indications in the tnnliti'-tn-t aud 
^"V-'-*a .;;■ 'iz.T j-easantry. and ret "tronger evident.** in tlit- tatt, that it 
c:cT» ir."'-- ib.e topograpiiical nomenclature of yur i^^land to a gnat 

X'zx »T*:ii:€ terms Miio, Tore, Lioth. and other iippc- Hat ions con- 
*,wrv-i TB-.^h the TincleaD animal, as ChjUan, a hojr : <*n», a !»tTe : 
i,i^\. i Tj-nn* pi?» ^i-* he found deMgnatin^ nunuroiw l-jcaliiif* 

Xi-^s. ai. ancic-nt name of Irtland was Min'-inis or ho:y inland: 

'ZST^ i« a M-ic-tnib in I»ugh Derg. on the ShaniiMij ; ;iN<i :i Mu- -ini- «■» 

•ii '.viFt vt" Clare ; and a diitrict on the hunkr* of tUv Kiwr Brick. 

'.^.i^yr ■-.: Kerry, called Muc-inis; alv) Mu*k-ro*i, in the -.inn- I'mnrv ; 

i iti---Ti.>t. in. the countr of Monuhan ; a Ballynamuc aijil Kil.iniu>-ky, 

^?■ -f Cork: a Coolnamuek. county of WattTforl. One of I hi- 

w«V:'rz. i»land* of .Scotland is called Mue-ini;). and h*T territorial 

ti^ts. ip to a late period, were styled Lairds of Muf*. "We have T^n- 

JCiar.tain, Killam*'y ; Mam Tore, in Connaught, (rlen Torcan, ami other liills, glen«, and natural objects, into whi- h the word 

T'-r: eE.ter5. The boar-name Liath, enter? into the deT-ig7i:iti'jn of one 

-f -•:t riountie*. Leitrim, anr-iently Liath-Tmim ; a;* wi.ll as nf Tan 

"•" aici-ntiy tilled Liuth-Druim, kc. One of our early kii.p'*, cjlUd 

',l:i.-.:-ici_a. or of the great swine, rcijrned from A. M. ;)77;J X'j Hl'JiK 

Tne prominence thu* given to this animal in our lepnJury*?* 
13.; Vj>:'sriphical nomenclature suggests the idea, that the boar may 
LiVfr been identified with that system of animal worship which we 
'i-t-r acme reason for believing once existed in thi?* cnuntiy. The 
E:^iv-a reverenced the varaha, or boar, a* one of the incan;atii.ns of 
Vi-h-ii : and in the geography of the Hindoos. Eurojie is -set forth a-< 
Viraha liwipa," or Boar Island, etjuivalent to the Mur-inis of our 
:i-T- He Vi.-hnu" is represc-nted as residing then- in the fhape of a 
i^.ir : •' and he is descriUd as the chief of a mimtrou^ oflVpring. of 
f:U.ower», in that shape" '"Asiatic Itesearehes," vol. viii. pp. 302- 

I hope this digression may not be considered foreipi to the suhjift 
jr. band, my objei-t being to illustrate the u-^e of this tribe name as 
f-.'md on the Lrumloghan and other Ojrham raonumt-nt;*. 

Havicg thus endeavoured to describe these interesting inscription*-, 
which are a valuable addition to our still increasing sto<k of Ogh)ini 
literature, I would desire to call attention to a few particulars worthy 
'.r notice in connexion with this find. 

Firstly. That we can form no opinion as to the aire of this chamlier, 
tbe p<opk- by whom it was constructed, or the purposes Irir whii h it 
WIS in'.f-nded. as in the exf-avations nothing was *lisfovtrtd that could 
*.:.r'-w light on such inquiries. 


Secondly. That the Ogham monuments were used merely m 
building material, having the ends knocked off where it suited HtZ^- 
builders, and being placed in every position that suited the exigenci*^.^ 
of the work, without any reference to the inscriptions, some of th^^^T" 
being in fact turned upside down, and several placed where they coic^- 
not be read except by removing portions of the structure. 

Thirdly. That the inscriptionfi are all in good order, and perfec-, g»--|» *>. 
legible, the only exception being that with the three characters alre^ "■:— adi 
alluded to; and that this favourable circumstance is owing to tl^ft^^^ 
concealment in this crjpt, where they have been preserved, probi^^^j^j^ 
for ages, from the hand of violence and the injuries of weather. 

Fourthly. That eighteen simple letters are used in these ina c- .j j- 

tions, a double consonant, st, being used once only ; and that no r__j e of 
the characters given in the scales published by Dr. O^Bonoran an^^B Q^a 
Bight Kev. Br. Graves, as representing diphtliongs, are made use <^^f. 

Fifthly. That the monuments exhibit no traces of marks or c — » arr- 
ings of any kind — no cross, or other Christian emblem ; and tha^lft t^^ 
inscriptions show no indications of the pious formula that usuall;^— dis. 
tinguishes the memorials of a Christian people. 

Sixthly, The singularity of the names, which, though not act"u«//^ 
found in our ancient annals, are of that archaic type which we xneet 
in our bardic remains. 

I shall here recapitulate these names, hoping that our GaedJbe/K 
scholars may be able to identify them in the course of their investfjfs* 
tions : — 

Manu, Cu-Naleg, 

Unoga, Cot, 

Timoce, Igu, 

Arb, Dug, 

Uuofic, liir, 

Mucoi, 'Ne, 

Baetad, Odafe, 

Iiii, Denafo, 


The remarkable uniformity of the names found on all the Oghom 
monuments hitherto discovered, and their general dissiniilarity to those 
usually found in our annuls und other liistoric documents, point signi- 
ficantly to the fact, that the people who inscribed tliem were a peculiar 
and distinct tribe. Tliequcstion then arises, who were this people? 
from whence came they':' und in what age did they live? — questions 
easier asked than answered. "Whih- 1 must state that 1 have no theory 
on this subject, yet I tliink there are some facts and considerations that 
point to one of tlie many niigrutions to our island recorded in the bardic 
annals as the people to whom we are indebted for the introduction oC 
the Oghum ; and I would brietly set llicse before the Academy in the 
way of suggestions. The great majority, then, of our Ogham monument* 
are found in the province of Munster^ and principally in the counties of 

1. ? in HoMMmunon ; bo tliai for the pxiipoees of our orga- 
be fairly assumed that the three Boutheni countiefl named 
the Ogham districL 
I, it is TTonby of remark that the majority of theae montimcnt* 
ou the seaboard of the above-named counties — very nuiny of 
he straDds. The Drumlohan find is within thrrc or four miles 
as are many others of the Waterford nnd Kerry Oghoms ; 
fed in the county ol Cork are more inland. The inferences 
B Casts are obvious. 
That the Ogham vas not invented in onr island, el<^ it would 
used gcDerally throughout the country, and would not hiive 
bted to one district. 

kUt. That it was introduced by a maritime people, who landed 
mm or eouth-weetem shorefi, spreading theniRi*lvc5 along tho 
of the counties already named, and who ultimately became 
whole Island. 

the language spoken by those invaders, and cngraren 

monuments, became the language of the country, and 

that which has come down to us, «uriog those mutations 

le and civiliKation subject all languages. But the ques- 

ly arises here, if such a people landed on our southern 

laking themi^Ives masters of the island, imposed their 

customs upon the whole, why are their engraved monu- 

fonnd all over the country ? An answer to this may be 

8upp*>sition that they came os colonist* — perhaps the first 

•ad Tcry probably few in number; that it took a considerable 

before they fully occxipied the southern parts of the 

before the entire was peopled. In these early 

ised but slowly, intfmal feuds and other causes 

growth. Before this people grew beyond tho limits of 

district they may have abandoned the use of the Ogham, 

a more advanced character, suited to a more advanced stago 

I, and derived most probably &om foreign intercourse. For 

that the Gaedhil hiid letters independent of the Ogham 


Yet the other alternative may alBO be coneiderod — namoly, 
the people who used tbis character may hare been invndcre, and n 
original colonists ; that being invudei-s, they were probably weak 
numbers, tliough of a buperiur civilisation to theaborigintre, whom 
found, perhaps, thinly populating the country. Thow invaders ha' 
formed a settlement in the immediate district where they landed, and 
increasing in uumbers by the course of nature, spread themselves alon^ 
the eeaboard, and around those commudiouB harbours and sea inleta ao 
plentiful on the south and south-wc.^tem coast« ; being thema^Te* ft 
maritime people, they affected the shores, both from a natural dear* 
for the Rea, the convenience of fishing, and for politic reaaons, 
much, as by the sea they could hold communication with their nab' 
land, receive reinforcements from thence, and by it also make th 
escape if unexpectedly hard pressed by the aborigines. Such has 
been the policy of colonista under similar circumstances. In 
immense district, compriaing the counties of Cork, Kerry, and Wa 
ford, such a colony may have existed for centuries, growing into 
power and numbers of a considerable state, ere they were able 
extend their dominion over the whole island. Such a state of 
as, in fact, existed in England at the time of the Roman invajti< 
when the island was divided into a number of states totally indepondcn 
of each other, and often engaged in Herce wars. In tliis olteruativ 
we might also suppose that the Ogham fell into disu&e among thom 
thoir power was extended over the whole island. That snch a state 
things is not only possible, but probable, we may infer from the tMf 
that the descendanta of the Norman invaders were near five ceutmriei 
settled in Ireland before they were able to subdue the country; and 
that for the same period their language and letters were unknown out 
side their limited dominion, known as the " Fale;" while the letter* 
and idiom brought by them originaBy into the country would be 
our days unintelligible, except to the learned alone. Here, I think, 
a parallel case to what may have occurred in our island at a rem 
period. The argument might be further amplified and illuatroted ; 
but as I desire only to indicate a line of investigation, I shall leave the 
pursuit of it to others. 

Now, among the many migrations recorded bv onr Bardic his- 
torians, there is one, and only one, to whom the intro<luctioD of th)B 
Ogham might be attributed with any degree of plausibility — namely, 
th tt tribe called the Clanua Milcdh, or AliJesians. 

Rejecting the mythic origin and adventures of the anceaton of 
Miledh, and the conjectural chronology of the Bards, we may saAil 
admit the probability of an ancient eastern tribe having migrvtcd 
through, or from the northern parts of Egypt, along the shores of Uie 
Mediterrane^in to Ceuta, and from thence aerosa thcstrtiita into SpuA 
the very identical route taken by another eastern tritye in subaeq 
ages, who founded an oriental empire in Europe that lasted nearly ei^i 
centtiriee> Tank and his Arabs did in A. D. 710 what their aneeetoi 

rUt- , 



pushed, p«rfaap8,fiiWncenturie6 before— for "history but repeat* 
' The Phcenicians founded Glides eleven or twelve centuries B. C 
tnders never founded colonies in uninhabited districts ; they 
merchant« and chapmen, and without a population they coiild not 
lnHl& At ail events, during the dominion of Canhugc, and in the days 
of Uu Scipios, Spain was not only colonized by the Phoenicians, but 
VM inhabited by a numerous, wealthy, and prosperous aboriginul 
^m IliAt Spain may in these days have thrown off some of her adven- 
HtofDOS, or superabundant population, is not at all unlikely. That one of 
^»h0B bttoda may have dropped on the southern shores of Ireland 
^Bi c^wUy probable ; because any person looking at the map of Europe 
F^VMi finl to see that the sooth of Ireland la the natural land-fall from 
Ah BorCh of Spain, 

WbMher Mich a migration as we have been considering took place 
btfiffe or after th^e intercourse of the Tynan people with tho British Isles, 
it if now tmpoesible to say ; more likely it took place subsequently, as 
It BULst believe thai enterprising people to have been the pioneers of 
•B maritime discovery. All our native historians, however they may 
tttr on other points, unanimously insist on this Spanish invoaionf and 
til entire subjugation of Irehmd by the invaders; and here I would 
iviArk, that this statement is corroborated by the opinions of many 
l«rft*d men ha^'ing no Celtic eympathics or prejudices whatsoever. 
Di»«opeof the present paper will not permit mo to recapitulate thcso 

Oar iwtive authorities go on to state that these invaders came in a 
fctC &f thirty ships; that in each were thirty warriors, with their 
HfBij that they landed at Inbher Sceine, now tho Bay of Kenmare, 
• th» county of Kerry ; that from thence they marched inland, and 
(ttBQiQittcred an army of tho natives, ptated then to be a people called 
Toith De> Dananns, at Sliabh Mis — a mountain district between the bays 
oTTViIm aad Dingle; that a battle was there fought, in which the 
kstv w^n defeated. This engagement appears to have been a running 
Ul^ aa VM usual in that period amongst semi-civilized tribes, con- 
aoed thraogh a series of glens, or valleys, at the foot of Sliabh Mis ; 
tv<» of tbe«fl are called Glen-Fais and Glen-Scothian, from Fais and 
b«tey two amazons who fought in tho ranks of tho Clanna-Miledh, 
Mdwcre there slain. The^ loculitioa are as popularly known by the 
ik**)e atnm as any others in the country; and in tilcn-Faia there are 
Miliaftly evidences of some remarkable transactions having there taken 
fiaa at tome irmotv period. 

Here are two unormouB pillar- stones, one eleven feet in height still 
Wet; the other is ten feet in height, in an inclining position, tho 
l^torhsvisig a (inc Ogham inscription engraved thereon. There ore 
1^ n unattc«rtaincd numbtT of ancient graves, cist-formed, containing 
nmttos; the discovery and opening of several of wliich are 
is • paper read before the Academy by the late Venerable 


Archdeacon Eowan, on November 8th, 1858. Now, the account gii 
by the bardic historians of the speedy subjugation of the whole 
to the Gocdhil, as the Chuma-Milidh are more generally called 
their ancestor Oaedhelas, is perfectly fabulous, and unworthy of 
a handful of adventnTcrs could not in bo ehurt a space of time c( 
the native population, and occupy so largo an extent of conntry, 
grown, and full of natural fastnesses. We must remember that, 
near five centuries of military occupation and warfare, thu fioglish, 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, were compelled to cut down all 
woods before they succeeded in reducing the country to suhraission. 

We must, I think, conceive that the progress of the Guedlielic pow< 
in Ireland was of such a nature as I hare already described. 

Again, it is a strong corroborative fact, that in the very county 
which the Gaedhil are said to have first landed are found by far 
greatest proportion of Oghum monuments; that they are found 
reputed scene of their first battle, and in very remarkable nam) 
and about the very localities where they made their first ap] 
and sojourn. The advent of the Spanish colonists was, no doubt, 
epoch in the primitive history of Ireland to them. I believe she is 
dehtM for her Brehon laws, her poetry, her music, and that system 
Oriental paganism of which so many relics remain to us. 

It may be very naturally asked, have we any evidence of the exist- 
oneo of such a people in Spain ? or is there any historic evidence of th«i 
state of that country, or of the people inhabiting it, at the remote peri< 
claimed for the Oadhclian invasion ? X think that Strabo provides 
answer to ao natural a query in his description of the Turdetoni ani 
Turduli — a people or peoples inhabiting southern Spain. Hear what 
says of them : '* These people are esteemed to be the most intelligei 
of all the Iberians ; they have an alphabet, and possess ancient writings,' 
poems, and metrical lawtt, six thousand years old, aa they say. The 
other Ibcriaus are likewise furnished with an alphabet, although not of 
the same form, nor do they spt'ok the s^me language^' (Strabo, Bohn*8 
edit, vl, p. 209). He i\irther states that the people called themselres 
Turdetani, and their country Turdetania ; this word is pure Gaedhelic, 
Tir-do-Tana, from Tir, a country, land ; de, of; Tana, a drove, a herd, 
** the land of herds." The Greek geographer states, " that Turditania 
bred a superabundance of cattle (ibid., p. 217), and that they were famous 
for the production and export of wool, and that rams for the purpose of 
eovering fetched a talent" (ibid,, p. 216). He further states that they 
were also called '* Turduli ;" but whether they were two distinct tribe*, j 
or one tribe having two appellations, ho could not exactly say. NowjI 
Turduli is as intensely Oaedhelic as any word can be ; ''Tir-dnilc,*^ 
from Tir, a country, land (in the Sanscrit, Tir raeana land border), and 
Duile, a pleasant land or country, How indicative both these names 
are of the beautiful and fertile Andalusia, the richest province of 
southern Spain, originally inhabited by those people. I am well aware 
how delusive etymological likenesses are, and how apt to lead us astray 


mresti^tioD. nor do I usually attacli much importance to themj 
k thu instance, where, without doing any nolcnce to the struct 

we tlnd one language interpreting another so aptly, according^ 
phy«ical features and productions of a country, we are bound 
0ome value to them, were it only as corroborative evidence. 
The topography of southern Spain is intensely Oaedhelio. Many of 
riTeiB, fltreams, lakes, hilb, and other physical features, are called 
which can only be interpreted by that language ; while the 
tbemflelveSf in their character, customs, and superstitious, am 
race to our own. In addition, tlicre ia corroborative evidence 
sympathies cxistinf;, from time immemorial, between tho 
[Of the south and west of Ireland and the Spaniards, in the con- 
terconree from the mofft ancient times continued down to late 
lirral times ; and in the ethnological affinities between the people 
rarioas parts of the west and south-west coast of Ireland and those 
Spain ; not of the Biscayans or Catalans, who were of the Gothic 

but of the Andalucians, who were of the Eastern type. 

I hare before stated that it was not my intention to broach any 

^fttory on this important subject ; my desire has been rather to indicate 

.lin« of inve^tigiition that has suggested itself to me from the various 

i^ns 1 linve already adduced. I trust that this much-ne- 

-i ject will re*.'eive from the members of this Academy that 

to which I believe it is entitled, &om its bearing upon an 

ra of our national history. 


CiMincH or DacscLOHAN." By the Right He v. Chahles Goatss, 
>J)., Lord Biahop of Limerick. 

[Mad« Norembw 30, 1667.] 

Tn Bishop of limerick, in moving that Mr. Brash's paper be re- 
link to the Council for publication, observed that the thanks of the 
itAiidnj were due to Mr. Brash for his detailed dc&cription of the 
I^lohan cave, and the Ogham monuments contained in it. To such 
n atknowledgment Mr. Brash would not be di»:<ntitlcd if it should 
ppear that he had fallen into some errors in his copying and 
;; of the inscriptions. In ordinun.* cases, Oghams, being of 
li ;mliquity, have been more or le^ts di-tuced by the action of the 
if not in other ways ; but special ditficullies stand in the way 
ing inscriptions on monuments built, like those described by Mr. 
into the walls and roof of an underground gallerj', without any 
it being made to leave the ioHcribed edges visible. The Bishop 
that his own drawings of the Ogham inBcriptions in the cave at 
had undergone some importnnt corrections on the occasion of a 
Tint to the place. Comparisons of the names appearing in them 


with others found ebewhere bad suggested corrections which a ftirthc 
examination proved to be necossary. In fact., the intelligence of the' 
antiquary, having a general notion of what he may expect to find in an 
iuscriptiou, giyes no smtdl help to his senses of sight and touch in read- 
ing it 

Looking for the first time at the inscriptions now laid before the 
Academy, the Bishop would hazard one or two conjecttues. It ap- 
peared to him probable that the inscription on the south side pilltfr 
No. 1 (see p. 1 10), ended with the name liiTTiAS, or RFrriAft, notBimAn. 
The former of these iVe<)uently occurs on Ogham monuments existing in 
Kerry- He also suggested that the inscription read by Mr. Braah M 
lou Maqt Dao (nootiiig Slab, No. 8, p, 109) may prove to be Lcoo 
Maqui Dko, the last three letters being the commencemect of the name 
Dcoo, occurring in the inscription on the north side pillar No. 4 (seti 
p. 112). This name is better known to us in the nominative form, 
DiCHP, which wo meet in the life of St. Patrick. 

Without attempting to offer on extempore criticism on the reading! 
and tnmslations of the inscriptions proposed by Kr. Brash, he observed 
that he thought that in the inscription on the roofing slab No. I (see p., 
106), he recognizes a name Nocati, or Nogati, which he had soon 
where. He also directed attention to the element Cuna in the insorii 
tion on the rooting slab No. 7 (see p. 108), which, in Ogham pro] 
names, represents the Co> of ordinary spelling. According to this view^j 
the first word in the inscription would bo the genitive caae of Cov- 


The Bishop reminded the Academy that the almost universal occi 
rcnco of the word Maui in the Ogham inscriptions, and the fact 
thefte inscriptions consisted in general merely of names and patronymic«t{ 
had been announced by him in his first communication on this subject 
to the Academy. 

He also observed that the case of Drumlohan, like that of Donloc, 
near Killamey, is a pipe, one of those placvs in which we may 
expect to find Ogham monuments. Thv Brehon Laws, as qnol 
by him in a former communication, ret'ur to Oghams preserved 
FirU as evidences of the ownership of land; doubtless, because thpy' 
exhibited the names of persons who had long before lived upon it. 
Some of tbe Ogham monuments entombed in caves are so much! 
weather-worn, that they must have stood exposed to Uie air for ogoai 
before they were built into the places where they have been dis- 

The Bishop declined to discuss the theory propo«ed by Mr. Bra^ 
00 to the persons who introduced und used tbe Ogham chnractor 
in this country. At the same time ho intimated his Itclicf timt tho' 
Ogham does not reprenent the language, or the al]>halH>t of a colony 
which migrated into Ireland in such n-mote times as Mr. Brash »o«ms 
to point to. But. whatever be the value of these spocuUlions — andi 
their int(.*rest cannot be denied — the Bishop declared his conviction that 
Uie deciphering of Die inscriptions will give us materials trom wl'ic 1i wc 


thAll be; able to make the safest inferonces. The difficulty of effecting 
thair intcqjrctation^ doea not arise so much, according to hia riow, 
frgvB their remote antiquity, or our imperfect acquaintance with the 
Imgoage in which they are oxpreseed^ an from the ctrcumiftances that 
tiiej were originally intended, liko tho Ogham character iiw^lf, to be 
cryptict— legible only by the initiated. And this accounts for that 
dauclixiation shown by Irish scholars to undortuVe the deciphering of 
then. They are an exemise of something more than ordinary philolo- 

Tbi- Bishop concluded by expreesing a hope thai he would be able 

More long to lay before the Academy a communication illustrating 

ihtm views. 

XXrV. — FcTKTHSB Notes ov MrscirLAB Anomalies is Ufiiak Axa.- 


AmKB Macalistkb, L.K.QC.P., L.R.C.S. ; Surgeon to the Adelaide 
Hoipdtal ; Demonstrator of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons ; 
■ad one of the Honoraxy Secretaries of the Koyal Geological Society 
«f Iivland. 

[Bead December 9, 1867.] 

09 a CmnnfT occasion I laid before the Royal Irish Academy a cata- 
liT principal rariationB which I had noticed in Uuman 

M\ p' the sereral preceding Sessions in the dissecting-room 

tfUi^ Ra\id College of Surgeons. Tlirough the past winter of 186G-7, 
Ihnv ttdded to the list many irregularities of noto^ which nppoar tx) me 
•" bf well worthy of record. I had not the opportunity of examining 
Hch Hibject which came into the Anatomy Hall for dissection; but of 
Ahb wMwe examinations I have directly superintended I bare pre- 
Vrrvd Dotet of sixty cases, not one of which failed to display some 
4iv{itiQa from the arrangement usually called normal, and in some 
ftaK dtyartiinA from type were gregarious to a singular extent. 

Tk» observation of anomalous rouscle« forms one of the most 

^tetado^ departments of Teratology, and is interesting in a compara- 

tr*e point of riew^ as showing, firstly, the relation between the muscles 

snd those of other vertebrate animals; and, secondly, as iUns- 

ftod indicating the correct homotypy of muscle.^ in different 

of the same body. To tbe second of these subjects I would wish 

call attention in the present paper. The teachings of individual 

must always be received with caution, for Teratology, if not 

I by Embryology, is at the beat but nn uncertain guide It has, 

lM«««ei, one great advantage, namely — that of indicating special lines 

«f atady to be followed up in other branches. 

Tfas general conditions which I have found to exist with regard to 
tlM ocRureoce of anomalies seem to be the following: — First, with 
icgBrd to their frequency in different regions, I have found them to 
bt iKiat DOmenms in the forearm ; secondly, in the face ; thirdly, in 

IlW loot ; fourthly, in the back ; fifthly, in the neck ; sixthly, in tho 


thoracic "wall ; and least fhjquent in the ahdomen, hip. thi|^ 
perineum. M'Whianie, who gives a short re/tum^ of all that was knoTm 
in his time of these anomalies ("London Medical Gazette," ?f. 8. 
voL ii. 1846), says, they are least frequent in the face and neck, then 
the trunk, and most frequent in the extremities — a gener tll^ itim 
which does not accord with what I have seen. In some 
order of frequency Heems t^:> depend upon the degree of special w-.., 
function uniformly enjoyed by the muscle in question in man and ol 
animals — that is, when a muscle, or group of muscles, enjoys 
Tariation of use in man, or is developed fyr varying purposes, and ii 
varying positions and degrees of perfection in lower animals, abnormali- 
ties occur most frequently in it ; while a group of musclea, that in all 
animals is devoted to one uniform use, or set of uses, is not so liable 
vary. Likewise, we find frequency of variation of any muscle in mi 
to be in direct proportion to the amount of divergence which 
muscle usually ejchibits from the type muscle, as found in the maj 
of the individuals of the animal kingdom. To illustrate these poinST 
we look at the triceps extensor cubiti — a muscle uniformly with oi 
action — or the quadriceps extensor cruris, or the muscles ofmosticatioi 
we will find that they are comparatively seldom the seat of variation 
while the fiexors and extensors of the fingers and toes pre^nt an indi* 
viduolity in every subject which we may examine. It is likewiw^ 
worthy of note, that in the different regions of the body the order 
of frequency of the different forma of muscular anomalies varies in each 
part : thus varieties of fission are most common in the back and thorax ; 
those of coalescence I have seen more frequently exemplified in the_ 
forearm. I have illustrated this in the following dingram, in whiol 
the numbers, read vertically, indicate the degree of frequency of vans 
tions, commencing with one which shows the most common loo^itv fo 
the form of variation. When a variety of any kind is very seldoi 
met with, I have marked it rari^ instead of oharacteriziDg it 
a number : — 







mm, . 







Faoa, . . 





Bwk. . . 



1 B 

An«, . . 




Pool, . . 




Neck, . . 




Thnnx, . . 




7 \ 

Atidomen, . 







* Pvoai parrut, pyramidilU. 
i CmImwhc^ i« the nonnal mod^ of Insertion of some of (he facial mnvcli 
lOCDtly tl>« instuim u»^ Id thecompilntiun orihutatile werp CAW^of uini«ii*ti 
X Rxc\xuAv9 of tlie aiitim of flexor longui dtgiiorittn anil fioxor liallucif kmgvm 
rbich U ttf be fjunj in nearlv evtrv ru<;l. 


In the conpilation of thii table, rt^ard ia had to the absolute num- 

of specimerEUt of variety, and not to the number of species of varia- 
IB each region ; bnt it ia a matter of experience that the two cloeely 
mitngfoodj and muscles which frequently vary are liable to the greatest 
Mabcr ol* kinds of irre^larity. 

ThM and the surcceding table I have made out from my own 
obsermtions alone, and thus they may differ from the experience of 
ftCkui in tereral respects. However, to form true eHtimates of these 
dqpccs of frequency, the combined experience of many obserTers would 
Wrsquiste. In the construction of these tablefl, I have taken into 
•Movnt all my observations, extending over the Seseions 1859-67, 
ladttaTCi, and not merely the results of last year's researuhee. 

As the preceding table indicates the relative order of the occurrence 
if MOBalies in the various refnons of the body, so the second list 
the frequency of occurrence of the classea of varieties in 
ftfion : — 










OedMcncft. . . 





4hHDea. . . . 




Ittm Gtmn Dot nor- | 
mil pan of the body 1 




Onplicily, . . . 




r«ti«au<rfCoiine. . 




nute, . . . . 





I hnve not found all classes of varieties more common on the right 
dutt on the lefr ; but I agree with H'Whinnie. that anomalies are more 
frnMnlly ungymmotricai than otherwise. Some new muscles, as the 
carpi radialis proftindus, seem to occur more frequently on the 
ligM iWe, M the eight instances recorded by Wood (P. R. 8., 1867, 
p. 580; and "Journal of Anatomy and Physiology," vol. i., No. 1), 
§tt «U upon that ride ; and the three instances in which I have found 
H ITB likewise on the right. The rectus thoracicus displays a similar 
mebTity to the right side. 8om« other irregularities seem to occur at 
bMt ma freqaently on one side as the other ; thus, I have seen the 
hsmcnl h«ad of the biceps rather more often on the Ici^ than on 
th» right. 

Yarietiefl are, probably, more common in males than females ; those 
of teloci and suppression occur more frequently in the latter, as they 
woally posacss a weaker muscular s^'stem. AnomaIi(» of duality, 
altcird course and attachment, and coalescence, most frequently are to 
be fMtad in males. New muscular germs are more frcquetitly de- 
In the male sex, although an exception has been claimed for 
Bochdalek, in speaking of the crico-thyroideus poaticus (kera- 

1- 1. A. paoc — vot. 1. 8 


tocricoid of Merkcl), menttoQs, that it is always in females tkat he hi 
found it; but Professor Turner has found it in males as well, 
I hare likewise seen it in both sexes. 

The proportionate frequency of the occurrence of Yuriations in indirin 
dual musclea is likewise a point of interest. I have found the moacU 
most frequeotly ubDormal to be the following, which I have grouped 
the order of frequency of variation : — 

1. Palmaris longus; 2. fieior digitorum longrus pedis et flex< 
bollucis (alterations in their mode of union); 3. biceps flexor cubiti 
4. extensor ossia metocarpi pollicis ; 5. pectoralis major; 6. coi 
brachialis; 7. digastric; B. peronous tertius ; 9. zygumatici. FrOBR^^ 
this list I have excluded such muscles as riRorias Santorini, taX* 
pingo-pharyngeus, pyramidalis abdominis, psoas parvus, whoso fre- 
quency of absence is often nearly as great as their presence. Duting 
the past session I have preserved records of the presence of some 
of these rare musoles in the subjects exaroinedj and they are u 
follows : — 

Axygos pimrjmgei 
LerAtor cUvlcuIn 
Rectu« sternAlli 
Zygomaiicut minor 
Palmaris longai 
Subscapti) o- h u meral 






















Psou parros 1 in tO 

Peroomu t«rtiui .... 3 m 4 

Peroaeus qaArtui .... t in ft 

PMrooeoi qiu'otl .^ . . 1 la & 

Extrnsor oasis meUUrti } . ■ .^ 

.... f 1 la wir 

ballncu .... ) 

With regard to the producing causes of anomalies, we cannot di 
finitely pronounce any general principles until the mode of the origini 
formation of the several muscles in the embryo has been thoroughly 
wrought out ; but they seem to be capable of being grouped inl 
two seta. First, those caused by altered conditions of embryonic forms; 
and, secondly, those caused by subsequent faults of development. 
Muscle germs, not normal portions of the human body, but natural to 
other animals, ore often found as anomalies, and can only be explained 
in one way — namely, the tendency which all animal structures exhibit 
of wandering towards a primordial or archetypal symmotricttl form, to 
which neighbouring animal individuals are related, either as paralteb 
or descendants. There seems to bo a typical muscle system in TSrt^ 
brate animals, as there is a typical skeleton — a starting point horn 
which ull the muscular arrangements of the varied species have bees 
oiiginally modelled, and towards which they continually tend to revert. 
To 'bhis daas, also, belong those dosses of muscular duality depending 
upon vegetative repetition ; and many instances of suppremioo am 
referrible to the same set of causes. On the other hand, the 
of muscle fission, coalescence, and some cases of suppression, ar^^ due 
the varying conditions of development of contiguous muscles ; th< 
first and last depending on deficient growth ; the second upon exubemnl 
development and union from excess of formation: hence, the latter 
tunally associated with increased muscle power, and the former wil 
weakness; and all these may be produced in adulti by subsoqucnf 


Many of the cases of altered attachments are due to subsoquent 
IDR of normally dcrdoped miude germs, and almost any 
joint will furmsh ns with illustrations of some of these : for 
bfftnnrp, many of the cases in which the biceps tendon is counecled to 
thr inUnrtubercuhir sulcus of the humerus, in place of being attached 
to the glenoid ligament depend upon chronic rheumatic disease, und 
may be fastened to anomalous sites on bones as ii rceult of 
mflainiiiatioD, of wounds, of fractures ox dislocations, or from dis- 

Of th« first class of anomalies, or those muscles not forming parts of 
(bo typicai human frame, the following examples bare occurred to me 
visliin the post ses^on : — 

I. Two specimens of the rectus thoracicus — one a large and well- 
wked mu&cJe, the other weak and aponeurotic, and both were un- 
ipBiaetncal* and on opposite sides. This muscle has recently been 
areftLQy illustrated by Professor Turner, of Edinburgh, in the ** Journal 
flf Attotomy," No. II., p. 246, pL xii., ftg. 1-6. Of the instances figured 
by him, fig. 6, the right side resembled the first of these which I 
bifv Ibaiid, and the other resembled the left part of fig. 3. Of the ctiscs 
nUUied by Turner, five were on the right side, two were on the left, 
fvt vers mesial or crossing, and nine were symmetrical. All the spe- 
OBMM which I have seen hare been eleven, and of these, two were 
^ble, eight single, and on the right ; and one single, and on the left. 
Qnber, in the " Memoiresde rAcadtimicImptiriale de St.Pctershourg," 
lanLiti. 1860, describes having found it symmetrical thrice, and ha\^ng 
ttm it single onc«,on each side. Wood mentions three examples on 
tilt right side, one on the left:, and one symmetrical instance. Hollctt 
ftgotio— many instances, but gives no numerical account. From these 
IvtT-two epecimens, it will be seen that the symmetrical instances are 
to uc ancymmetricol in the proportion of fit^een to twenty-seven ; and, 
flf tibe Utter, the specimens on the right are to those on the left as seven- 
ym to fire. Turner has supported the opinion first broached by Wilde 
("CoJoment. Acad. Petropol.," vol. xii. 1740, p. 320); and Ilallett, 
the! U is connected with the cutaneous system of muscles— a port of 
IW pcnnicTiIiis ; but I think we may see some reasons for holding a 
opinion, especially in connexion with its tendinous lines trans- 
len by Hallett and Aleckel, aud with its connexions with the 
ids, the rectus ond the ribs, it seems, generally, at least, to 
a trao vertobral, or rib muscle. Besides, I think we may have odif- 
opinion, upon theoretical grounds, to be stated hereafter. 
The cUndo-occipitalis occurred live times durijig the past year; 
'tiiQse was on the right aide of the neck of a mole subject, and 
from the middle fourth of the clavicle on its upper border, ex- 
to and sepftrate from the cleidomastoid ; passing upwards, it was 
^'^^uid by the Bnrioularis magnus nerve; and higher up, by the occipi- 
t*lb minor; and, finally, was inserted into the outer half of the superior 
^'^atrcrie occipital line. The stemo and cleido-mastoids were per* 



claTiculor being croBsed and overlapped by the eternal head, the latt 
being superficial to, and the former being crossed by the spinal aoceosory' 
nerve, which then ky beneath the cleido-oc4;ipitabs, and passed back lo 
the trapezius. Other examples of this muscle occurred, but none #0 
distinct nor so characteristic. Within the present session (1867-8), I 
have seen one instance of the cloido -occipital which is interesting, M 
occurring in connexion with multiple roriatiun ; it was in the neck of t 
very fatt'enaaltisubjict^audco-existod with a bi-laminareleido-ma5toi4.i 
a double sternal origin for the stcnio-niiistoid, composed of two parallel 
tendinous slips; a double sterno-thyroid, whose fibres were pifolonged 
upwards to the os hyoides ; a sterno-hyoid^ whose sole origin was 
the posterior surface of the sternal fourth of the clavicle, and a 
numerary muscle, to bo described afXorward.% between the two ]«t 
This same subject posse-saed the accessory muscle on the bock of ihm' 
Deck described by Mr, Wood, namely, a flat fascicle from the tendon of 
the serratus posticus superior to the transTer»c process of the atlas. In 
it, likewise, the omohyoid arose from the second fourth of the clavicle 
from the sternal end, and so lay directly external, and nearly parallel 
to the sternohyoid, with which indeed it coalesced, for its upper thinL 
This muscle, likewise, was fleshy for its whole length, and hoid no traoo 
of a scapular origin. The cleido-occipital muscle has bwn deftcribed by 
Mr.Wood(*' Proceedings of the Royal Society," 18G7, p. 519,)andheha» 
found it present iu twelve out of thirty-four subjecta, and all these wera 
symmctncal. In my experience, I have not seen it quite so commoiif 
as I hare only met with it once in every twelve stubjects. I hare seen, 
however, much more frequently cleido-occipital fibres inseparabU from 
the cleido-iuaetoid. 

3. The levator glandulie thyroidei of Sommering is perhaps scsnslj 
to be regarded as an anomaly, as its description is to be found in the 
ordinary anatomical text books. I found it once attached to the pro- 
minent angle of the pomum ad ami, and inserted into the apex of a 
large pyramid of Lalouettc ; the others were inserted into the fibrous 
capsule of the lateral lobe of the thyroid body. 

4. This subject likewise possessed a kerato-cricoid like that de- 
scribed by Ucrkel ("Anat. und Physiol, der mcnschlischen fitimiM 
und SprachorgajiB," Leipzig, 1857, p. 132). This muscle has ben 
also noticed by Bochdalek (" OesteiTeich. Zeitschrift," 1861, No. 4), 
who mentioDs that he has always found it on one Bide, and in females; 
but Patruban gives a case in which it occurred on both sides; and 
Turner (Edinburgh " Medical Journal," February. 1860, p. 744), hoi 
met with it four times on the right, twice on the left, ondonoe on both. 
I have seen, during last session, this muscle four times sin^y, and I 
have found it in male larynges, as likewise has Tomer. 

6. The cephalo.pharyngeus was represented by an aponeurotic band, 
devoid of mu^ulanty, in a f^ubjf^t pos$es?in^ an a^^ygo? pbaryngia, as 
before described {'* Proceedings Royal Irish Academy,'* Aprit 
Pi. vi., fig. 1. b). The former muacle seems to attain its mnximura 
development in cetaceans, ns I have s«>en it very large in tiie OU 


mpht im t trinftal (described in " Proceedings of the Zoological Society/' 
1b67, pw 481)* I^ ^^'^ ^ tiese ttnimalH is to ossistin the forcible eleva- 
tion of the glottis, into which it* fibres are continued, into the gaping 
aperture of the poftterior nares. 

6. I hare aeon a single apecimen of the muscle, described by Boch- 
4akk as the tritict^o-glofwns pn.'vdng from the corpns triticeum in the 
posterior thyro-hyoid ligament, to enter thcmibstance of the tongue, with 
saateri<ir fibres of the hyo-glowus. Although frequently looked for, I 
Bare butonoe 8<?en it; but Bochdalek has found it much more frequently 
y moa i, m out of twenty-two Mibjcct« he has found it present in eight. 
My fpecim«i was on the right side, but he bus described it on both. 
It seems to me to be nothing but a fourth diflereutiuted part of the 
liyo-^Uwaua mnwle, to whoso posterior border it is nearly panillel, and 
tram tka kCTnto-glossal part of which it is little more separated than 
ie th« f*^ " '" :;lo8suB from the basio-glossus.* 

7- ous minimus has occurred seyeral dmes^ and once in 

Moarxi' n vrwn a Urge bi-laminar Boaleuus posticns and medins ; it dis- 
fla^ed no peculiarities. 

6. In the subjoct before mentioued as possessing the cleido- 
oedpitAliR and the clavicular origin of the omo-hyoid, there occurred a 
r- " le {rUido-fntfinlis)^ which sprang from the back of tho 

<. I thfi origins of the stemo-hyoid and omo-hyoid, by a 

■o/Tow d«iii>hy origin, passed upwards and inwards between the sterno- 
hyoid and stemo-thyroid muscles for about on inch, and ended in a ilat 
"^ ided tendon, which was inserted into the fascia of the neck. It 
to be a tensor of the cervical fascia, and differed from the 
Xatmar, or coato-fascialifi cervicia which I described in my last 

I. Two other instances of the mento-hyoidean muscle, figured in my 
papiT, have occurred, in both cases double, and separate from the 
iigaftric. This muscle is always on a plane superficial to the digaa- 
tric; aad I would be inclinod to regard it as a modilied cutaneous 
BUMcle — an inner part of the platysma myoidee. 

10. A few instances are on record of nmsoular bands in connexion 
wtlii riacera, and two very curious instances were found last session. 
Tbr firtt of thene was shown by Mr. Hewitt, junior — namely, a thin but 
iiirtiactly muMOlar band, arising from the outer surface of the front 
wU of the fibrotiB layer of the pericardium, and ext-cnding upwards in 
(h» eentre of the anterior mediastinum, was inserted into the capsule of 
thyroid hody nt ita lower border. This pericardio-thyroid fascicle 
en when tiie stemo-hyoids and thyroids had been removed, aud was 
downwards by the removal of the sternum. That a olip of tbis 

* Saet tiw Abov* wm written I hftve found a Urge ex&mple vt tritiooo-glowu, 
Ib aaotlwr «bj«cl, diaKcted January 30, 1^68, a distinct new miucU exivted in tha 
IS ; It aroae fironi thr inferior comu of ibc thyroid cartilage, and paased Inwardi and 
irda (0 Iba oatar angle of tha baw of tlie arytenoid cariilaga- Thii jEaimto-aiytenoid 
may ha?a actad as an accaiaory dilator of rima glettidit. 



kind could have any use it is difficult to imagine ; it had no cotmexioi 
with the Bterno- pericardial ligaments of Luschka, which aomel 
though rarely, exiiibit traces of imstriped mQ8cle». 

1 1. The second visceral slip was situated on the abdominal wall 
a young female subject, and to it I would assign the name pul 
peritouealis. It arose from the right eide of the ilio-pectineal liai 
immediately behind the attachment of Oimbemat's ligament. Fi 
thi^ point it ran upwards, and a little outwards, beneath the trancTV-^ 
salis abdominis muscle, and over the fascia transrersalifi. AHer cnn** 
ing the deep epigastric artery, it terminated not far out from 
median line, by being inserted into the fascia transversalis and 
neum at a distance of two- thirds of the interval between the uml 
and the pubis. Of the normal abdominal muscles iu this subject 
was a pyramidalis nearly reaching to the umbilicus, a snpemumi 
supra-umbilical linea transversa in the rectus, and a strong and 

12. The chondro-epitrochlcaris occurred twice, springing from 
cartilage of the seventh rib» running along the lower edge of the 
I>ectoral tendon, and ending iu the internal intermuscular veptum* 
which it is connected to the inner condyle. 

13. In the perineum of a male subject a large superficial muacl 
arose from the surface of the inner border of the tuber ischii, and 
inserted into an ejcpunsion over the corpus spongiosum urethrv^ supei 
ficial to the accelerator urinae, and covering in the posterior part of 
intermuscular triangle concerned in the second incision of lateral 
tomy. The transversus perinei was normal, and deeper seated, 
there was noischiobulbosus, or transversalia alter. This slip could not 
be a representative of that muscle, however, as it was superficial to 
the other perineal muscles, and in front of the transversus proper. 
From its great size and strength, being larger than all the normal 
perineal muscles together, it might have caused 8j>a8modic stricture. 
Its affinities are ver}* hard to determine ; but, from its being plaeed 
superficially, and frx>m the more distinct nature of other aberrant bands 
in this position, it might be regarded as a portion of the general pou- 
niculus cumosuB specially developed. 

14. A Bupra-claviculnris muscle, similar to the slip of that name 
described by Luschka, of Tubingen, in Muller's " Archiv," (1856,) 
p. 282, and Tat 10, existed Id the same subject as the pericnrdio-thyrvid 
above described; it arose from the summit of the manubrium sterni, 
and passed to the front of the clavicular origin of the clcidomestoid 
muaclo. This is the only instance of this muscle which I have ever 
met with ; but it has bocu described by Haller, and was considered by 
him as a supemumerar)' subclavius, and is described, when occurring 
on the deep surface of the sternum, by M. J. "Weber, as on upj>er de- 
tached slip of the triangularis sterni, to which indeed it seems to mo to 
he closely allied. 

Among the representatives of new muscle types in the upper limb, 
the following instances have been found : — 


lA. The sabscapnlo -humend I ibimd veiy oommonly — oc'er fifteen 
dttring the last Masioii; but this, I beliicTe, is a very uuHsual de- 
af frt>qoescT. In one instAnce it was especially atrozig and dis- 
(thifl specimen was exhibittrd before the Surgical Society of Ire- 
and is recorded in the ** Medical Prose and Cirnilar/' vol. iii. 
79). Mr. Wood has found this in one instance since my first publi- 
of this anomaly. It was described first by Wenzol Gruber, of 
BLFilenbarg. in his '* Abhandluogeu ous die menschlisch. und vcr- 
llcidhia. Anat." Petersburg, 1851. p. 109. 

Ifit The coraco-capsular of Wood I have found in one instance eross- 
it^ but oniittiiL-hed to the capsule of the shoulder, and inserted into tho 
tMMrlqiof the bicipital grtMTe, in comuiuu with the upper border of the 
tSodOD of the latissimus dorsi, which did not extend quite as far out- 
Tvdsas usoaL This is the third instance in which I hare noticed its 
pnMiiiii[ Kr. Wood has met with it five times, and has g;iTen an oo- 
mn%t •cooant of it (" Journal of Anatomy and Physiology/* vol. i., 
p. 48), Mr Wood baa inferred {rom its comparative, as well as fix>m 
Its human anatomy, that it represents the short port of tho adductor 
aim; but I have given below some reasons for believing it to be the 
l^NiMiUtatire of the peclineus, and I wish here to state that I with- 
my prerioufily published belief that it represented the quadratus 

17. X have met with another specimen of the extensor primi inter- 
Boin pollicis et indicia, similar in all respects to the specimen do- 
■oibcd before, and co-existing with the four typical extensors. 

16. An extensor medii digiti existed in two cases in the subject; it 

kr psrmllel to the extensor indicis, and arose from a space of about 

tvo inebes in extent from the back of the ulna, and it was inserted 

ioto the base of the second phalanx of the middle fingerj joining with 

thi medial tendon of the extensor communis dij^torum. Wood has 

d(Mlibe<d several instances of this anomaly; and Meckel has given an 

iMteoA in which the extensor indicia sent off three tendons to the 

ffeood* third, and fourth tingers: Henle's " Muskellehre," p. 213. 

Id one arm of a muscular male subject I found this anomaly to co- 

with a completely clei^ biceps, an extensor digitorum brcvis 

VUM for the second, third, and fourth fingers, and an interchange of 

between the radial extensors of the cuq)UH, a slip from the 

being inserted with the brcvis, and vira cer»d. 

19. An extensor quarti digiti, nearly separate for its whole length 

frcoa the extensor minimi digiti, existed in another forearm, and com- 

|litsd the second group of extensors. The increase in number of the 

dl|s of this seoond aeries is interesting, as bearing upon the compara- 

^ anatomy of the dorsal muscles of the forearm. As in the otter 

\l^iirt tuigar%M)t I have found the extensor digitorum communis send- 

nC a teodoo to the pollex^ and one to the second and third toe ; but 

^fiztMtfor minimi digiti sending tendons to the second, thirds fourth, 

■^ fifth toes- Kr, Huxley, in the Hunterian Lectures for 1865, like- 

^9ii« oeations that this muscle supplies the three inner toes in the 




rabbit ; aud Messrs. Mirart and Murie hare found it supplying 
digit« in the hura and urested agouti (" Proceedings of the Zoologii 
Society," 1866» p. 405). The extensor onnulurifi longus aboT« 
scribed is a different muscle from the extensor of this linger, which 
referred to in my former paper {" Proceedings of the Bo^*al 
Academy/' April, 1866), which woa a port of the extfiusor digit 
brevia manus. 

20. I have not met with any additional cases of double iateroewi 
but I would wish to remark, in Uiis place, that the theory which I put 
forward in my former paper has obtained a striking coniii*mation from' 
comparative anatomy in the structure of the manus of the Hyrax capm* 
$14. Mfwre. Afurie and Mivart, in their admirable memoir upon tha 
myology of this species, note that there exist four pair of intorosBei on 
the palmar surface of the metacarpal bones, arising from the aponeuro- 
tic investment of their proximal end, and inserted into seaamoid 
one on each side of the distal end of the metacarpals ; the 
bones acting upon the proximal phalangee by meana of ooni 
fibres. There are four larger aberrant muscles developed i&j 
animal, which most probably arc displaced dorsal interossei (" 
ceedings of the Zoological Society," 1865, part ii. p. 843). Mr. Wood 
haa suggested to me that, in lus cases of double interosaei, liie fint 
palmar interosseous had a bifurcate origin from the second and third 
metacarpal bones, and the iaterosseous of the thumb had likewise an 
attachment to the first and second. This was likewise the case in on* 
example in the foot ; but, as in the theory which I propounded, tb«m 
should have been originally four germs in each intetosseoua ipaoa, 
two dorsals coalescent into each bicipital muscle, aud two palman, of: 
which one is obsolete. These examples of Mr. Wood are only wliat wa] 
might expect in case of the rudimental prcFcnee of a mtiscle embryo. 

21. The extensor secundi intemodii pollicis longus of Blandin oc- 
curred once during the last seftsiou in the form of a slip, arising &om 
the external condyle and fascia of the forearm, closely connected to the 
extensor communis digitoi-um. It passed superficial to the ordinary M 
extensor of the second mteruude of the tliumb, in common with which it H 
was inserted ; it traversed the third groove in the annular ligauieut, and ^ 
80 was separated below £rom the tendon of the extensor communis digi- 
toruuL In the common otter a similar extensor tendon for the poUes 
comes from the extensor communis. 

22. Two new instances of the brachio-fosciolie have occurred with- 
in the pai^t session, but in no rc«pect dissimilar to those already do* 
acribed. One other third specimen arose from the coracoid proceit in 
common with the aliort head of the bioepH. fivm which it aooo seporatedt 
and formed the entire of the semilunar faAcia. 

23. The flexor carpi radialis bre^'i8 m?u profundus of Wood o««umd 
but once durijig the past year, co-exititeui with the pHlniuriit longruL 
This specimen waa published by Mr. Wood ('* Procwiiings of the Royal 
Society,'* 1867, p. 630), to wluoh paper, and to another by the 
author in the *' Journal of Anatomy and Physiology." vol. L, p. 6j 
would refer for fuller information on this muscle. 



Si. An IaiUoc^ of th« rstctisor cajrpi raduli4 ncce&soriutt of Wood I 
in bocii ftnD6 ' ' malt*. bnMng behind tho extensor 

evpi TttdMlis lot«pti« . hi-lly. which cndfd in a fine ton- 

doe, th»t; bfro^r A into the outside of the tirat 

g4iliHT of the i '<.'*t poUioi^. Thi^ niuscU' wa;» 

dagaorie* as wsa aUu Mr. Wuud's ui.-iouee ; and notis of another ?-pm- 
tta «f the RfltiBff Hni wtre given tome hy Dr. Kichordson. ofDuhlin. 

S5. A '^- in«onus mosclc occun^d in one inKtance posterior 

v4 ]HraII( . Hsor Yugina? J'uxnoris, but much more deeply seated. 

ttfmtxl from the nnlfrior border of the j^'liiteun minimum, itnd inserted 
Sto lh« aaterior and irj'. riorp*»nion <>t the r»ot of the great inxhantcr. 
lUi ■■adet k" !r, ik of gr(*aL impi>rt;mco, und ie one whose 

lUtics bare bi: .. iin?t;ikcn ; it has been frequently confounded 

ii CMBpanuire anatomy with another miijtcle, which we should con* 
■itf w ■ pwfe^'i^' .liv.rse tUnitnt. I refer to the iliocapsular, or 
quadr.r . To the 8o«D8orius type should be refiirred 

nwde deeciM».i <•> Profesisor Iluughton as opponens qnadrato- 
if iiM ia Um CNrtrich, ** Pn>ce<?dinp8 of the Royal Irish Academy," 
IMH, figv. 6 & 7, p. 17; na also the muscle det'cribeU by the samo 
vdue oji iliijcopsitW in the lion* '* Proceedings of tho Boyol Irish 
Acaiemy,'' Mny, IS04. fig. H, p. 30. From the true scansorius tj*po 
(fci iUooB^nalor differs in sercral respecU: lii>tly, that iu the former 
•• «r" - ' ■ ' while in the latter it is ventral, or marginal; 
»int of insertion in the former U on tho outer, 
•-ot ; while ia the Utt«r it is in the neighbourhood 

rij metatarsi, arising from the front of the 
h, and ineerted into the baae of the fourth 
Uit;n present as a separate muscle tlirec times 
:- tertius. Four times it bus eo-esisted with it 
the la^t muscle for it* entire extent. In two 
fiup, quarti roetatitrsi, andquinli digiti co-existed ; 
mi in im6 tho jieroncns longu?, brevis, tertius, quartus (Otto), quarti 
WtnUna. «iid qainti digiti, were all pre^^nt. The peroneus qiiarti 
■fftatam in another iustauce was repre^-uted by an oflahoot from the 
■uUir t«ndaD af the exteubor lon^us digitovum, and it always passed in 
Ha aoM stuasth of tho annular ligament as that tendon. The nomen* 
datVTB of t)*^'^^ n.i.vfl.* ia u little confusing, and this muscle would be 
mot\ ''d peroneus quartii^; but Otto (Neue 

..^^ ,»j,,,.*^_i this name to a muscle to be referred to 
the name peroneus quarti digiti \9 used by Messrs. 
Hwv ' ' ■ -- -^ent a moscle in Dmtjprorta frUtain, "Pro- 

«*rfin, V,** 186G, p. 405, springing from the site of 

tfc« origin r.T Tfit? prroncii^ btevis, and passing to be inserted into the 
fini phalanx of the fourth toe. I have therefore applied the name uaed 
i^ a* iia mrisl correct exp<ment. 

27 The peroaeiiA quinti digiti I hare found very frequently prc- 
IL L 4. rioc — Tot. z. r 

^Hm leaarr 
16. Jh^ 
Ovb for 1- 

It arr 
aearty aepa. 
cteslbc pt-[ 


Bent aa a detached slip from the anterior bundle of the tendon of the 
peroneus brevis. It has never occurred as a detached muscle last year, 
and its termination has been usually into the extensor aponeurosis of the 
toe. Sometimes a thin fascial expansion took its place, which, how- 
ever, lost its individuality before reaching its usual point of destina- 

28. The muscle which Otto has named peroneus quartus (called in 
my former paper p. sextus) has occurred once in last session, differing 
in Bomo points from the individual muscles which I have described 
under the same name before. This muscle was five inches in length, 
fleshy, and it arose from a distinct line on the fibula, between the 
origin of the peroneus brevis and the flexor hallucis longus ; passing 
downwards, it became tendinous, and wound round the back of the ex- 
ternal malleolus in the same groove as the peroneus brevis, from wliich 
it was separated by a fold of the synovial membrane lining the theca ; 
and, finall}', it was inserted into a tubercle on the os calcis, behind the 
process for the middle slip of the external lateral ligament, posterior to 
the tendon of the peroneus longus, which crosses it near its termination. 
This muscle, it will be seen, diflfcrs from No. 16 in my former paper 
in the following points : firstly, in arising behind, and not over the 
peroneus longus ; secondly, in being inserted into the os calcis, instead 
of the cuboid bone. 

29. A singular internal peroneo-calcanean muscle, perfectly separate 
from the normal structures, I have seen in one instance to arise from an 
oblique ridge, two inches in length, above and behind the external 
malleolus, and directly below the flexor hallucis longus; from this 
origin a small pennitbrm muscle was continued downwards and in- 
wards, soon ending in a tendon, which passed in the halluceal groove 
on the back of the astragalus, external to the flexor hallucis tendon, and 
beneath the sustentaculum tali, to be inserted into the anterior and 
internal part of that process, near the outer and posterior attachment 
of the calcanco-navicular ligament. This slip was perfectly uncon- 
nected to the flexor hallucis, and it is one whose homotypical relations 
are of considerable interest. I was inclined to regard it at first as a 
representative of the flexor carpi radialis brevis of Wood ; but from this 
it differs, in possessing a fibular (ulnar) origin. It has been suggested 
to mc that it might be a palmaris muscle, either brevis or accessorius ; 
but for both of these wo have much more distinct homotypes, as we 
shall see hereafter. Failing these, we are obliged to seek its upper limb 
representative elsewhere ; and we will find that the only probablo 
solution of the difficulty is the regarding it as a representative of a 
muscle otherwise unrepresented in the inferior extremity* namely, the 
pronator quadratua. In support of this exphmatiun wu have Uio fol- 
lowing argument : — Both are at the lowest part of the limb ; both have 
their origins from the lower end of the fibula (ulna) ; while in the 
forearm the fibres of the pronator quadratus pass downwards and 
pollexward ; the fibres of the anomalous slip run in a direction 
downwards and hallnxward. In one instance, in the left arm of 


a female, the pronator quadratos was arranged in a tripartite form, and 

the lowest portion arose from the inferior extremity of the nlna, and 

passed downwards and outwards, being inserted into the lowc^ end of 

the front of the radins, the anterior ligament of the wri«t joint, eTen as 

ht as the upper edge of the scaphoid bone. In another sabject, the 

pronator sent its lowest fibres, in a fleshj handle, springing from the 

ulna, to a small round tendon, which cro$£ed the lowest pc3at of the 

radius, and was lost in an aponeurosis over the trapezoid bone. In this 

instance all we require is the suppression of the upper or transverse 

part of the muscle, which would be useless in the leg, and the Tertical 

dongation of the lower part, and we hare precisely the condition 

observed in the anomaly now recorded. 

30. I have found another instance of the extensor primi inteniodii 
hiUods perfectly separate from the extensor proprios halineis. I 
hare likewise met with a separated tendon arising from the beUy of 
the extensor proprios, and inserted into the first phalanx of the great 
toe. In one other instance a tendon arose in the annular ligament, 
vitboot any muscle, and was inserted into the same bone. 

31. The extensor ossis metatarsi faallucis I have seen, bat it is 
such rarer than the last, and during the past session has only occurred 
in one subject It was described by Heole in his " Muskellehre," 

32. A psoas accessorius was present in one male snbject, arising 
fitna the sides of the bodies of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, by 
^hy fasciculi, and inserted into the lateral aspect of the third, fourth, 
nd fifth lumbar vertebral bodies by flat tendinous fasciculi. It seemed 
> repetition in the lumbar region of the longus colli. 

Of the second class of muscular anomalies, or those in which 
naacles are reduplicated, the following have occurred during the last 
year: — (1) Rhomboideus minor, once; (2) extensor ossis metacarpi 
poUicis (in one subject in which there was no extensor primi intemodji 
pollicis; ; (3) abductor poUicis; (4; extensor secundi intemMlii pollicis 
once; [5) extensor minimi digiti three times. This muscle often had 
two tendons, and was triple in one, sending two slips to the little and 
one to the ring finger {vid^ tupra); (6) gluta^us maximus in two 
places; (7) the great pectoral similarly divided, the deepest lamina 
pTing off the entire of the suspensory fnennm of Winslow ; (8) the 
■terno-cleido-mastoid, as before mentioned; and, (9) in the same sub- 
j«t the stemo-thyroid ; ( 1 0) the adductor longus ; (11) the popliteus I 
^re seen double, the superficial part larger, and lying over the ex- 
ternal lateral ligament, the deeper layer being under, and attached 
to the ligament, an arrangement described by Fabricius ab Aquapen- 

The tendency of muscle germs to become doubled is among the most 
■jagular facts in teratology ; the mode of duplicity may be one of two, 
frther as in round or long muscles, it may be seen assuming the aspect 
of two parallel and corresponding muscles, or secondly, in flat muscles 
'* takes the form of bilamination. The former mode of increase I 


have found, or has been described by others, as involving the following 
muscles : — 

Tensor tarsi. Scalenus posticus. 

Obliquns superior oculi (AlUinud). Supinator Urevis (Flcischmana, Sandtfort, 

Corrugator supermini. et milii). 

Zygnmatieus minor {^Morgagni et milii). Genio-hyoid (M''Wluni!ie). 

Oigasiric (Ailtinus). Sartorius (RosenmiiUer). 

Digastric aittt-rior hMy and single i>oate- Scalenus anticits. 

lior. Abductor poUicia brevis. 

Styloglossus (Meckel). Kxtcnsor indicia. 

StyIophar\-ngeu8 (ItuhmerV Kectus tboracicns. 

Sternothyroid (<jantzer et niihi). Popliteus (Fabricias ab AquapeadcDte, 
TUyro-byoid (Cowper). Beran et miUi). 

levator anguli ncapuls. Cremaster (Cowper). 

Supinator longud. Adductor longua. 

]*almaris limgus. Kectus capitis lateralis. 

Kxtcnsor osais metacarpi pollicis. Kectus capitis posticoa major. 

Kxten^or secunUi internodii pollicis, Pyramidali:!. 

Extensor niiuiiui digilL Pyril'ormia. 

The second form of duplication, or that of superimposed strata, has 
occurred in the cases of the following : — 

Pector:i1i8 major. Adductor magntu. 

Pecturalis minor.- Vastus externus. 

Trapezius (Ticdemaun). Vastus interous. 

KbomboidH. (lastrociicniius. 

Pronutor ijuadratu.-! (M^WIiinnie et mibt). Sulwus. 

Oomplexus. External ol>Hque (Tiedemann). I ban 

tiluticus niaximus. stntn insliincea of tliia confined 10 the IvA 


The occurrence of this class of anomaly can only be accoonted for 
on the principle of vegetative repetition of parts — a principle upon 
which we explain those abnormal instances of supernumerary limbs or 
members, and evi-u complete janiceps. The vital capacity for exertion 
conferred by anonmlies of this class is not easily ascertained; but most 
probably the existence of multiple irregularities of this nature would 
be co-exi8t<?nt with, and causative of, increased power, as in the cele- 
brated cuHe given by Tiedemann. The most common seat of laminar 
reduplication I believe to be the rhomboides ; of parallel multiplicity, 
the short extenpors of the thumb. 

Variations of the third class, or those by fission, have occurred in the 
cases of many muscles: — (1) the great pectoral, which in one sub- 
ject was widely diiVerentiated, no fibres arising from the manubriitm 
sterni; (*2) in the stirunmastoid fission has occurred in several in- 
stances, similar to Xo. :\, in my former paper; (15) fissions of the biceps ; 
(4) coracobrachialis ; {o) gluteus maximus ; (6) quadratua femoris ; 
(7) fiexor sublimis digiturum ; (8) subscapularis ; (9) adductor mag- 
nus; (10) adductor lougus; (11) brachialis anticus; and, (12) tlexor 
brevis polli(^is have oe<»irred, similar to thr»t already descrilied; and to 


HIT list I bare the followitig additions:— (13) pronator qaadratus iu 

:li>ar cases, disposed in ruious ways — either lying in two strata or divided 

into tiro portion?, an upper aud a lowtT. In the left nnn of a female, 

examiiUKl ^ ' ct, 1»60, the pronator was in tliroc parts — one, a 

\ tmail »tj nlcp the low e*t, arose tendiuouB from the front of the 

ttlnaimmuUiUtly above it« articular extremity, and Mas infierttd fleshy 

into the lowest surface of the radius, to which it pns&cd downwards and 

outwinU. The remaining part of the muscle wiw dimpotied in two 

•^mla^ the superficial of whicli arose from the titth of the ulna, com- 

I mraiiti^ two- thirds of an inch above the styloid process ; its ori^'n 

I *a» fadinous, and from it the fibres patted in a direction slightly 

I ndiatiog to be inserted into a epuce of the radius a little wider than 

I umal; At the upper and inner side of the muacle the deeper lamina 

*(6bnr«r;ime into view, and they M'ere i-alirely exposed by reflecting 

thi-tupcrficial f»trutum; they aroee from the ulun, commencing n little 

ibflve i}ie Inwer border of the superficial fibres, and extending rather 

hj^hw ou the bone than the limit of origin of the former. Tliese latter 

ui* rather behind the limit of the interosseoufi membrane, a portion of 

■bich InterTonea between their layci-s. This Bpecimen indicates the two 

I «ne of variations which 1 huvu found. When this muscle is disposed 

Ljiwo ftlrafa, thc-y generally are disposed with their tendinous and 

Hpfcy portft alternate. Another forearm exhibited a trifid pronator, 

Fwc a uamjw triangulur band below tendinous at the ulna, and fleshy 

I 'ttbiimdioff; the middle likewise triaugular.but has its tendon and belly 

iatli' ' direetion ; the superior, being quadrilateral, had its fleshy 

por r t-o the lowest part. A third sperimeu showed a small 

pyn! y Indly, which originated from the lower end of the ulna, 

nos> ly downwards to the end of the radium, where it ended 

in a tru*iwii, which wa.^ inserted into the aponeurotic structures over the 

*<)»plioid. traiiczium and trapezoid bone. This alip was nolliing but an 

:,:irv development of the lower border of the pronator, and its 

1 atfinitiea have been Iwforo discussed. Varieties of the pro- 

itur Jim not very frequent: but tltey hare been noticed by Meckel, 

irhc hii'^ di Fcribed it as double ("Auutomie," Jourdain and lire^chet's 

p. 17U). Barton, of tlie Philadelphia Hospital, has 

Ijtd a peculiar condition of this muscle, in which it was 

i*mNi>wi 01 two triangles — one with a radial bane and an ulnar apex, 

ttd llie other with an ulnar htn^v and a rudial apex (Barton, quoted 

in HofDrr's *' Special Anatomy," vol. i. p. -126). 

(14.) The pruiiator radii teres I have seen cleft in one distinct in- 
toce. which I have described with others in the "Journal of Anatomy," 
»oLii., Xo. I. 

sU.) TTie specimen of cleft subscopularis has been recorded in tlie 
•Wi^ Journal, toI. i. p. 316, A bimilar instance 1 recorded and figured 
*toy fomicT paper, " Proceedings Royal Irish Academy," vol. ix. plate 
^»; " ' ii differtntialion in one instance oceurred in the extensor 
*"'- I pedis, and in the representative muscle of the forelimb. 

il'i »^i VI rv "ommoD occurrence i« a fisAion of the suhcruraus, which 


muscle appears in two parallel bands; (18) a fission of the anterior belly 
of the digastric occurred in one subject, in which the posterior belly of 
that muscle was normal. Corresponding instances are numerous, and are 
described by many authors (*' Plainer de Musculo Digastrico Maxilltt 
Inferioris," Lipsio?, 1737); (19) the supinator brevia I have likewiae 
seen split, the division corresponding to the point of perforation of the 
posterior interosseous muscle ; (20) several remarkable cases of high 
division of the supei'ficial, or peribrated flexor of the fingers, have oc- 
curred to me, similar to No. 14 of my former paper. In that inBtance, 
the digastric portion of the flexor sublimia supplied the index and mid- 
dle fingers ; while in one of the recent cases, the digastric division of 
the muscle supplied the index and little fingers; while the middle 
finger tendon originated mainly from the radial origin (''Journal of 
Anatomy," vol. i. p. 319). 

The cause of fission is easily understood, as resulting from the sub- 
sequent atrophy of connecting fibres, or from the separation of the 
component parts of complex muscles. The muscles in which this species 
of deformity has occurred to me from time to time are : — 

PectoralU major. 
Pectoralis minor. 
Serratus magnus. 
Stemo-cleido mastuid. 
Biceps cubiti. 
Adductor magnus. 
Supiimtor brevis. 
Flexor stiblimis di^torum. 
Flexor t>revis digiturum. 

Curucobrac) i i » Ha. 
Supinator loiigus. 
Psoas parvuji. 
Bracliiuliti anticus. 

External pterygoid. 
Extenwr commimia digt- 

Extensor brevis dtgitorum 

Gluteus maximua. 
Gluteus medius. 
Quadratus femoris. 
Cri co-thyroid. 
Pronator radii teres. 
Pronator quadratus. 
Flexor brevia pollicis. 

Latiwmud dorsi. 

Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

levator anguli acapafaB. 





Exienuor digilorum pedis 

Scalenns anticus. 
Kxttn^or carpi radtalia lon- 

Extensor carpi radialia bre> 


VnrieticR by suppression I have seen frequentlj- in the case of some 
muscles. Psoas parvus has occurred four times — that is, once in fifteen 
subjects. Pulmaris longus, although more constant in general than 
plantaris, in the proportion of three to two ; yet, during the past sessioD, 
has been much more frequently absent than the hitter, palmaris being 
jjresent in seven out of every ten, and plantaris in nine out of ten. Of 
the otlier muscles, 1 have found a case of deficiency in the teres major 
(*' Journal of Anatomy and Physiology," vol. i., p. 317) — a muscle whose 
deficiency h.s not, I think, ever before been noticed. Suppression has 
thus occurred in my experience to — 

Platysma niyoidcs. 

/ygomaticus major. 

Zygomaticus minor. 

Levator labit supon'oris. 

Orbital part of orbicularis palpebrarum. 

Pvramidalis nasi. 


l^evator palpebne superioris. 

Tensor tarsi. 

Trapezius — occipital portion. 

Trapezius — cerrical portion (1). 

Sternal heitd of tterao-mattoid (1). 


PMerior bdlj of omohjoid (S). 

Eadre omohyoid (2). 



Stamo-thTTi'id (1). 

ScalcoiM aaticits (I). 

Scmitu poiticu superior (1). 

SemiiM pMticoa iDferior {'2). 

Om or two teeth of either. 


LiBgiaaniiu ca|HtU (l). 

IliocnMalu dotsalu ( I> 

CUncalAT bead of great peetoraL 

ClancmUr bead of deltutd. 

THancnUru stenii. 


Ppanidalia abdominU. 

TmurerealU abdonainis (1). 

UkontUiideDs minor. 

ITul^le T^Htion ofterratoa magnus. 
CmnaMCT in male. 

Tow major (J). 

L»g tiead of biceps. 

CuroDwid bead of pronator teres. 

Sulcniu pwticns (Meckel). 
Qudiatm Inmbomm (U'Whinnie). 
Sirtoriui (Theile). 

Palmaris longii^. 

Palmaris brevis 

Radial origin of flexor sublimis. 

Lumbricales manus, all (i). 

Extensor minimi digili. 

Opponens miDimi digiti. 

Little linf;er sHp of exleiistir communis 

Gemellus superior (2). 
Gemellus inferior (1). 
Tranavcrsus perinei. 
Feroneus tertius. 
Third lumbricalis pedis. 
Transver^us pedis. 

Outer slip of extensor digitonim longus. 
Corresponding portion ol flexor brevis. 
Long fiexor tendon of little toe. 
Flexor brevis minimi digiti. 
Temporal bead of the sii|icrior conMrictnr 

Pterygoid head of the »me. 

Trsnsversus pedis (Buliuier). 
Stvlo-glossua (Quain). 

Of the class of anomalies by coalcpcence I have found many in- 
ftances: ihe two zygomatici, by hyperdevelopment of their fibres, have 
onited together, or with the levator labii auperioria, and the latter often 
received a band from the orbicolaris palpebrarum. Decuseative union be- 
treen the anterior bellies of the digastric I have seen once since last 
year, and fusion of the grnio-hyoid muscles took place in the same sub- 

The anterior belly of the omo-hyoid muscle in several subjects 
(three) coalesced by its inner edge with the stemo-hyoid, as described 
by Mr. Turner, " Edinburgh Medical Journal," May, 18C1, p. 982. In 
these subjects there was not always a digastric arrangement of the 
latter, which Mr. Turner has noticed as an usual concomitant of this 
combination. Indeed 1 have found the digastric arrangement by no 
means as common in this muscle as is very often stated. Connecting 
fibres between the sterno-hyoid and mylo-hyoid, sterao-thyroid and 
thyro-hyoid, and between the crico-thyroid and inferior constrictor 
pharyngis, are extremely common ; and, as noticed elsewhere, the tendon 
of the pectoralis minor is united in many cases to the supraspinatus by 
a continued slip over the coracoid process. The deltoid and brachialis 
anticns I have seen in.separably connected by communicating fibres at 
the insertion of the fonner, nnd likewise the posterior fibres of the for- 
mer with the outer head of the triceps. This muscle may have thus 
an extensive scries of coalescences. I have seen it in different subjects 


to coalesce with the trapezius, infraspinatus, pcctoralis major, supina^ 
longus, and brachialis anticus, and in this instance Trith the triceps^ 

The relation of the teres major to the latissimus dorsi eometi^ 
is the subject of variation. Usually these muscles are united along 
lower or upper border, and a bursa intervenes between the surfa^. 
this, however, is sometimes absent, and perfect coalescence mar, thod 
very rarely, take pluce. The anconeus and the triceps were insepar^ 
in several cases ; coalescence of the brachialis anticus with the supioKr: 
loogus I have again noticed, as described in my last paper. 

A fiisciculus of fibres in one subject dipped from the deep 8uc:_ 
of the biceps, and passed downwards into the substance of the bracts 
anticus. This is contrary to the direction of any connecting slip 
has been hitherto described. 

The pectoralis major I have frequently seen united with th^ c 
gin of the external oblique ; and the band described before as "ptLMSfi 
from the coraco -brachialis to the brachialis anticus I have likewi 
found frequently as before mentioned. Slips uniting the flexors su' 
lirais and profundus digitorum arc likewise frequent, as are conneiio"^ 
between the two radial extensors of the carpus. 

The flexor pollieis longus gave off in one specimen the deep flex^ 
tendon to the index tiiigei"s — an arrangement of great interest, when w^ 
consider the relative position of these flexor tendons in the Quadramaiuf 
In the cliimpanzee, Professor Humphr)- found the flexor pollieis repre- 
sented in one instance by a slender tendon from the paldiar fascia, th« 
condition found by Huxley in the gorilla ; in another, by a tendon iron 
the ulnar side of the flexor profundus digitoi-um. The front of the radiui 
was occupied in this animal by the indicial part of the flexor pro 
fundus. Wilder describes the index and polliLeal portions of the flexor 
in the chimpanzee as separate from the rest of the muscle, as in the ano 
maly just described ; and Duvernoy stutes that the same arrangemen 
existed in the gonlla. In three specimens of Macacus, Halford hai 
found that once the flexor pollieis was conjoined with the commoi 
flexor; while in two others it was as in man. In Macactu 9%nieu» ] 
found the flexor pollieis tendon to ai'isc from the middle of the sathok 
of the flexor profundus ; and the same is described by Haughton, ii 
Macacus nemestrinus, a condition which Dr. Finney has found as az 
anomalous condition of these tendons in man. The same arrangemeni 
is found in Cercopithecus fuUginoHtiH (Haughton, "Proceedings, Boya! 
Irish Academy," 18G5, p. 64), while in Lagothrix and Ccbus it is the 
most external of the tendons of the flexor profundus which goes to tht 
thumb. Several of the Quadrumanous types of flexors I have describee 
in the "Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Dublin" foi 

Among the polliccal groups unions were not unfrequent; thcextensa 
ossis metacarpi pollieis and primi internodii wore often united, a sisgli 
Nilly giving off the double tendons. 

Another specimen of union between the gluteus mcdius and pyri 

edless to dwell any farther upon them here. 

um haa likewise existed between the adductor breris and magnus, 

to the state which I hare found in the masked pig of Japan. Be- 

othermiuclee very little separate by nature, unions hare occurred 

Rich as between the splenius capitis and colli, transversus colli 

ichdo-mastoid, longus atlantis and longus colli, rhomboideus 

md minor. 

sre found a oonaiderable increase in the class of irr^:ularities, of 

and attachments in muscles. This class of rarieties encroaches 
he last group or the class of coalescences in many instances. 
additional Taiiations were as follows : — 

The platysma myoides in one instance, the subject possessing 
:ge cleido-occipital before described, had a distinct round sternal 
and a strong daricular attachment ; otherwise it was normal, and 
ff an oral slip rather lower than usual. This is the band usually 
led in the books the riaorius Santorini, as the muscle described 
t anatomist was not, according to fienle, this slip of the platysma 
I'a "MuskeUebre," p. 107). 

The middle constrictor pharyngis I have twice seen possessing 
ensire syndesmo-pharyngeal origin from the stylo-hyoid ligament, 
Lewise horn the lesser comu of the hyoid bone. In one of these Bii 

the superior constrictor extended only as far upward as the £3 

IT process of the sphenoid. "* 

Varieties of the biceps have been as common as usual, especially in 
ma of additional origins, or more seldom as separate insertions. 

former, as usual, the commonest has been the humeral head from 
De, nraally from an oblique line, intervening between the inser- 
' the coraco-brachialis and the origin of the brachialis anticus 
r ibrmer paper I described it as being irom the bracbialis, but 
belieTe to be a second and much rarer head). This humeral origin 

met with once in every eight subjects — a much higher percent- 
lan I have ever met before, and agreeing with Theile's ex- 


have seen this coexisting with the long head ; 6th, a band from 
great tuberoBity (Meckel); 7th, from the lesser tuberosity (Wood) 
8th, from the outer lip of the bicipital groove; 9th, from the tendo 
of the pectoralis major to the long head ; lOtli^ from the tendon of th 
leaser pectoral to the short head over the coraco-brachinlis; lllh, Iho 
seen a slip of the coraco-glenoid ligament inw?rted into the in' 
articular part of the long head, for which it formed an origin ; T2th. 
fleshy slip from the internal intermuscular septum to the inner bord 
of the fleshy bcUy ; 13th, a tendinous fascicle from the triangular li 
ment continued into the short head; I4th, a slip from the 8th n 
passing along the border of the serratus mngnna to the short h 
("Wood); 1 oth, a double Rhort head was described by Theile ; 16th, 
head from the floor of the bicipital groove has been seen by M 
(Meckel's *'Archiv. Bond vii.," p. 227), and Gmbcr (Miillcr's *'An:hiv 
1848, p. 426) ; 1 7th, an origin from the capsular ligament of the shoul 
(Wood, Theile). These are the chief forms of supemumerary origi 
which have been recorded, and of all of them, except 14, 15, and 16^ 
I have seen instances duriug the past session, Some of my specim 
likewise exhibited multiple origins: for instance, in one instance in whid) 
no long head existed, one origin sprang from the out<?r lip of the bid 
pital groove ; another from the humerus above the brachialis anticus 
while the short head received an accession from the pectoralis miuon 
In another subject, the origin from the great tuberosity co-existed wr 
the ordinary heads, and the slip from the coraeo-acroruial ligament 
the short head co-exi»ted with a humeral origin. This latter znoy be 
anterior or posterior to the brachial artery. 

4. The palraaria longus has likewise been the seat of very great Tttria- 
tions — some reforrible to the presence of the palmaris nccesAorius, and 
others, anomalies of the normal muscle. During the past seasdi 
commonest variety was the presence of an intermediate fleshy 
with two tendons — one of origin and one of insertion. This I 
never seen t^ co-exist with a normal palmaris ;* and so I think it 
bo regarded as a variation of the proper palmaris longus. In the exumpl 
of this varietj', the fleshy portion was from two to seven inches in length 
in one the tendon of origin was thick and round ; in others it was fist 
in the former the iuscrtion tendon was thin and aponeurotic, while i 
most of the latter it was thick. One instance occurred in which it 
fleshy the wliole way, as described by Henlc; in another it was repr«« 
srntod by a purely tendinous fasciculus, an arrangement not before de- 
Bcribfd; a second head occasionally existed for it, in one instance frxim the 
coronoid process under cover of the pronator radii teres (Ueckel describes 
n supemumcniry palmaris attached to this process). In another instanoo 
the second head arose from the radius in common with the radial origi 
of the flexor sublimis. Henlc (" Muskellfhre,*' p. 192) deAcrib««» 
arrangement somewhat similar to this. In another instanco there w«i' 


* Sinn tbli wu writifii I h»rr mv( will) rd exanijile of ItivcocxiMtncc o(a 
piUmtrU ud thti varirty In the nme fortann. 




tdvloid origia, aiid the niuKle arose from the lower part uf the 
the nditut as described by Janser, (*' Nederlandsch. Lancet," 
p. 431). In thefie cases ihc anomaly ecems to amc from 
of the accessory palmaria, of which the laat U a rare «pe- 
lU insertion has varied also in some instanceis during the past 
I hare found it forming a large portion of the origin of the 
poUieis. In another instance there waa the following curioua 
■TTVDgcm^^t ; a muscular band, arising from the inner condyle, was 
ititcrt^d into the inner border of the ulna near it« middle ; its insertion 
detached a tendon whirh terminated in the annular ligament. 

The palmoris acceseorius in another instance arose from the fascia 

OTW Um ulnar artery, dcwcvudcd for about two inches, and then bocom- 

hm teadinoaa, wm in^t^rted into the annular ligament and palmar fuacia. 

I UTB likewise fteen the tendon of this muscle springing from the 

i&lehrachial aponeurosis in the usual position behind, and internal to 

the DOfmal palmaris, and inserted intu the annular ligament without 

toy Toetige of a fleehy belly. Before passing Irom the vanetiee of thi» 

uiMle, it might be useful to present a table of all the recorded anoma- 

Km of which it is the subject The muscle may be: — I. absent; 

S, doable and ordinary; 3, double, one (the inner) being inrort<:d ; 

i, the inverted muscle alone may exist, with a flat aponeurotic tendon 

of origui, or with a round tendon ; 5, a single intermediate belly lUitl 

tsidonB of origin, and of insertion (these tendons 1 have seen botli round 

«rboth flattened, but UKually one — that of origin moiit commonly — is 

flattened, and the other is rounded) ; 6, it may be llcshy for its whole 

Icsgtb ; 7. it may be tendinous for its whole length ; 8, may arise irom 

above the internal condyle ; 9, it may arise trom the internal condyle 

bttcflth the origin of the ficxor suhlimis; or, 10, it may arise from the 

iORiDoid proceas alone (Meckel), or have a second head from it ; 11, it 

avy have a second origin from the tubercle of the radius (Janser^ or 

tuyhavo this as its only attachment; 12, or, as above described, it may 

hftfc an origin from the radial head of the flexor sublimis digitorum ; 

^k^beea seen as a slip derived from the flexor sublimis digitorum ; 

from the flexor profundus (Fleischmann " Abhandlung der 

Hed. Soc. in Erlangen" Band i., p. 25), and the some occurred in 

[ineinstuioe during tlic past Session ; IS, a slip from flexor caq>i ulnaris 

kj '. ' j.lac/: ; 1 6, or from the flexor carpi radialis (Wood) ; or, 

|17, ' ^ spring from one fleshy belly (Wood); or, 18, a tendon 

|ari>mg tiom the epicondyle was inserted into the fascia (Dursy); or, 

IV, I h»Tf? p*»en it represented by a thin slip arising over the ulnar 

vtiT' fascia of the forearm. Its insertions have been found 

to ". , i^e by its being attached to the (20), piiriform bono; 

31* or UiW the origin of the abductor pollicia; 22, or being conuectfd 

to the ulna, n* .il>ovo doftcribed. The Palmaris accessorius may be as 

^(mdiaoi: a muscular belly over the ulnar artery, or may be 

tt^rtedir.i iuctor minimi digiti (Wood, *' Proc . HI. Soc," June, 

*Wl). 01 the twenty vtirieties just recorded, the second, fiilh, ^ixth, 

JSJjBth, «%hih« ninth, fifteenth, sereuteeuth, eighteenth ore undoubted' 




varieties of palmam longas ; the third is from the preAcnco of bol 
longufl and iicoeeaorius ; the ninth, teuth, elevenUi, and twelfth may 
vflriotics of tho flexor carpi radialis brevis; and the nineteenth is m( 
likely a form of flexor aocciiaorius. 

One other remarkable variety occurred aa a large expanded mm 
half the size of the flexor carpi ulnarie. It arose by two heads — one ■ 
tetidinowa, or rather fascial Blip from the point of the internal condylfl 
of the humerus, Buporficial to the pronator muscles; the second h( " 
arose flestiy and tendinous from the inner edge of the ulna, und( 
cover of the flexor carpi ulnaria, and extended for nearly the lower 
two-thirds of that bone ; the two origins were separated above by 
ulnar nerve, as no ulnar artery existed in the subject, but they 
united. Tho insertions of tho muscle were two fold : first, by a tcndoi 
to the palmar fascia ; and, secondly, by a much stronger band, likewise 
tendinous, into the abductor pollicis. 

In a male subject, with a large normal palmaris longus, the ac( 
sorius arose by n flot tendon from the internal condyle, and passii 
downwards, became fleshy, and was inserted by a two fold attachment 
one into the annular ligament and palmar fascia, and a second into Uii 
abductor minimi digiti ; these insertions were quite separate, th^ 
former being tendinous and the latter fleshy. 

5. The tlexor carpi radialis presented a radial origin below the tuboi 
of that bone, and in another case from the second bead of the flexor 
Bublimis digitoriim. It likewise exhibited a coronoid origin, which in 
one case was separated by the median nerve from the condyloid head;, 
and in another case the largest part of the fleshy mass aroee from tiiO{ 
deep surface of a process from the biceps tendon. Tho former caaei 
were probably instances of the coalition between the normal flexor and 
the deep radial flexor of Wood. (For the nature of the slip from ^ha^ 
coronoid process, see the " Journal of Anatomv and Physiology," vol. ii 
No. l,p.8). 

6. A very distinct example of the middle head of the gflstrocDemina 
occurred in another subject similar to the one described in my former 

7. The pa.«tsftge of the lessor pectoral over the coracoid process I 
have referred to in a pnprr in the '^Jounml of Anatomy " for May, 
1867, and I have found, since that paper was written, out of 29 ex- 
tremities that ilR tendon pap!»ed over the coracoid process in 12. Of j 
these it was attached to the triangular ligament in five, pierced through 
it in the remaining seven, and was attached to the supra- spinatUA 
tendon, to the cjipsular ligament, and the head of the humerus in the 
remainder. In that paper, I showed tl»ut the coraco-glenoid fascicnlas 
of ligament first describi-d by me in the " Proceedings of the Royal 
Irish Academy.'* vol. ix., pi. iv. fig, 1, a, was the representative of tho 
prolonged tendon, and was absent in coses where the prolonged tendon 

8. In the left hand of a thin old male subject, the indicia] tendon of 
• flexor snhlimis became suddenly fleshy opposite the metacoipc- 



carpal artieuUtion, and formed a belly two IncbeR in length, which 
oppoaite the base of the first phalanx by agaiu becomiag 
This oeemedan attempt ut the digastric axTangcment which 

I hmre before Jfescribed, and it has a very initreetinp point, namely 

ikMt it fibowa a step towanU the degradation of tiio perforated muficio 
ia lb« Im>(, as the modification in that region i^ merely tiie ocourrenco 
•fthia change to all the tendons, with a ^upprcftfton of the leg portion. 
9. In the leg of one female subjet't, the extensor digitonim breria 
mU a ^ip to the little toe, as well as to the four inner — an arrungement 
vksxh I belisTe to be one of Tery rare occurrence. 

Ab a supplement to the catalogue of mnscular anomalies just 
qw ^eia tod, we may naturally and with some interest consider the 
h^ which it ehedft upon the vexed qutHtion of the serial homologies 
af the muwles in the different parts of the body, and we may consider 
thaae in two groape — 1st, thos>e of the limbs ; and gecondly. those of the 

TIm aerial homology of ihc muBcles of the upper and lower 
rriwaajtiaa ia a subject which pn'md facie appears much simpler than it 
ically prores to be when studied in detail ; and I think a great deal of 
tanlbnocL ha£ cj-ept into the subject trom tr}'ing to rea^ion exclusively 
hum the anatomical ammgemcnts of one animal or cliiss of animald. In 
Bu fingle animal, be it man or saurian, do wc find the muscles typically 
vrangrcj ; but the investigiition of the myology of the limbs of 
iftdividnala of different races teaches us that the mupcles of each limb 
h'-' • ••'- -rttT the model of a definite archetype; hut they teach us 
} that in no individual animal do wc find the typical 
(friii'UL iolly represented: both limbs show us modified muscles ; 
■aii the qur^ttion resolves itself into these parts — what type muscles are 
U>cn*, and what representatives do we find of these types? This branch 
•f Comparative Anatomy began its systematic existence in the writings 
"rfVieq d'Azyr, although it was foreshadowed by others before that 
tin»f, and we may say of it tnily, n» he did, '* Dnns cette especc nouvelle 
il'attatoroie eompajee on observe comme dan:* Tanatomie compur^e 
{trdutture ve» deux caracteresquu la nature parait avoir imprimcs u tout 
kuMna, editi de lu con^Iame duns Ic type ct de la variete dans lea 
■adifleatioiuu KUo scmblc avoir formi^ ces differences especee et leura 
Panica coiTOSpotidsntes sur un memo ]>lau quVlle soit modifies a 
liftflni.'' We may, for the convenirnce of further consideration, divide 
up* of mujvlcs in every vertcl>rate extremity into the following 
ftrst, lliosc of the basal joint of the limb ; secondly, thnsc of the 
of the primal bone; thirdly, those of the second, or ginglynius 
J*t»l ; fourthly, those of the metacarpal aeries ; and fitthlv, those of the 

The comparative positions of the two limbs have been discussed 
'^aqaaally, and many anatomists have orgued from their inteqiretalions 
f' koDy trrangcments as to the disposition of the muscles. Now, us the 
■^iKa are in function to some extent subsidiary to the surrounding soft 
^wti, we may find ihut a cousiderution both of the osseous and muscular 


anatomy will give us the moet accurate information upon the subjrct 
these serial homologies. The theories of position which we have to ei 
amine in the fijst place axe five, tiret — that of Professor Owen (' * Nature 
Limbfi,"1849), that the front of the arm lepreBenta the front of the thigh| 
the biceps cubiti representing the rectus femoria; but this is open to 
the objection^ that it homologates joints which have ivvcrsc actions, nud 
is contrary to the disposition of the bony and muscular parts of the 
limb, although based upon some striking pcculianties in the limbs of Mar-, 
snpiols as the upward prolongation of the Hbula in the Wombat, which 
intcq)retcd as a patella by Owen ; secondly, the theory of Muclise (Art, 
Skeleton, Todd's " Cyclopa'dia/* vol. iv., p. 852), that the lower end o 
the humerus has been twisted round, as indicated by the mu*culo-«pi; 
groove, and hence the displacement of the porta of the limb below. T 
has been strongly defended by Martens (NouvoUe oomparaison des mem 
bres pelriens et thoraoiqucs ("Memoiresde TAcademie det Sciences et 
Lettres, Montpellier,*' torn, iii., p. 4, 1857); but to it there are many ob- 
jections, that the bony fibres show no sign of such a twist ; that we have 
no embn,-onic evidence of torsion ; tiint the muscles present us with no 
appearances in favour of such a change ;* thirdly, we have the theory 
Vicq D'Az)T, that the left arm and the right leg correspond, an ides 
whifth wo will revert to afterwards, and which is severely reviewed 
by Martens {loc. cit.p. 474) ; fourthly, we have the theory propoaod by 
Mr. Uuxley, in the Hunterian Lectures for 1864, that the bony points! 
at the upper end of the primal limb bone resemble their alternates, that 
is, the greater trochanter feraoris corresponds to the lesser tubcrowty 
of the humerus, and vice rtrsd, and that the supraspinatus is tho 
homotype of the iliacus. These views he bases upon the structure of 
Omithorhynchus, and the arrangement of the trochanters of Cholip- 
pus, Oalcopithecus and Pteropus, and it is defended by Mr. Mivart 
in his very valuable monograph on the myology oi Echidna hyttrix 
(•'Trans. IJnn. Soc," vol. kxv., p. 396, 6t »eq.); bat although bearing 
with it the weight of great names, and very striking peculiarities of 
structure in these aberrant forms of Mammalia, I would %'enture to 
diswnt from this very original and striking tlieory, and that upon the 
following grounds: first, it seems contrary to the anatomical structorM 
of the great majority of animals, in which the correspondence betVMa 
the greater trochanter and greater tuberosity is more than a mere 
fancied n'scmblonoe; secondly, because in three of the Chelonians 
which I have examined (selected because in them the basal bone of the 
two extremities so nearly correspond), the hawksbill turtle, JTm^i 
gto^mphicay and I'cstndo //rtrca, the correspondences of arrangemeni, 
both in the bunos and muscles of the two limbs, were not what might 
Ik? expected in conformity with the theory — the greater trochaotcrio 


* It it particalsrly vrh«n It cornea to deal with the soft part* tluit the fkUacy of Ihb 
'H«orr appcAn, and tbn ronRid«>ralian that U requirea th« bmclilalU inticiu lo act aa tiui 
rtantativc oftlio crurauB is mongh to stamp it u notaccontanl wllli anatomical (kd. 




•till repreeented by tbe typicAl greater tuberosity ones; 
ne the moflcle correspondences based upon this tlieorr ore 
\j BO raeaiM mt iCnkiiig as those to be ascertained by the acceptance of 
tka fifth thcOTX, irbichf with little raoditicAtion, ^e will find to be the 
asd the one most clearly in aceordance with the com- 
ftbont to be iiutitnted. Tbe theory I would wish to propose 
b tkt»— the beaal booe of the limb I believe, with Mr. Mirart, to be 
tnMe«Dy a eoltuBnar organ with muscles placed along its four eidcs; 
Ibs ta BMidiiied bj the projeetion and lamination of its angles, or by its 
****— ^^*** flattening into a flat suriace, a change that is accomplished 
by the g;raat dongatioii of the two edges and the flattening and obso* 
of the others: thus tbe basal segment may present us with an 
id inner aide, as we find in both limb? in man; in the thoracic 
ittb baring its upper surface represented by the Kupraspinons fossa, and 
ito ovter by the infraspinous; its lower by the axillary costa, and its 
bj the subscapular fossa. In the pelvic member wc And these 
rrpreeented — the upper by the portion of the ilium below the 
enrred line, the external, by the spoce intervening between the 
fine and the crest of the ilium ; the inferior, by the anterior iliac 
I, and the intem&l, by the iliac foseo. Thus most of the muscular 
point? of the upper part of the limb I believe correBpond in 
tWaaimer painted out by Professor Humphry ('*Human Skeleton,'^ p. 
iM, aad ''On the Limbs of Vertebrate Animals"). The femur and 
I belieTe corTcwpond to the one type; the greater and lesser 
to the greater and lesser tuberosities respectively ; and at the 
id, as the head uf the fibula does not come in contact with the 
)fw«r end of the ftimur, the capitahim humeri is not represented at 
ftO vpm the latter bone ; and the two sides of the trochlea correspond 
to the two condyles of the femur. In this latter point there is a (flight dif- 
tmwam ic the theoretic arrangement which I would here propose from 
hr. fimiphry's comparison. When we compare the bones of the foreleg, 
we fiad tnat the fibula and tibia present ns with some points of diver- 
gcAoefroai the forearm boneSf or radius and ulna. Comparing the bones 
■t thfe Bpper gisglymas articulation, we find that the tibial element in 
te 9Bm case taken with the patella represents the ulnar element in the 
«mr Hmb takes in common with the olecranon; and tlie fibular head 
ii Uie t epr o e cn tatiTc of the upper extremity of the radius, its artictilar sur- 
6ee diauniahed because its action in lo^t, and its tubercle elongated, be- 
miif lwHiin<1 for the insertion of the outer flexor ; but when we compare 
the tvminal a^ments of the limbs, we find that to homologate properly 
ftehandaDdthefoot.werequiretorotAte the segment, so that the thumb 
craol&oeal edge of the hand and the balluceol edge of the foot will both 
iMBt Ibrvardft. Now, in doing this, it will be noticed tliot the radius 
wiQ be bltraght forward, taking the place in the upper limb which is 
NClpkil by the tibia in the lower. If we examine these bones as they 
vt pSaeed ta the foreleg of the elephant, we will there see that to 
ite the fore and hind foot, a permanent state of croseiog or 
nqinred, and thus we can explain tbe apparent disorepiin^y 


between the upper and lower ends of the individual leg boneSr by sup- 
posing that they have undergone a change of position and of continuity — 
the upper end of the radius and the lower end of the ulna correspond to 
the fibula, while the remaining segments represent the tibia. This 
opinion was first broached by Cruveilhier (" Anat. Descrip.," t. i., p. 315), 
and I believe, when we come to examine the soft parts, we will find these 
correspondences to be indicated with precision and clearness. 

It may assist in the subsequent homologation of the muscles if we 
place in a tabular form the bony correspondences of the limbs in 
man ; but it must be recollected that these points are not representative 
one of another, but that both the upper and lower limb bones are repre- 
sentatives of these parts in a t3^ical limb : — 

Banl Done, Upper. 

Subscapalar foasa 
Dorsal cosU scapula). 
Axillary conta. 
Inferior angle. 
Tricipital spine. 
Glenoid cavity. 
Supraifpinoua fossa. 
InfraspinouB fossa. 
Superior angle. 
Coracoidcan noUh. 
Spine for conoid ligament 
Coracoid process. 
Coracotd apex. 
Spine of scapula. 
Coraco-acromial ligament. 


Iliac fossa. 

Crest of the ilium. 

Anterior edge of ilium. 

Anterior superior spine. 

Anterior inferior spine. 


Space below middle dorsal line. 

Space above middle dorsal line. 

Posterior superior spine. 

Sacrosciatic notch. 

Spine of ischium. 

Tuber ischii. 

Ascending ramus of ischium. 

Middle curved line. 

Rudimentary pubis? 

Of the position of the clavicle I say nothing ; it is not of very great 
importance to our present object to determine its exact nature. 

Hnmema. — Upper Primal Bone. 

Head and Neck. 
Greater tuberosity, 
lesser tuberosity. 
Coracobrachial line. 
Intermuscular ridges — separated. 
I^orsal surface. 
Nutritious foramen. 
External lip of trochlea. 
Inner lip of trochlea. 
External condyle. 
Inner condyle. 

Femur. — Lower. 

Head and Neck. 

Greater tuberosity. 

Leaser tuberosity. 

Linea aspera centre. 

Edges of Hnea a«pera interval contracted. 

Extensor, or front surface. 

Nuttitious foramen. 

Outer condyle. 

Inner condyle. 

The flattened side of outer condyle. 

The flattened sido of inner condyle. 


Badliu and Ulna, and Carpus. Tibia and Flbuli. and Tanas. 

Olecranon. Patella. 

Coronoid procesa. 
Greater Mgmoid cavity. 
I.«»»er Mgmoid cavity, 
"iteriur margin of ulna. 

Posterior lip of inner condyle of tibU. 
Articular surface of tibia. 
Tibio-fibnlar facet. 
Crevt of tibia. 


lm«r miHSk* of alna. 

T^tbvdc of rafiuiL 

Badfc of mliuL 

FntI of ratfitt*. 

SljrWd praonB of mfiu. 

T«o beau oo iolinior end of radiu«. 

Swilviikf booQ* 


Inner 4i(l« (tf ifbia. 

(hilar ontuior ddt of tlMft. 

Kx tenia) nallMliu. 

:StjIoid prooaat of tfbtilii. 

Head of fibuU. 

Inner «iurfuco offibiilB. 

Poatcrior iiurfaco of fibulA. 

Internal malieoluR. 

FikCttB on lower part of lihin. 



Oo Caleb. 

SeaanKM, in peroneua loiigtifl. 

Cn(n •citnei fonn . 


Ile&d of aitragnlita. 


iJUle to«^ 

It ba« been objected by Martens that the union of two long boncfi is 

cmlnry to the laws of cooleaoeQce ; but it may be readily explained 

by tbe ahifVing of the lower epiphysis from the one bone to the other. 

Bering premised the«c coosidcrationst I would suggest that the 

comporifiona are to be made as follows :— Tbe basal joint of 

limb is invested with a muscular external covering, usually rough 

■ad luciculated, repreAented by the glutaus maximus, in part, in the 

Iwar limb, and by the deltoid and the dorsal portion of the trapezius 

tft tfae upper limb. The coccygeal portion and »aeral ongin of the first 

tnlj tepreaeat the trapezius ; but^ as the intej-vonient ridge is not 

ilk the lower extremity, the origin is shifted in man to a 

pie degree. The points of insertion of this muK-lc in both 

closely correspond, and as it is a homotype generally admitted, 

Attd not make any further remark regarding it. 

Bmtt^h this lie several muscles— one immediately in contact, which 

tt biMted usually into tho outer part of the greater tuberosity 

(tiMhHiter)f oziid whose fascial investment has a tolerably constant 

idUtMA (o tlie nrsl-named; this muscle typically is attached to the 

*vt«r portion of the columnar basal bone, and in tbe upper limb is 

W m4 infrnspinatUB, in the lower is meso-gluteua. Those muscles 

vkibii in mjui a strikiag resemblance in the arrangement of their 

^^^KMi. aod both exhibit a tendon betweien two planes of muscle fibres. 

largin reprvsentative of the spine of tho scapula is completely 

in the pi-lvic represenUtivea, the muscles separated thereby 

sh on each other in the lower limb of man remarkably, so that 

tte Uurd mmicle actually extends below the level of tbe Bec-ond. This 

^*<MitDtea the suprospinatus, or upper marginal muscle, ond in the 

^« limb Ihfi glutfeUB minimus, or eudogluteus, the alteiation be- 

^*Mb tbe roprcAentAtivea of theso Ivpcs in human anatomy arising 

^VBthi fkct^first, nf the absence of the shelf or partition in the lower 

■.Li. rmoc. — VOL. X. X 




limb, and secondly, from the alteration of the axia of action, on aocoant 
of the greater elevation of the basal bone in comparison with ita 
thoracic rcprepentativc. Along the inferior margin of the] bone 
lies the fourth nmwle of this series, represented in the lower limb by the 
soausoriuB or gluteus (juartus^ and in thu other extremity by the teres 
minor. These muscles agtX'O, first, in their insertion point being 
typically low upon the great tuberosity ; secondly, by their relatioo 
being bo close to the last-mentioned pair of muscles, a third of which 
it forms. Its human relationship long led me to cntcrt^iin the mistaken 
idea that the meso-glutous was of the same type as the sapraspinatua^ 
and the endogluteus represented the infraspinatus ; but I beUeve the ba- 
lance of evidence is in favour of the arrangement oa above given. One 
thing seems clear, that the representation of the upper limb pair is 
to be looked for in these two muscles of the gluteal series. A 
second marginal muscle occurs on the inner edge of this lower 
border, the iliocapsular of the lower limb, or the subscapulo ha* 
mcral of the upper, neither being constant muscles in man, al- 
though of regular occurrence in many animals. The last of the 
baaol muscles on the inner surface of the typical bone is the subsca- 
pularia of the upper, or the iliacus of the lower limb, and lliat they 
correspond may be assumed for the following reasons : — both arc com- 
posed of fine muscular fibres ; both are iuserted into the smaller 
tuberosity or trochanter; both pass close to the capsular ligomeiat of 
the basal joint — indeed olten having the subjacent bursa (which exists 
under each tendon) communicating with the oavity of the joint ; both 
have the main ttrtcry of the limb in contact with them ; both occupy 
nearly the entire of a surface of the basal bone, which surface is on the 
visceral aspect of that limb. Certainly in some animals the llko 
attachment seems to be very much everted. In the opossum I hsve 
found it so, and in the Oraithorhynehus and Echidna Profesaor 
Huxley and lifr. Mivart have been led to assign a different poeitioo 
to it from this very fact ; but putting against those few cases, firrt, 
the instances in which the origin of the subscapuloris is marginal, as 
in the Tesiudo {frerra, and Hawksbill, and secondly, the arrangement 
of the iliacus in the vast mnjority of animals, I think .we are entitled 
to consider tbut the subscapularis and iliacus ore the repreeentatiTes ol 
Uie inner marginal muscle of the columnar basal bone. 

To the ischiatic side of the ba«al bone lio a third or rotator groa^ 
very irregularly represented in the two extremities, llic chief elements 
of this series are the pectoralis minor in the upi>er extremity, and the 
obturator muscles in the lower : the obturator intemus is most 
probably represented by the pectoralis minor^ as I have tried to show 
("Joumalof Anatomy,'* vol. i., p. 317), and as illustrated by the pcetonUs 
of the ostrich, in which the component bones of the scapular shouldtr- 
girdle arc converted into a single os innominutnm. The inaertiun of i>ais 
muscle into the coracoid process is but a stopping short of the obtiirator 
at the lesser ischiatic notch ; and there is usually, as I have clscw^hcre 





•hAwa, a cresoentic deficiencT* in Uie triangular coraco-aoromlal lig»> 
t oocreaponding with it, and a. continuing, though usually uncon- 
~ bttodL the coraco-glpnoid ligament. The gcmclli are mere extra- 
c dips of the obiimUor, and have no representatives in the upper 
imb. The obturator cxtemus of man, I think, we may re^jard as the 
jDf the KulKiIaviui — that muscle is invested with a fascia which 
ontous band stretching out to the humerus, as the piibio- 
Mooesory ligament is related to the obturator cxtemus, and the 
^oacle is in the upper limb often continued into the coracoid process, 
gitfaffT directly or by means of fibres of the trapezoid ligament, or 
tiif o ag h alipA, like the coraco-cUvicuhu- of Wood. 

Th<? pyriformis muscle of the lower limb has no distinct upper limb 
iKMiMitype in moo : but iu other animaU a distinct and corresponding 
is met with either in the form of the masto humeralis of 
muscle which in those animals that possess a clavicle ia 
iDodified into a levator claviculs, or trachelo-aciomial of Ouvier {-Omo 
miimmUrma of Haughton), as such nearly constant in Quadrumanu, and 
•lien met with in man ; the lust, or quadratus femoris type, found in 
tho lower extremity, is likewise obsolete in the group of the shoulder 
cirdle inasde* of man, but it is possibly represented by the epiroraco- 
BtttBCfBl muBcle described and figured by Mr. Mivurt in Echidna 
kfttrix * BlainrQlc suggests that it may be represented by latissimus 

Wc may thus arrange in tabular form the upper and lower limb 
•qairalcsts of the typical muscles of the extremity, and wu will find 
Qm oarrMpondence to be as follows : — 

OyUiM BiAJunnu, .••«■•■<••*«»••■>. = DrUuid and part of trapexias. 

Ghl«M iMiliu^ — InfraspiDatus. 

GblBM minimua, <= Supra»]tiualua. 

1^lUB^l^ ew Trachelo-aL-roinlal, or maalo-bunieralia. 

flJUlSlW iolasat sad two gvindli, . . . . = Pecturalu minor. 

Okvttv «xtani»i^ = Sabclaria*. 

QmAim CBfliaria, ,.,. » Epicoraco- burner alii uf Ccbidiis r 

iGicaj knUffiisa, ,». m SubacapQlaria. 

ScaoMwiuai, . . = Teres minor. 

fflnspifcU I', ...» » Sub»captil(i-haineraL 

I^Mr TSgijUB femorll^ ,.... >= Teres major. 

Tht teres major of the upper limb having its function in the human 

hinder limb performed by the gluteus medius, ia detached from the 

bQD« and united txj the deep surface of the fascia under the name of 

teoaor vagina: femoris ; the two resemble each other in course, and in 

Ittoml relation to the great extensor set of muscles. The tensor appeal's 

to go to the outer instead of the inner edge of this scries — first, on 

sccount of its altered function ; and secondly, because of the obsoles- 

ttace of the ridge for its reception. The tensor vsgiuae is attached to 

the &mur in the oi, according to Hcckclr and to the patella in the seal ; 

tod the teres major I have seen sending a slip into the triceps, which 

vould only require to transfer its uttacluneut to the lascia. which in 


this aituatioa is «o thin that it needs no special mascular tenaor, and we 
would have the cuudition of this muscle aimilar in both limbs. 

From the ischiatic segment of the basal bone io each limb we have 
another series of muscles, the adductors — muscles truly femoral in man , 
but degraded to the tibia in the seal, forming an illustration of a 
principle commonly to be noticed in anatomy, that when a mosoLe loaea 
its special individuality of action, its insertion becomes degradedf or 
extended to more than one bone or se^nicnt of the extremity. Thta 
group is represented usually by five elements, well developed in the 
lower limb of man, these are : one, basio-tibiaU the gracilis, repre6enti>d 
in the upper limb of man by the chondro-epitrochlearis, a slip from the 
cartilage of the seventh or eighth rib to the inner condyle of the 
humerus, and inner intermuscular septum : the second element, or the 
great adductor portion, extends from the tuber itscliii (corucoid prooeM) 
to the primal limb bono, and is represented in the thigh by the adductor 
magnus — in the arm, by the portion of the ooraco-brachiolis overlying 
the muBculo-cutaneous nerve. These parts agree, first, because they 
are inserted the nearest to the flexor aspect of the limb, and in contact 
with the flexor muscle; secondly, because this portion of tbecoraco- 
braohialis extends the farthest down the limb — I hare seen it extend- 
ing as far as the epitruchlea ; thirdly, because it ia most closely in 
connexion with the main artery of the limb as a deep relation, as is 
the adductor magnus to the femoraL The third portion of the adductor 
xnass, or pectineus,is a muscle whose fore limb representative is very 
difficult of determination, its typical origin we find to be from the 
pubis, and its insertion the ridge below the lesser tuberosity. Now, 
in this position precisely we find the small muscle described by Mr, 
Wood as the ooraoo-oapsular — considered by him as a representative of 
the adductor brevis ; but the reasons wliich lead me to associate it with 
tbe pcctineus as a representative of the same type are the following : 
first, beoause its origin is the point the nearest possible to the sup. 
preyed pubis; secondly, its insertion is exactly tjrpical, vix., to the 
ridge bolow the lesser tuberosity ; thirdly, its relationship to the inner 
rotator, or eubscapiilaris, which is exactly that of the pcctineus and 
i Uncus : in all these respects the coraco-capsular seems a very clear 
homotype of the pectineus, and it leaves the coraco-braehialis proprius 
to act as the representative of the remaining part of the true adductor 
TDOSR, which in mnny animals is condensed into one muscle. The sabncr- 
▼ous portion I hare found divided into two parts on several occasions — 
one attached to a tendinous sling figured by Henle, immcdiat<?ly behind 
the nerve, and a third more posterior, which I have found perfectly 
separate and close to the inner head of the triceps ; these are the re- 
presentative of the same type as the adductor brevis ; the addactor km- 
gtts is represented by the great pectoral muscle. 

The mnsolea of the mcmal joints are much more definite and easily 
understood ; they are arranged into two groups, on extensor and a flexor 
series ; the former are sf>motiraes conjoined into one mass as in the 
hun\an arm, but sometimes exhibit four or five individual parts pe^ 



feoUf wpamte ; there is usually in theloiwer <stmnity an aberrant super- 
ficial portion lying obliquely over the rest of the mass — the sartorius, 
which in the upper limb is represented by a supcrljcial portiuu (dorsi 
flfMlja fl Uctria) lying over the trioepfi. Thiit muaelo in tlie lower 
is usually attached to the anterior superior spine of the iliunif 
to the inner side of the head of the tibiu ; or as in the seal, to 
dw inner side of the patella, or into the ftiecia of the inner side of the 
thigh for two-tbirdfl of its length, aa in the crocodile (Haoghtoii, ** Pro- 
eeeidings of the Uoyal Irish Academy/' 1865, p. 50) ; in some animals, 
■a tW Hyrax, it is absent in the upper limb. This muRcTe is repre- 
•aBied by the dorsi-olecranal (usually called dorsi cpitrochlpar)8lip of 
nMMikey^— -found in the hare, rabbit, guinea-pig, and agouti, and many 
«Uier xnimahi ; by a seapulo-fosctal mu«cle in the pig, which 1 have 
dascribed before (" Froceedings of the Royal Irish Academy/' April, 
1666), and which exists in the honk.\ and as a second latiasimus dorsi 
ifi E«hidDa. Beneath thi^, the second portion of the great extensor mass 
is tQ be found, the rcotus, represented in the upper limb by the long head 
of tb« triceps, whoK origin is irom tlie basal bone in the neighbourhood 
of lbs sapsolar ligament of the shoulder or hip, and often in both limba 
■tlMlied to the capsule itself. The insertion of thin ma^a ia central 
aad nsoaUy r^fular; occasionally, as in the hinder limb of the ostrich, 
fSfied by ma egtenaioa into Borae lower muscle : the origin of this 
ift marginal, but always inclined to the outer side, hence it is be- 

tike infra^inattts and teres vninor aborc, and beneath the scansorius 

m^us below : this coTcrs over the deeper portions of the 

mesial, an outer and an inner, tbe former pair represented in 

by the outer head of the triceps in tbe arm, and by the cnirceua 
and the vastus intemus in the lower limb. The latter is of the same 
Cypa as the inner head of the triceps above, and the vastus intemus 
bu»w ; Ihera is usually a email bundle of muscular fibres beneath the 
middle segment, inserted into the synovial membrane, the subcruneus 
of tbe lower limb, and tbe subanconeus of the upper : the latter ia by 
B« meaas so constant as the former. The resemblancos of these need 
BO lemaric. 

T1u> flexor group of muscles f-onsists usually of four elements, 
MOrtames of five ; these most usually are the two heads of the biceps, 
ad tlie two inner hamstrings in the lower limb, and the brachialis 
•Blicttft and biceps in the upper. Now, contrasting these, so as to tlnd 
tlMir individual correspondences, we see that the shorter head of the 
bieeps fctnoris is the obvious representative of the oocasionul humeral 
baea of the biceps Dexor cubiti. The coracoid origin beside this is the 
prDbable homotype of tbe long head of tbe biceps, with which it agrees 
iQ serend respeotfr^first, as its origin is from the isehiatic element of 
the basal bone ; second, because its fibres arc connected with the former 
■lanmnt when it gxIhIa in the upper limb, although, indoi'd, in the thigh 
tmion is by no means a neecsaary arrangement*; for the femoral 

is inserted into the semi-tendinoaus in the ostrich, and into tho 


BeTDimembranosus in the rbea and emu (Haughton, "Proceedings oi 
the Royal Iriah Academy/' 1866, p. 96), ehowing that this is a 3cp>&raea 
element ; thirdly, in the Morsupiala the biceps cubiti 6exor is dxridcd 
completely ^and the coracoidean head is always radial in its insertioa; 
similarly in the crocodile, the only head of the biceps is a coraooid odb, 
and its inflcrtion ia as uanal radial, and in Echidna the insertion is 
radial and ulnar, as In the pig. These different reasons lead us to 
believe that the nbort head of tlie arm biceps is the ropreeentativo of 
the long head of the biceps Aoxor cruris ; besides, in the cases noted ia 
my former paper, in which the biceps cnbiti could be serered into tw 
parts, the coracoid portion was always prolonged into the radial tendon. 
We thus have to homologate the semimembranosus and semitendinosus 
with the glenoidal head of the biceps and the brachialiA anticus; and 
hero we find some difficulties to be explained, which con best be done by 
tlie hypothesis, that the type represented by the long head of the biceps 
humeri in the upper limb corresponds to the tendon of origin of the 
semimombranosua, aud to the insertion of the scniitendinosas. This mmy 
fleem fanciful, but it is indicated by three circumstances — ^firstly, the 
origin of the semimembranosus is tendinous and elongate, like the long 
head of the biceps ; it is also the nearest to the articulation of any of 
these hamstrings, and the most external; secondly, the insertion of the 
semitendiuosufi and that of the biceps in part resemble each other ia 
being often fascial, and in being truly ulnar in many coses, especially 
where there is but a single glenoidal origin for the muscle. Thus the gui- 
nea-pig, porcupine, beaver, rabbit, and agouti, have only an ulnar inser- 
tion i thirdly, that in the semi tend in osus we always tind a tendinous 
intersection, the cicatrix of the union of the two segments, to whJch 
my attention was directed by Dr. Bennett, but which is well known by 
practical anatomists. The presence of thin band of tendon is inexplicable 
upon any other hypothesis, and this supplies all the conditions necessary 
for its production. Wo have no sign of the second junction, via., the 
union of the two other parts of the dissevered muscles in the semimem- 
branosus, for that corresponds to the junction of the tendon with the 
fle.ihy portion of the muscles. In my former paper I stated my belief 
that the short head of the biceps represented the semimembranosua, 
but that view I withdraw, and deem inadmissible ; and the glenoidal 
portion of the tendon of this type we have represented in the lower 
limb by the ligamentum teres coxae. The last element of the 6exor 
group, the belly of the semimembranosus, to which ve should supemdii 
the origin of scmitendinosus, has its representative in the brachialla 
anticus, which is known by its close relationship to the adductor nuue 
(coraco-bracliialu>>), by its coraooid (tibial insertion), and its bt>hig 
placed usually on a plane internal to and deeper than the other ham- 
strings or flexors. 

The muscles clothing the second series of bones of the t3rpica] liml> 
we find arranged in three groups : those spociaUy devoted to the more- 
■aent** ' 'ndividnni bones, the one upon the other, constituting tb 



of theae claaees, iDcluding the supiaators and the pronators ; the 
■ttacbed to the mt'tocorpal bones constitute the second clasup 
tlifi mniwlpni Bet apart for the motioBs of the phalangeB constitute 
the third. 

OftUe«e three groups, the second presents as with the principal 

variet>eai» both ia the way of anomalies and in individuul Tariation% 

tlkrcAglboiit the ordo^ of the vertebrate sub-kingdom ; it constitutes a 

iMMt rcmjurkable clftss ; it sc-ema as if typically there had been fire pair 

of moseles developed — a 6exor and extensor for each metacarpal bone. 

Tiras we find the lin«t bone extended in the foot by the tibialis anticns, 

**-»^^ by khe tibialis posticus ; in the hand an abc-iTant muscle, extensor 

carpt rmdialis •ceessorius, is developed occasionally in place of the 

fttrmflr, mtuA sometimes a few tendinous hbres of the flexor carpi rudialia 

oocitr in the room of the latter. The anomalous muscle mentioned 

«bav« vme denribed by Mr. Wood^ and my fi-iend and colleague, Mr. 

llMdkardson has communicated to me a description of on instance of it 

wliieh eocurrfd in his di&sectioos. For the second raetuc»q>al bone we 

ft SeaEor in the ordinary flexor carpi radialis, and an extensor in the 

eftrpi radialis longior ; the foot has the first of these represented 

Vj tbe tibialis secnndi of the hare (named so by Mr. Huxley), and the 

■eeood probably by tbe second tibialis antieus dciH^nbed by Mr. Mivurt 

ta tbe edudna ('*Tr. Linn. 8oc." vol. xxv., p. 392), or the tibialis 

•aticos of the agouti (*' Proceedings of the Zoological Society/' 1866, 

p. 411), although in the former animal the tendon is inserted into the 

liallttX. The third metacarpal has on extensor — the extensor carpi 

T^ifiliff brerior ; and as a flexor it has the tiexor tertii mctaoarpi of 

Wood* or dexor carpi rndialis profundus ; these have no ordinary re- 

inaentatives in the foot. The fourth metacarpal and its correspond- 

melatanal have no separate muscles attached to them, as in the con- 

~ state of the foot there could be no use for them as specialized 

Of the flexor quarti metatarsi we have the trace in the slip 

of the peroneus longiis, so frequently connected to the base of the fourth 

Bifatanal bone. In the hand a slip of the flexor carpi ulnaris is somc- 

tinst attached to the base of the foiu'th metatarsal, or a flhrous band 

tiM pisiform is attached to that bone; the muscles of the fifth 

dbone are easily recognized ; the peroneus longus is evidently, 

Keeltd has stated, of the same type as the flexor carpi ulnaris. Its 

and its sesamoid bone (representing the pisiform), and the 

trtnsTcrse palmar course of the tendinous slips of the latter, in the 

I'rwm mrrfo9 and sloth ; the peroneus brevis is the obvious represcnta- 

tin of the fxtensor earpi ulnaris, even though in hyrax, Messrs. 

Mim« and Mivart found them going, the longus in iront of the 

mBcolos, and the brevis behind it This b but on accidental change 


Haring thoa homologated tJic metacarpal flexors and extensors, it 
^ be interesting to reduce our rcsulta to a tabular form at thia 


digitonim brevis pedis and extensor digitonim longus. The fijvt oT 
these muscleif in iho upper limb has a condyloid origin, whicb in tho 
lower limb ia obBolete, as the condyle itseli' is diminished ; it has a 
second or radial origfin above the flexor poUicis muscle which is altered 
in its connexion, and appears in the leg as the external head of the 
boIdeus. These parts being altered, and the power of the muMile being 
much diminiHhed^ it is contracted into a foot musrie, and the same 
change has occurred to all its t*?ndons, which I have described above as 
occurring to the indicia! one of its hand representative, and they all are 
made by the suppression of the upper part to assume a tarsal origin^ 
the insertion and its mode of perforation remaining constant. The 
extensor muscles of the hand and foot are the undoubted exponents, the 
one of the other; and as the poUcx has a series of diifereiitiated ootioDS, 
we have its extensor separated from tho rest of the ma&s, as theextemaor 
primi intemodii poUicis, and thrown buck a step. Tliere is no flexor 
of this series for tho pollex. Similarly, we have on extensor for the 
hallux, the extensor primi internodii rarely developed, and retrograde 
one step in insertion from non-development of the second phalanx, and 
no pn)pcr second flexor of this group in man. 

The third series of digital muscles are the flexors and extenson of 
tho thinl phalanx of each finger and toe. We find these rcprc«ent«i 
by the flexor profundus perforans manus and flexor poUicis above, and 
the flexor digitonim longus perforans pedis and flexor hnllueis belav. 
Now, in comparing these nmsclos in the lower limb, it will be seen that 
the muscles cross each other, the flexor hnlluoia tiiking a fibular (ulnar) 
origin, and passing outwards, while the flexor digitorura arises on the 
tibial (rndial) side, and papses inwards. Kow, no crot^sing takes place 
in the upper limb, but we find it in the lower limb, as an index of the 
change which has taken place in the bones of the extremity; and M 
these muscles are but the diiferentiuted portions of one layer, it is not 
surprising that constant unions arc taking place between their tendons 
at the jjoint of crossing. This seems a more natural explanation, con- 
sidering the position of the limb bones, than the idea that the flexor* had 
exchanged tendons, and what should be the flexor poUicis muscle sup- 
plied the other toes, and r*'« vrrsa — a theory which cannot be sustained 
oil teleological or embrj'ological grounds. All these muscles st^k 
insertion into the last phalanx;. their corresponding extoniors arc but 
poorly developed. We have certainly tlie extensor seciindi internodii 
poUicis, the rudiment of tho muRcle for this finger, and the extensor 
proprius poUicis, the fuUy developed muscle for the great toe ; we 
have the extensor indicis of man as tho second extensor unreprct«ntcd 
in the foot ; the extensor medii digiti manus likewise unrepresented in 
the fool ; the extensor quorti digiti either an otfshoot from the extensor 
minimi digiti, as in monkeys^ or as a deep forearm muscle, but eliU 
typical in its insertion, and represented in tlic foot as i}eroncus quart! 
metatarsi ; and lastly, we have, the extensor minimi digiti typifie<d in 
tho leg by tho peroncus tertius, whoso insertion is thrown back several 
degrees. U<'<^ession of this kind, however, is to be noticed in many of 



the leg muscles — for instance, the tibialis posticus, which is deprivtKi 

its metatanal insertion, and sonietime£ eren tibialis antieus is siniilarl 

circumstanced ; likewise the interossei pedis are ustiuUy Attached to the' 

fiivt phalanx of each toe, while those of the hand are attached to th 

aecond and third, llie second set of extensut-s is well developed i 

e animals, aa I have described a few pages befure in connexion with 

inii9clc« of tlie other. The fourth (>et of digital muscles belong, not 

Uie foreonn, but to the hand, and constitute a short group of Ucxors or 

cxteiiBor&. The examples of this series arc met with imder the names 

of extensor di^torum brevis jH>dij», which sends differentiated slips to 

the baliox and three or (as in the ease above) four toes. This is repre- 

Mntcd in the hand by extensor digitorum brevis manus, described above. 

Oi the flexors in this group we have the types wry much altered, on 

t of the variety of work which they are required to do : the 

ial head of the short fluxor of the thumb take its place as th© 

of these ; but as the functions of the others as flexors are more 

tly executed by the other bL'foro-mentioncd muscles, the use of ^^ 

Biese muscles is altered, and there is even in the human subject, eveii^H 

ft correct gradation of these variations. If we take the first muscle o^^V 

this tyr^e we will find that the extensor brevis digitorum pedis, acting 

at aa angle with its long extensor co-operator, is inserted into its ten- 

dftiia ftt an acute angle. Secondly, the extensor brevis manus, when 

p wnu t, is usually inserted fleshy and not tendinous into the long extcn 

•or tendons. Thirdly, the representative of the same muscle on tlie flcxo; 

aspect of the foot is inserted into the tendons of the flexors, but nearer 

to the ankle, so as to correct their obliquity, and thus tJie short extensor 

ti the eeccind, third and fourth tries becomes the museulus accessorius 

pedis. In th© hand such a correction is not wanted usually ; but in 

HO© animals, as Hyrax, it is found assisting and regulating the action 

of the dexors (Messrs. Hurie & Mivart, '* Proceedings of the Xoologicu' 

Sosiety, 1865, p. 345). This muscle arises in these animals from a 

ovtflaginous di^c in the palmar t'nscia ; but as many animals have, as 

in man, the flexor tendous running straight, and neither needing an 

•ceeaKrry or a corrective, the insertion of the muscle is, by a slight 

pidation, sliifted to the deeper asi>ett, and then to the superficial 

<i^t of the palmar fnscia, and the muscle still retaining its bony origin 

from tlu! pisiform, appears as in the agouti ; but losing this la^t relic of 

^oiy origin, we find it in the hand of man asa few scattered superficial 

Imi pBSiuig from the hy(K>thcnar eminence to the edge of the palmar 

fcvb under the name of palniaris brevis. 

Of the true hand muscles we find likewise there ore several types : the 
iinTi>iri<::iit> arc ptrhnps differentiated accessory slips of the long flexor, 
iqmls have each got a pair of palmar and a pairofdorFsl 
. np: their sides, the interossei ; the former as flexors and lato- 
Hixfrr-. \hi-hi\WT aif extensors and latcralixers. As the two lateral fln- 
V'T» ti;«vi. ^j.. «. i)dij!td actions, these muscles are modified for them, but 
'I i> lie ;ti 1- irn* are the same. We can express these modifications most 
i*ujiy in ihf I'orm of a table, thus: — 

a I 


First finger, 



Second finger, 



1. Dorsal radUl, op^nena poUicia. 

2. Palmar ulnar, interoueaa primoa voUria of Henle. 

3. Palmar radial, abductor pollicis. 

4. Dorsal ulnar, polUceal head of firat donal mt cr oas a ona. 

' 1, Palmar radial, modified into deep head of flexor brevia polUda b}' ita 
insertion bdng shifted to the s^amoid booe. 

2. Palmar ulnar, first palmar. 

8. Dorsal radial, in^cial bead of first dorsal. 
,4. Dorsal ulnar, indicial head of aecond doraaL 

Third finger, j" ^* p^*r"^J' } conjoined to form adductor poUicis. 


Fourth finger 



Fifth finger, 




. 3. Dorsal radial, medial head of second doraal. 
(,4. Dorsal ulnar, medial bead of third dorsal. 

Palmar radial, second palmar. 
2. Palmar ulnar, flexor brevis minimi digiU, modified by bdng muted 
to first phalanx of little. 
I 3. Dorsal radial, annular origin of third dorsal. 
\^4. Dorsal ulnar, annular origin of fourth dorsal. 

r 1. Palmar ulnar, opponens minimi digiti. 
J 2. Palmar radial, third palmar. 
S 8. Dorsal radial, ulnar head of fourth dorsal. 

1 4. Dorsal ulnar, abductor minimi digitt 

Thus we Bee that the scheme of interpretation exactly Bucceeds in 
referring to their proper types the complex muscles of the hand ; vheu 
we apply to the foot, we find it equally successful, and we find the re- 
sults to be as follows: — 

Hallux, Dorsal tibial, abductor pollicis, second head, or internal. 

, Dorsal fibular, second head of first dorsal interosseous. 

„ Plantar tibial, first or calcanean head of abductor pollicis. 

„ Plantar fibular, flexor brevis pollicis. 

Second toe, .... Dorsal tibial, first dorsal interosseous. 

„ .... Dorsal fibular, second „ „ 

,, .... Plantar tibial, opponens or adductor pollicis, separated from second, and 
inserted into first. 

„ .... Plaotar 6bular, first slip of transversus pedis. 

Third toe, Dorsal tibial, second bead of second dorsal interosseous. 

„ .... Dorsal fibular, third dorsal interosseous. 

,, .... Plantar tibial, first plantar interosseous. 

„ .... Plantar fibular, second slip of transversus pedis. 

Fourth toe, .... Dorsal tibial, second head of third dorsal ioterosaeous. 

„ .... Dorsal fibular, fourth dorsal interosseous. 

„ .... Plantar tibial, second plantar interosseous. 

„ .... Plantar fibular, third slip of transversus pedis. 

Fifth toe, .... Dorsal tibial, second head of fourth dorsal interosseous. 

„ Dorsal fibular, abductor minimi digiU. 

„ .... Plantar tibial, third plantar interosseous. 

„ .... Plantar fibular, flexor brevis minimi digiti. 

It will be thus seen that all the difliculty of the homologies of th- 
muscles of the hand and foot are disposed of by accepting this series c 


The pUn upon which the muBcies of a typical liuib are arranged can 
be thus distmctly ocderstood, and may be resolved into a definite and 
fTBimctrical ^ystrm. For the Lo^al joint, vre hare a Ayatcra of muscles 
■TDOiMlthe orbicular articulation (see diagram): — 

Besides tht-se articular musclea, we baTe four eztemal abductor 
from the basal bone inserted into the primal limb bone^onc 
J, the other more ejcternally ; one of these isthcgluta-us maxi- 
ordelt4>id; the eecond. teres major, or tensorvaginae femorib; thirdly, 
■tttorius, or dorei epitrochlear; fourthly, part of the pectQi*aliA major, 
vapteaented by gluta?us maximus. Internally we have a group of 
Hot muscles, their antitheses or opponents, the pectineu», adduo- 
•l9 femoris, and gracilis.* In front we find four flexor 
;. J four extensors, so we might represent the section through 
! the typical limb thus — 

rearm muscles there are several series — one from either 

Modyieto the foreann bones, the lonp pronator, and supinator. There 

«f« adm transrerBe, inferior and siipcrior, anterior and posterior, special 

Coiignnmubcles, the first ofwbich is developed asthepronatorquadratus, 

>fcc T i> uul below, 01$ peroneo-calcanian, and the second an the coronoid 

•Upofpmnatorteres above, or the tibial head of the soleus ; the third as 

fxtetuor oasis metacar|)i pollicis or hallucis; the last is the supinator 

bfwii. orpoplitcus — all these are typical lateralizcrs ; then we have 

thi floor and extensor muscle series — one fur each of the metacarpal 

Wm, tad a flexor and extensor muscle for the first, second, and third 

^^ulokx of each finger; finally, the list is completed by a dorsal and 

plnv pair of interosseous muscles for each finger; a palmar pair of 

™»i«l ti^nsors not represented on the dorsal ospcut. 

' h My fccBhats tb« andmUndhig of »onia of tboe muscle* groti|« if we daauiy 

hNtiffoany, thm 

I Mnloc Upper Uml) to TrmuL 
I 1 »nA Htrroo muioitL 

t»0. Lover. 

I T( I 1 MtiA Htrroo muloitt^. . = tilutrtis majtimuji. 

J- 1' . 1 aria, -^ SMtoriu*. 

L Lt^iUit »cm|.'iil*, Serralua iDflgnus, 
hU poMwior belly of oui(»-liyoitl, 

i- Shonboid«l. 

^ Ltthdmiu doni, . 

^ P«e(araUa nMjor, ... 

* GboBd»-cpkroGkkaH<, •44«... « OricUts. 

'^Mon AbUacton. 

=• Pmai magnui ■tid pannut 

= Qiindralus lumbomm. 
s ApftAtor cando). 
s Adductor longiu. 

T«rea major, e Trnaor Tag{iue femnria. 

Jk**"'**'*^ = LoD^brad of bicepB. 
^^•haf, = Onr*" ''^ ■Kniim.rn. and 
^^ in- 

?J*lfciiili*l, « 81JI.I fpa. 

^**Mifti«at, = Iju. of •^..iiitiiviDljiaiiowa. 

|i H wttl be tMD that of theio Dia Cint and fiAli paw Trora tb« ipinea of the rsrtebm to 
^ Uaib; iba aixth from tlic hxntnl if>inM; the third and fourth from the frtcitrapo- 
^*>s; Un Mcond from Iho D«urn'xi{ihMi«i and the Kventb from the bannapopliyalB. 


Having thus seen the method in which the muscles in a typic«lj 
extremity are arranged, it becomes, in the next plaeo, a point of interest 
to determine whetlier there is any such definite order in the arrange- 
ment of the trunk miiflcles aa we find to be present in the limb. 

Before doing this we have to determine what muscles there are in 
the body uniting the typical limb to Oic true axis, and these are 
named below : the most interesting of these are two — one arising from 
the haemal arches, and inserted into the vertebral margin of the basa] 
bone, developed in the foreUmb aa the serratus magnus ; in the hinder 
extremity, as the psoas ; both of these agree in their typical origin and 
insertion^ for the so-called transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrse, 
to which the latter b attached, ore in reality bases of rudimentary 
hsQmol arches, yecondly, we have a muscle lying along the vert<h- 
bral border of the lust deseril»cd which arises from the transverve 
processes, and is attached to the upper and inner angle of the basal 
bone, near the iliacns, or subsoapulariH. Thi-i muifcle, in the upper 
limb of man, is the levator scapulae, so often continuous with the 
serratus m.'ignus. In the hinder limb, tliis muscle is also repre- 
sented by the psoas — a muscle very often in the animal kingdom di- 
vided, and devoted partly to another and different purpose. The 
psoas parvus (the largest portion in •' Echidna," /oc.«/. p. 389), t^ 
the true index of this muscle in its typical position ; but its diflcreo- 
tinted portion, called the psoas magnus, in man is. by being extended 
into a common tendon with tjie iliacus, rendered a powerful accessory for 
the flexion of the leg. This theoretic explanation gives us the proper 
clue to the nature of the psoas parvus — a muscle who^c affinities are 
otherwise difficult to be uudei-stood, and whoso action must, in its usual 
human condition, be very limited. 

Removing these muscles from the trunk, we find the true body 
muscles remaining, and to their nature there is the clue to be found in 
the arrnngemont of the bony skeleton ; for as the osseous axis of the 
body is made up of a scries of vertebras, and their appendages, so it ift 
but natmal tu expect the soft parts to be built upon a basis of Uie snme 
kind; and aeeurdiugly, when we examine the muscles of the trunks 
they can be reduced to a system of vertebral appendages; of inter- 
vertebral and intercostal munclea. Of these, the most regular groups 
are to be found in the thoracic region, and there we can reeolve thcra 
into several groups. I select the thorax as the most typical region, 
because there we have the greatest amount of regulariiy in the ofucous 
firamowork. and the greatest degree of uniformity of function among the 
diffeixuit cumpoueut muscles. 

Having culled from tlie thoracic group all those muscles which nro 
not truly parts of the trunk system, but which form parts of the upper 
limb, we tind that there are five distinct types remaining, two eeriei 
of intcroostals, an intcmal-stemal transversua thoracis, and nn internal 
vertebral transversna thoracis, and a straight vertical muscle, th« 
rectus thonicicus; these we find to have each a definite direction, 
and series of attachment ; and when we coupai-u the other regioos 


of the body with tho thoracic, u-e will find the^ five clcmcuts 
■hondantly represented ; and we find also that their rcprc«M*ntadyes 
ootutitule the only true endo-skcletal tnink muscles. For each of these 
ire have a corresponding muecle on the nenml aspect, on uotithcsis ; 
and with a little care we will find that tho complex muJH;Iea of the back 
can be rca>lvediDto a scries of repetitions of these fivetjpes more accu- 
rately. We may call these elements: — 1- Eiteraallnterhsemapophysial, 
Of lutemcunipophysial ; 2. Internal ditto; 3. Spino-haemapophyBial or 
BctiiBpophysial ; 4. Basio-hffioiapnphyRial, or neurapophysial ; 5. In- 
teni|»Ukal- In the dorsal r^on proper we can represent these antitheses 

KsMfBtl lnt«R««Ul type, , = Spleoiui and Miratl 

bfiMul H ., e lUoco«tili9, LoogissimiM dorsi, Transver- 

lalis colli, Tracbelo-Tnasioit], Cervtcalu 

TruHTwiu ihoneU, anterior ty(<e, .... = UuItiSJus tpinc, Semisplnalis colli aod 

durst, Oliliqutu superior, Cumplexua. 
„ „ poateiior tj^ .... ^ Rotatorca ^pinc 

ftactaa „ „ .,.. s lolcrvpinalca, spioalia doni. 

The trapezius we leave out of account, because properly it has a 
place in the great limb system of muscles. 

If we follow out the same idea, we will find the same fire elements 
tn ifut^r into the composition of the a)}duminal wall; and referring 
UiM^, AA we may do with great facility, to their thoracic representatives, 
wc may tabulate them as follows : — 

Externa] iaiercoatal t/pe, = External olltque. 

latemal intcrcoatal typa, ^ Intvraal u(i1i(|ue. 

TkaMveraua thoracia posterior type, = TransTtir&alia diaphragm. 
Ki> cboradi anterior type, ^ Pyramidalik. 
•Dtcrior tjpe, » Bectua abtiominia. 

In each of these muscles we have the combined representative of 
muBi:'Iefl of each series; tlius the internal oblique frequently ex- 
hibtta a tendinous intersection corresponding to the firft lumbar rib. 
I havv also seen the line of the cartilage of the eleventh rib continued 
ibrwards to tho rectus by a tendinous interspace in its fibres. A 8imilar 
t«ndiziixu rib index has been described in the transvcrsalia by Siimmcr- 
ring. The rectus muscle, likewise, by its linea; transversa), exhibits a 
tendency towards costal intersections, which in the crocodile arrive at 
thrir fullest development in the form of abdominal ribs on cither side 
of the prolonged sternum. Of these, in man the numbers are generally 
three, norly four ; but in other animal* they are more numerous. The 
hare, for instance, presents us with eight or nine such " inscriptions." 
On tho posterior wall of the abdomen, or more correctly^ in the lumbar 
region of the spine, wc have these same muscles antithetically repre- 
•entcd, aa follows. (In all these tables I use the names of the thoracic 

:lw as the nearest or clearest representatives of the typical arrange- 


ititirrual iiitcri'oidil tyiNt,. . » llioctxtialin liitiilji>ruiii. 

Transvcrsus tlioracis anterior type^ . . ■ MiilliGtluti. 

Trjnsirer»u!i thiirai.-is pi^Ati-rii^r I>'f4, = RutAUirvii. 

Hectus tboraci» potterior lype, ...» Inienpinilei et Sf^iialta dont 

It may not be straiuiag this Bystem of ideal homotypy of mnsculir 
development too far to say, that in the muscles of the perineum we hare 
these types rcpreseoted to a very peiicct degree : the erector penis 
being local represeututive of the external intercostal groups ; the 
tnmavorsus perinci representing the internal intcrcostols ; the levator ani 
andcoccygeus being the homotypc of thetransveraus thoracis posterior, 
the compredsorcs urcthrso of Wilson and Quthrie taking their place aa 
tmnsvcrsalos anterior, while the aooelcrator urioH} is the conjoint form 
of the same typo as the rectus anterior. 

The muaclea of the neck present us with little difSculty in their 
roductiun to the typical structure, but the traces of cerricai ribs am 
very obscure in many instances, although some of thera are clear and 
constant. The first cervical rib is indicated by the pre-stemal rioints so 
often present, and by the completely developed bono in rare cjiacs, such as 
tho ioatauoea recorded by Ludwig Stiedu, of DorpatjA^irchow's '' Archiv," 
186G, p. -t2d. A second wo huve indicated by tho ordinary tendinous 
intersection in the omohyoid and sternohyoid muscles, as indicated by 
Henlo. who, in speaking of it, says — " Dieso schne hat wie sich aus den 
variotatcn des muskels erschlessen liiudtdie £edeutung eincr Kippe ; dor 
hintero bauch ist cine Bcrratuszacke, der vordere cin dcm slomohyoidens 
der ja nuch theilweiso vonn Rippen ontspringt. analoger rauskel.'* Ac. 
" Muskellehro/' p. 1 16. A third cervical rib is indicated in the obU)|uc 
line on tho ala of tho thyroid cartilage, and a fourth in the lK»dy of 
tho hyoid bone. Taking tbei^e into consideration, we may reduce tbe 
Deck muscles under the following beads : — 

1. £xl*nul int«rco»Ul type, ScaUnt Nnticiit and {MMtieos. 

*i. Interrul „ ScnlcDl metJiii* and mlainitti. Anltri«r 

hcWy of onia*liy<ud. 

3. Tr&nvTonai eostallt antcrinr typ«, . . SUMHolhyroid. thjcohyuld, CTi«othy«id. 

4. TrAnsv«rfUt ocmIaUb poilerior type, . . ICecti cApitit aiitid. Loogu* colli. 

5. KtctM aniicos, Suniobyutd. 

Of the posterior part of tbcneck we find the antithetic muscles of tho 
series to bo — 

I. Exo-InteroMtal typ« Splrtilus cnpiiia ot colli. 

U. Kndo- „ „ TmnaTarMll* colli, vt tmobolo-mMloMi 

B. Tnm«VCT«us eocUlii snU tytMS Scmt9i>inalU colli, nultiAdl, cdinpIexiM, 

4. TniHTfriiu 0Mt«1is pcct. typ*« KotaUirM. 

ft. RmIus typo, IntenpinalM, rtctat pMUeiu ntt)or H mi- 


Thcro i« still one of the neck vertebne unaccountrd for in this 
eaamoraiion, namely, that betwven the hyoid bone and the nunoa of 
tl*" lower jaw J nod in this space we have the stylo-byoid. digastric. 




styloglaaBus maaclGs representing the outer intercostal type — tbe 
as the homotype of the inner interoostals ; the mylohyoid 
fibres M the lepresentAtires of tbe transversos thoracis posterior, -while 
the tfaaBTenut thoiracLB anterior is unrepresented. TLu anterior rectus 
•er&es is abondAntly clear, as tbe genio-hyoid, genio-hyo-glossus and the 
Eiffel il muscle of Bochdalek. Lastly, wc have the cranio-tucial axis, 
iHudi presents us with a series of muscles perfectly oeeordaut to the 
prixnAfftype; an exo-intercostal in the mosscter; an en to-intercostal 
in tbe tempoml ; a transversns anterior in the buccinator ; a transversna 
posterior in tbe pterygoids; and, from the nature of the organs in tho 
■WW I line, a compLettly suppressed uuturior aMjtus. 

The idea of ascertaining ihe serial comparisons of muBclcflisnotnow. 
De BlainviUe and Meckel, in a few points, attempted to determine some 
of these types, and others have done tbe same ; but to my knowledge tbe 
complete comparison of the miLsclcs, BcriolLy, has never been wrought out. 
In the few instances in which Meckel did indicate these relations, he 
tbIM only upon external resemblances. Thus be described tbe stemo- 
■addeido-mastoid, respectively, as the reprcst^ntutives of the rectus and 
|kjnumdidifi abdominis, and the two splonii, cnpiti et colli an their anti- 
bnt aaoignA no reason but that of resemblance. Henle, like- 
, in the passage quoted above, has done the same ; but in tbe tables 
abore constructed we can see that an uniform and typical arrangement 
is probable, thoogh varied by segmentation and tranaference of attach- 

There are two other classes of miucles existing in the vertebrate 
snimnl — one a class of tegumental muscles, the panniculus scries exem- 
plified in man by the occipito-fi^ntalis, the external auricular muscles, 
the fai 'ifll superficial muscles, the platysma myoides, the mento-byoid, 
Lucas' fibres in the axilla, the post-seapnlor fibres of Turner ('* Journal 
of Anatomy/' Part ii., vol. i., p. 252); the supra-acromial and supra- 
glateal muscles of the same author — a slip which I have seen cross- 
iaf the perineum from over one ginteus maximus to tho other in 
ftwilof the anus. These have nothing to do with the typical muscle 
; and the second class, or visceral series, includes the ento-tyrapanic 
tbe ento-orbital muscles, the ento-laryngeal, the heart — 
the diaphragm (although this latter may be but an internal 
gntion of the transvor^us type). Tbe pericardio-thyroid, the 

diaphraijmaticusof Knox, the pubi<" -peri toncalis, and thestemo- 

Mrieanlialid, which I have seen once in man as a true muscle, and once 
us a young pig. All these are true vi&ceral appendages, and not skeletal 
ia cattirc, and so must bo removed from the lii^t under our review. 

The main princi|>les of the foregoing remarks may be summed np 
ttader tbe following headt> : — 

1, Thr TTiTi'^rnlar strwotiire of the vertebrate animal is constmctcd 
npoa a <' -is, or after u definite t3-]>e. 

2. Ui io type is of a corresponding nature in all the regions 
oi the body, with varying degrees of alterations. These repetitions are 

B. I. A. PtOC. — VOL. X. t 


easily recognisable in tho fiah, but much more obscnre in higher 

3. The definite type of muscular arrangement consists of a series of 
fibres connecting the component arches of the vertebral segments of the 

4. These vertebral BCgments are united by five typical muscle layers 
raost regularly developed in the thoracic paricB, and which may be 
named thus : — 

1. Exo-Tnterneurmpopliysial or liffniRpophyiuAl type. 

2. Ento- ., M 

3. Spino-neurapophykikl or luFraapophyual typ*. 

4. B«lo- „ „ 
6. In(cr»plQ«l. 

6. These segmentaare most regular in the regions in which the bony 
skeleton is most typically developed, and vary in the direct ratio of their 
specialization of function. 

6. Tho muscles of the vertebrate limb are likewise arranged as 
modification of a type which is not completely represented in either of 
the human limbs. 

7. When the function of any muscle is perfectly executed by 
another, from the consolidation or alteration of the rclutive arrange- 
ment of segments, the muscle so superseded becomes diminished or sup- 
pressed. If the assumption of function be not perfect, the supersede&oe 
IS not complete, but coalescence takes place. 

XXIY. — Out THE OccTTRRxxcE OF Tmc Kuvhev Two IX Ibisb PKom 
NAMEa. By P. W. Jotce. A.M. 

[Re&d January 13, 18GS.] 

A cjl hetvl study of ancient proper names is one of the meant by which 
we may hope to arrive at a solution of that most difiicult of all histori- 
cal questions, the origin of races. In our own country, an exnmina- 
tion of this kind may help to throw some light on the much disputed 
question, where our forpfutbera came from — whether, as some say, they 
crossed over from Britain, urged on by the never-ceasing western 
movement of the great Celtic population, or came dirpct from Spain, as 
our own most ancient traditions t*teadily assert, or from any other part 
of tho Continent. 

In pursuiug this inquiry, we may either examine and compare the 
root words of which the names are composed, or investigate the manner 
in which names were imposed by diflerent races. There are certain 
general principles common to the nomenclature of all countries; 
but a cartful examination would be pretty sure to show, th&t the 
name system of eactt particular peopio possesses some special pt-culia- 
ritiea of its own. The object of tliis paper is to draw attention to ■ 
L-unoUB characteristic of this kind Avhicn I have observed in Irish 



Baffles, both personal and local, viz., the ft^uent recurrence of tho 
nnmber Two. 

I never aaw it stated that the number Two was in Ireland oon- 
mdered more remarkable than any other; but from whatever cause it 
may bare arisen, certain it is, that there eziflted in the minds of the 
Irish people a distinctly marked predilection to designate persons or 
place?, where circumstances permitted it, by epithets exprecssive of the 
ideaofdaalitVfthe epithet being founded on some circomstance connected 
with tho object named ; and such circumstanceB were oflten seized upon 
to form A name in preference to others equally or more conspicuous. 

We have, of course, as they have in all countries, names with com- 
binations of other numbers, and those contuiniug the number Three 
nre pretty numerous; but these do not occur oftener than we might 
naturally espect beforehand, while the number Two is met with many 
times more ^^uently than all the others put together. 

The Irish word forTwo that o<:curs in names, is du, or dha, both forma 
being used; da is proDounced t/^itr; but in the other form, dh, which 
has a peculiar and rather faint guttural sound, is altogether suppressed 
in modem names ; the word dha being generally represented by tho 
vowel a, while in many cases modem contraction haa obliterated every 
tnwx: of a representative letter. It is necessary to bear in mind that da 
or dha gcuenLlly aspirates the cousonaut before which it is placed^ and 
that in a few cases it eclipses consonants and prefixes « to vowels, 

Wc find names involving the number Two recorded in Irish history, 
from the most ancient authorities down to the MSS. of the 17tH cen- 
tury, and they occur in proportion quite as numerously as at the pre- 
sent day ; showing that this curious tendency is not of modem origin, 
but that it has descended silent and unnoticed, from ages of the most 
remote antiquity. 

Tlieru ia a village and parish in the N. W. of Tipperary, on the shore 
of Lough Derg, now called Terryglass ; its Irish name, as used in many 
authorities, is Tir-da-ghlas, the territory of tho two streams; and 

identity of this with the modem Terryglass is placed beyond all 
iVt by a passage in the " Life of 8t Fintan of Clononagh," which 
ilMcribea Tir-da-glas as "in terra Mumoniee juxta iluvium Sinna." 
The great antiquity of this name is proved by the fact that it is men- 
tioned by Adomnon in his "Life of St. Columba " (Lib. ii., cap. 
XJtxri.), written in the end of the seventh century; but according to hie 
usual custom, instead of the Irish name he gives the Latin equivalent : 
is the heading of this chapter it is called Ager duorum rivorum (*' De 
eodeauB Duorum ogri rivorum simili reclusione"), and in the text, Rua 
daum rivulorum (" — in monaslerio Duum ruris rivulomm"), either 
of which is a correct translation of Tir-da-ghlas.* There is a sub- 
division of the townland of Clogher, in the parish of Kilnoc, Clare, 

* For the identification of Tir-da-ghlu with ibe Ager duorum rironiffl of Adamnau 
vt %n Iwkbted to the Rot. Dr. R«aT«. 


called TcnygUss, which has the same Irish form and meflning as the 
other. Several other instanceB of namea of this clabtf, zneuttoued in 
very ancient authorities, will be cited as I proceed. 

Though this peculiarity is not ro comrDon in pergonal as in local 
names, yet the numbers of persons mentioned in Irish writings whoM 
names involve the number Two, are sufficiently large to be very n-raark- 
able* The greater numl)er of these names appear to me to be agnomina, 
which described certain pcculiariticB of the individuals, and which 
were imposed for the sake of distinction, at'ter a faghiou prevalent 
among most nations before the institution of pumames. 

One of the three Collas wlio conquered IJlster in the fourth century 
was called CoUa-da-chrich, CoUa of the two territories. Bachricb 
waa a favourite soubriquet, and no doubt, in cuBe of f?ach iudividuoL it 
records the fact of his connexion, either by possession or rendcnce, 
with two countries or districts; in case of Colla, it most probably 
refers to two territories in Irelajid and Scotland, in the latter of which 
he lived some years in a state of banishment before his invasioD of 
Ulster. In the Mttrtyrology of Donegal there are nine different 
persons mentioned, called Ferdachrich, the man of the two territories. 

The word Dubh applied to a dark-visaged person is often ibllowed 
by da; thus the Four Masters mention two persons named Dnbh da- 
bharc, thcblack(man)of the two ships; four named Dubhdachrich ; eighty 
Ihibhdiibhoireanu (of the two stony districts?) ; two, Bubbdainbber, 
of the two estuaries; one, Dubhdaitigean, of the two daughters; four, 
Dubhdaleithe, of the two sides or parties ; and two, Dubhduthuaih, of 
the two districts or canlreds. In the genealogy of Corcaluidhewe find 
Bubhdaniliagli, of the two plains ; and in the Martyrology of Donegal, 
Dubbdilocba, of the two lakes. 

Fiacha Muilleathfin, King of Munster in the third century, waa 
called Fear-da-liacb, the man of the two sorrows, because his mothtr died 
and his father vas killed in the battle of Mngh Wocroimhe on the day 
of his birth. The futhcr of Maine Mor, the ancestor of the Hy Many, 
was Eocbaidh, suniauM-d Fcr-iln-ghiall, the man of the two hostages. 

Many more names might bu cited, if it were ueceseorj-, toejtteud ihia 
list ; and while the number Two is so common, we meet with very few 
names involnng any otJier number. 

It is very natural thtit a place should be named from two prominrstt 
objects forming partof it, orin couuexiou with it, and names of tliia kind 
are occaHionally met with in most countries. The fact that they occur 
in Ireland would not 1m? considered n*markable were it not for these two 
circumstances— first, they are, beyond all comparison, more numerous than 
could be reasonably expected ; and, secondly, the word dd ia always 
espreased, and forms part of tlio names. 

Great numbers of placcn are scattered here and there through tb« 
country whose names express poftitiou between two physical featurca« 
such as rivers, mounlaiits, lakes, &c., those between two rivers being the 
most numerous. iheparif-h of Ihiniry, Oalway, ia 
called in Irish Coill-eder-da-abbninn. the wood between two rivtii; ami 




EDadrDWD, in the pariah of Dnimcullen^ King's County, is erideuUy 
tbesmne word ehortcued by local corruption. Drumdc-raown, in Cork, 
and Drumdirflowen, in Kerry, are both modtm forma of Druim-'dir-dha- 
Abhainn, the ridge between two rivers, whore the Irish db» is repre- 
sented by a in the present names. In Cloonedorowen^ tiulway — the 
Bttuiow between two rivers — there is no representative of the dha, 
tbon^h it existfiin the Irish name j and a like remark applies to BuUy- 
derown (the town between two rivers), an old castle situated in the 
ungle where the rivers Funchcon und AnigLin, iu Cork, mingle their 
vatcn. Coracow, in the parish of Killaha, Kerry, is a name much 
■bartened firom itn orig:inAl Comhrac-dhn-abha, the meeting of the two 
vkTMIDB. The Four Masters at A. D. 5:^8, record a battle fought at a 
|ilaoe called Luachair-mor-etir-da-inbhir, the large rusliy place between 
two nrcr mouth*, othcrwiw) called Ailbhc, or Cluain-Ailbhe, now 
donalvy, in the county )(eath. 

With ^aise (a stieam), instead of Abhainn, wc have Ederdaglass^ 
tin name of two townlands in Fermanagh, meaning (a place) between 
two Btrcams ; and Drumederglass, in Cavan, the ridge between two 
•tr«ama. Though all trace of da is lost in this name, it is preserved in 
tlie Down ^ju^vey, where the place is called Drumuderdaglass, 

Efiprdacorr&gb, in Fermanagh, meoni* (a place) between two marshes ; 
Adcrarohcr, in t^ligo, is in Irish £adar-dha-bhothair (a place) between 
two roads, an idea tliat is otherwise expressed in GouJdavohcr, near 
Mnagret, Limerick, the fork of the two roads. Drumdiralough, in 
Kerry, the ridge between two lakes; and Drumcderalena, in Sligo, the 
ridge between the two lenat, or meadows; ludiidcraille near Incha- 
... 1 .1. 13 jn li'ittlx Inis-idir-dha-fhaill, the island or river holm between 
; a similar position has givin name to Derdaoil or Dariel^ a 
int.. 1 iilrtpe in the parish of Kilniastulla, Tipperary, which is shortened 
from the Jrifth Idir-du-fhaill, belwcen two cliffs ; Cloonaderavall3% in 
6Ugo, the cloon or meadow between the twu haUiety or townlands. 

Crockada, in the parish of Clones, Fermanagh, is only a part of the 
liiili name Cnoc-cadar-da-ghrcuch, the hill between the two marshy 
fiata; the tnie form of the present name would be Knockadder. Mogh, 
the name of a townland iu the parish of BiUhlynin, Tipperury. is also 
on abbreviation of a longer name; the inhabitants cull it Mogh-idir- 
dba^hainn, the plain between two rivers. 

The well known old cliurch of Aghadoe,near Killamey, which gives 
CBinrto a parish, is called by the Four Hastern, at 1581, Aclmdh-da-eo, 
tb« field of the two vew trees, which must have been growing near each 
*«tber, and mtut have been sufficiently large and remarkable to attract 
gHMral attention. Part of the townland of Drumliarkuu Glebe, in the 
fttMl of Cloone, Loitrim, is called Cuoldao, tlie back of the two yews. 
In the townland of Comagee, parish of Kiliinagh, Cavan, there is a deep 
eaveni, into which a stream sinks ; it is called FoUa-daossan, the hole 
of ihib two bushes. 

In the parish of Killashec, Longford, there is a village and townland 
calM Cloondara, containing the ruins of what was once an important 


eoclesuuticul e&tabliHbment ; it is mentioned by the Four MBfltcre^ at 
1323, and callc>d Cluain-da-rath, the meadow of the two ratha ; and 
there is a townland of the same name in the parish of Tisrara, Koscom- 
mon. Near Crossmolioa is a townland called Qlendaroolagh, the gleo 
of tlie two boolies, or dairy pluoea. 

The parish of Donagh, in Konaghan, takes its name from an old 
church, the ruins of which are still to be seen near the village of 
Glasslough; it is mentioned twice by the Four Masters, and it^ full 
name, as written by them, is Domhnachmaighe-da-chluoine, the church 
of the plain of the two alopes. Dromdaleague, the name of a village 
and parish in Cork, signifies the ridge of the two stones; and Dadreeu 
in Mayo, is the two dreens, or sloe-bushes. 

Several places derive their names from two plains: thus Damma, 
the name of two townlands in Kilkenny, is simply Da-mhagh, two 
plains ; Kosduma, in the parittU of Urange, tsame couuly, the wood of the 
two plains. That part of the King's County now occupied by the 
baronies of Warrenstown and Coolestown, was anciently called Tuath- 
du-mhaighei the district of the two plains^ by which name it is 
frequently mentioned in the Annals, and whii^h is sometimes anglicised 
Tethmoy ; the remarkable hill of Drumcaw, gi^'ing name to a townland 
in this locality, was anciently called Druim-da-mhaighe, from the same 
district. We find Olendavagh, the glen of the two plains, in the parish 
of Aghaloo, Tyrone. 

The valley of Glcndalough, in Wicklow, takes its name from the 
two lakes, so well known to tourists ; it is culled in Irish authorities 
Uleann-dalocha, which the author of the Life of St Kevin translatefl 
railis duorum fitatfnorum. In the parish of Kildyaert, Clare,, there is an 
island called, from its shape, Inishdadroum, the island of the two(/r«jii«, 
or backs ; the same form has given name to Inishdavar, in the parish of 
Derryvullan, Fermanagh ; to Comadarura, Fermanagh, the round hill of 
the two ridges; and to Corradcverrid, in Cavan, the hill of the two 
caps ; Tuam, in Oalway, is called in the Annals, Tuaim-da-ghualann, the 
tumulus of the two shoulders, evidently from the shape of the ancient 
sepulchral mound from which the place has its name. 

Desertcreat, a townland giving name to a pariph in Tyrone, is men- 
tioned by the Four Masters as the scene of a battle between the O'NeiUa 
and the O'Donnells, in A. D. 1281 , and it is called by them Biseort-da- 
chrioch, the desert or hermitage of tJ»e two territories ; they mentioD 
also a place c-alled Magh-da-chaimench, the plain ofthe twocams; Magh 
da-gabhal, the pluiu ot the two forks; Ailiuu-da-bernach, the island of 
the two gaps; Hagh-du-Chainneach, the plain of the two Cainneach« 
(men). The district between Lough Conn and the river Moy was ancieotlj 
called An Da Bhac, the two bends, under which name it is frequently 
mentioned in the Annal& 

There is a townland in the parish of Itossinvcr, Leitrim, called Lis- 
durush, the fort, ofthe two promontories; and on the side of Hungry 
Hill, in the parish of Kilcaskan, Cork, is a small lake which is called 
Cuuuuulavullig. the hollow of the two roada ; in Boscommon we find 


Cloondacarra, the meadow of the two weirs; and the FourMaaterB men- 
tion Clar-atha-da-charadh, the footboard of the ford of the two weirs ; 
Gabbacrock, in the parish of Killeshtr, Fermanagh, ia written in Irish 
Gob-dha-chnoc, the beak or point of the two hilla. 

Dnndareirke is the name of an ancient castle in Cork, built by the 
McCarthys, signifying the fortresa of the two prospeota (Dun-da-radharc), 
md the name is very suitable, for according to Smith, " it is on a hill, 
and commands a vast extended view west as far na Kcrrj", and east 
almoat to Cork;*' there is a townland of the same name, but written 
Dandaryark, in the parish of Dancsfort, Kilkenny. 

The preceeding names were derived from conspicuous physical 
features:, and their origin is therefore natural enough, so far ue each 
individual name is concerned; their great number, as already remarked, 
L» what gives them significance. But those I am now about to bring 
forward admit in general of no such explanation, and appear to me to 
prove still more couclusirely the existence of this remarkable disposi- 
tion in the minds of the people, to take things in twos. Here also, oa 
in the preceding clads, names crowd upon us with remarkable frequency, 
both in ancient authorities and in the modem list of townlands. 

Great numbers of places have been named from two animuls of some 
kind. If we are to explain these names from natural occurrences, we 
must believe that the places were so called, because they were the 
bvonrite haunt of the two animals commemorated ; but it is very 
itnngc that so many places should be named from just two, while thcro 
are few or none from one, three, or nny other number — except in the 
general way of a genitive singular or a genitive pluraL Possibly it may 
be explained to Bomeextent by the natural pairing of male and female, 
bnt this will not explain all, nor even a considerable part, as any one 
may lee from the illustrations that follow. I believe that most or all of 
Uuao names have their origin in legends or superstitions, and that the 
two animals were generally supematnral visitants, vij;., fairit*, or ghosts, 
or human beings transformed by Tuatha de Danunn enchantment. 

We Tery frefjuently meet with two birds — I)4-en. Part of the 
fibannon near Clunmacnoise was anciently called Snamh-du-vn, the 
swimming place of the two birds. The parish of Duneane, in Antrim, 
has got itd present name by a slight contraction from Bun-dd-en, tho 
fattran of the two birds, which is its name in the Irish authorities ; 
aatoog others, the Martyrology of ^ngus, which, according to Dr. 
Todd, is not later than the eleventh century. There is a mountain 
stretching between Lough Gill and CoUooney, bligo, which the Four 
Maaters mention at 1196 by the name of SUubh-da-en, tho mountain 
of the two birds; it is curious that a lake on the north side of the same 
mountain is called Loch-da-gbedh, the lake of the two geese, which 
are probably the two birds that gave name to the mountain. There is 
s townland in the parish of Kinawly, Fermanagh, called Kossdancan, 
the penirnnihi of two birds. 

Two birds of a particular kind have also given their names to 
MTcral localities, and among these, two ravens seem to be favourites. 


In the lost-mentioned parish is a townland called AgKindaiogli, in Irish 
Achadh-an-da-fhiach, the field of the t'wo ravens ; in the townland of 
Kilcolman, parish of same narae^ Kerry, is a pit or caTem called Poll- 
da- fhiach, the hole of the two ravens ; we find in Cavan, >{eddaiagh» 
the nest of the two ravens; in Oalway, Cuillecndaeagh, the little wood 
of tlie two ruveuu ; and in Kerry Glandaeai^h, the glon of the two 
ravens. With Branog, another name for the Bamo bird, we have 
Bmnnick Island near great Aran Island, Galway bay, which is oalled 
in Irish, 0Uean-da-bhrau6g, the island of the two ravens. 

There ia a towuhmd iu the parish of Killinvoy, Koscommoa, whose 
name is improperly anglieisod Lisdiiulun; the Four Masters at 1380, 
call it Lios-da-lon, the fort of the two black-birds ; and AghadaGhort 
in Donegal, means the field of the two herons. 

Several places are called from two hounds; there ore two town- 
lands in Clare called Guhiracon, in Irish Cathair-tlhu-chon, the Caher 
or stone fortress of the two hounds; and Lisduchon, in Westmeath ia 
the fort of the two hounds. The parish of Moyacomb. in Wicklow, ia 
called by the Four Masters Magh-dii-chon, the ])lain of the two hounds, 
the present name being formed by a chzinge of n to m, and the addition 
of 6, both usual corruptions. In the pariah of Devenish, Fermanagh; 
there arc two conterminous townlands called Big Dog and Little Dog ; 
these singfular appellations derive their origin from the modern divi- 
sion into two parts, of an ancient tract which is called in the annala 
81iabh-da-chon, the mountain of the two hounds. We find also Clooa- 
dacon, in Mayo, the meadow of the two hounds. 

In several other places we have two oxen commemorated, as in 
Cloondadauv, in Galway, which the annuliats write Cluain-du-damh, tlie 
meadow of the two oxen ; li^iKsdagamph, in Fermanagh, and Aughada- 
nove, Armagh, U;e promontory and the field of the two oxen; in the 
first, d is changed to 9 by a usual corruption, and in the second, da 
piffixes n to the vowel. At the year GOG, the Four Musters mention 
a lake in which n orannogo was built, situated in Oritil, but not now 
known, called Loch-da-damh, the lake of the two oxen. 

Two bucks are commemorated in such names aa Ballydavock, Cap- 
padavock. Glendavock. Li^ilavock (town, plot, glen, fort), and Atti- 
davock, tlie fiite of the honse of the two bucks. 

The parish of Cloonyhurk, in King's County, takes its nomefrotna 
townland which the Four Masters call Cluain-da-thorc, the uieodow of 
the two boar» ; Glendahork, in Mayo, is the glen of the two boars; and 
Lisdavuck, in King's County, the fort of the two pigs. 

« Cloondonugh, in Clure, is in Irish Cluaiu-da-neni*h, the meadow of 
the two borst^; we find the same two animals in Tullylongbdaugh, in 
Fermanagh, and Aghadaugh, in Westmeath ; the second moaning tbc field, 
and the first the hill of the lake of the two horses ; and CLoondclarn, near 
Clonmacnoise, is the meadow of Uie two mares. C'londaleoiu the parinh 
of Killyon, Mcath, is called in Irish Cluain-da-laogh, the meadow of 
tlie two calves. Aghftdavoyle in Armagh is the field of the two maoli, 
or hornless cows ; two animals of the same kind have given nama to a 




Utile ialfliid in Mayo, rir., Iniahdaveel; while we hare two yellow 
cows in Iniflhdawee, the narae of two townlands in Oalway. The 
small riTer Oweodalulagh, llowingfrora iheelopfs of Slicvcaughty, in 
Galwsy, into Longh CatrSr near (rort, is called in the old authorities, 
Abhftinn-dft-laoilgheach, the river of the two mUch cows, which name 
is aocounted for by a legend in the DinnseQurhus. 

There ia a legend also conoeming the origin of Clondngad, in Clare, 
tbc Cloon of the two gads or withes. Jocelin recounts another legend 
accounting for the name Bon-da-leath-glus, anciently applied to the 
great T»th at Downpatrick, and the tirst Bj'IJable of which has ori- 
ginated the name of Down, St. Patrick's name being added in con- 
Kqaence of hia connexion with the place; the ancient name Bignifiea, 
according to the Latin writers, the fortress of the two broken locks, or 
fetterm. The two remarkable mountains in Kerry now called the Paps, 
were anciently rolled, and are still, in Irish, Da-chicli-Dnnainne; the 
two paps of Danann, a celebrated lady of the Tuathu De Dananns, 
from whom thoy durived Iheirname; and the plain on which they 
•tand is called 6un-a'-da-chich, the bottom or foundation of the two 

A very singular name is Dromnhaire, which is that of a village in 
Leitrim ; the Four Ma-Mers somctimoR cnll it Bnilc-ui-Ruaire, becanso 
it waj§ formerly the property of the O'Roarkes ; bat generally they give 
it tha more ancient name of Dmira-da-ethiar, which 0' Donovan tmne- 
lj(t««i the ridge of the two air-spirits or dumon5. Tradition has lost 
all memory of the two evil spirits that hauntcrl the place and origi- 
nated the name, and we ahoiild be in ignorance of the true ancient form 
if our Annals had not preserved it. 

In this great diversity it must he suppoRed that two persons would 
find a place, and accordingly we find Kildarce, the church of the two 
king*, the name of two townlands in Ualway (for which see Sir Wil- 
liam Wilde's ** Lough Corrib"), and of another near Croasmolina, Mayo. 
There is a fort one mile south of the viUuge of Killoscully, Tipperary, 
called Liddavrahcr, the fort of the two friars ; and there is another 
of the same name in the south of Ballymoylan towuland, parish of 
TonghalarrOf in the same county : in both these cases it ia likely that 
the two fiiare were two ghosts. 

There is a pari-sh called Toomore, in the county Mayo, taking its 
luune firoiD an old church standing near the river .Moy ; it is also tho 
name of a townland in the parish of Anghrim, Roscommon, and of a 
towuland and parish in Sligo. This is a very curious, and a very an- 
cieot same. Toomore, in Kayo, ia written Tuaim-da-bhodhar by Duald 
Mac Firbia and the Four Masters; and Tuaim-da-bhodar in a poem in 
the "Book of Lecan," transcribed in M16 or 1417, byOiolialosa Mor 
Mac Firbia. The pronunciation of the original is Tooma-onr, which 
auily mik into Toomore. The name signifies the tomb of the two 
deaf pcnons; but who they were neither history nor tradition re- 

a. I. A. raoo. — vou x. 2 a 





le two veuerable people who gare name to Cc 
f Kilmore, Cavan, has quite perished from the face 
of the earth, except only bo far as it is preserved in the name Cor-da- 
liath, the hill of the two grey persons. Two people of a different com- 
plexion are commemorated in Qlendaduff in Mayo, the glon of the two 
blaok visagcd persons. Mcondacalliagh, in the parish of Lower FahaOi 
Donegal, means the mfen, or mountain flat of the two ealliagh^^ or hags, 
probably a pair of those old witches who used to turn themselvea into 
hares, and suck the cowb. 

It must occur to any one wlio ginnces through these names to ask 
himself the question — what w^as the origin of this curious custom ? I 
cannot believe that it is a mere accident of laoguage, or that it sprung 
up Bpontaneously, without any particular cause. 1 confess myeelf 
wholly in the dark, unable to oifer any explanation : I have never met 
anything that I can call to mind in the whole range of Irish literature 
tending in the least degree to elucidate it. Is it the remnant of some 
ancient religious belief, or some dark superstition, dispelled by the 
light of Christianity ? or does it commemorate some wide-spread social 
custom, prevailing in times beyond the reach of history or tradition. 
leaving its track on tho longuago as the only manifefltation of its cxia- 
lonce ? We know that among some nations certain numbers were 
accounted sacred, like the number seven among the Hebrews. Was 
two a sacred number with the primitive people of this country? I 
refrain from all conjecture, though the subject is suflScicntly tempting; 
I give the facts, and leave to others the task of accounting for them. 


XXV. — Oil Chik£8£ PoBCEUitM Seals focwd in Ibflavd, wrm 
Reu&bics on theib allegld Antiquity. By Da. "W". FBASiiB, 
M. Tl. I. A. Dublin, 1668. 

[Bead Jaouarj, 1868.] 

Cebtaik seals of porcelain, bearing Chinese inscriptions, have been 
picked up from time to time in diftcront ports of Ireland during the 
past century, and Mr. Joseph Ifuband Smith deserves the credit of hav- 
ing first directed attention to these seals, and their alleged claims to a 
venerable antiquity (see "Proceedings Boyal Irish Academy," vol. L, 
p. 381). My interest was excited by accidentally obtaining two of 
those seals and being rather sceptical about their age, I was led for 
some years to punsue the inquiry' at intervals, with the results now laid 
before the reader. 

Mr. Smiths ideas having influenced more or less those who have 
written on this subject, it is just to state them in his own words : " An 
extract from the Grammar of Abel Bemusat showed tliat tho inscriptions 
on those seals are those of a very ancient class of Chinese characters 
in use since the time of ConfUcius, who is supposed to have flourished in 
tho middle of the sixth century B. C. The remote period to which 



those charaotera are assigned leares open a wide field for conjecture 
m to the time in which these porcelain seals found thoir way into this 
oountiy. From the extreme degree of heat to which they appear to 
kare b«cn Bubjected, and their consequent Titrification, which has in 
some measure taken place, they are quite as capable of reststing the at- 
tack5 of time as the glass and porcelain deities and ornaments found in 
the mummy-cases of Egypt, and may have been for on indefinite period 
beneath the surface of the earth. It is, therefore, at least possible that 
they may hare arrived hither from the East along with the weapons, 
omaraenta, and other articles of commerce which were brought to these 
islands by the «hips of the first merchant princes of antiquity, the 
Fhcenicians, to whom our porta and harbours were well known." 

The late Mr. Edward Getty, with great industry and zeal, gathered 
all the scattered information bearing on tlie discovery of these seals in 
different localities. lie read a paper on tlie subject before the Belfast 
Utenry Society in 1850; and afterwards published a 4to volume with 
eopieeof the inscriptions in Chinese characters, translations of them by 
eompetent authorities, and brief statements of the circumstances under 
which they were found. The work is illustruted by un enlarged draw- 
ing of on© of the seals, and is a trustworthy resume of the entire 
qnefltion up to the time it appeared. 

Mr. J. W. Murphy, of Belfast, and Mr. Robert Ball, of this city, 
both laboured in investigating this subject with much ability. I possess 
WAX or plaster copies of the inscriptions of several of the seals, made 
by Mr, Ball, and entnisted to me by his son. He wrote, however, 
nothing regarding them; and Mr. Murphy's observations were trans- 
ferred to Mr. Getty. The earliest intimation of Chinese seals being 
foond in Ireland is, perhaps, a brief query in the "Anthologia" for 
1793, This is merely a copy of a Chinese inscription, similar to what 
occurs on the seals, and a request for its translation : there is no history 
or duo by which it can bo traced. 

So far as 1 can ascertain, records exist, more or less compU'te, of 
nboot sixty-one seals, which appear to have been sown broadcast over 
the country in some strange way that I cannot offer a solution of. 
Thus I find that, whilst more than half have either no authentic history, 
or are roughly ascribed to localities in the south of Ireland, the 

County of Antrim affords 


County of Kilkenny 


„ Down „ 


,, Tip])erary 


„ Dublin 


„ Wexford 


„ Callow 


„ Limerick 


„ Qucen'a „ 


„ C^ark 


,- Wcstmeath 




The hirtory of these seals, if investigated, presents one common 
point of agreement that seems of much imi»ortance. They have never 
yel, in n single instance, been discovered a8Bociate<l with other objects 
antiquarian interest, in burrows or mounds, with bronze or stono 
ipo&a, Celtic remains, or works of art — never with Danish or Aoglo- 


Iforman coins, nor even with moderQ artioles of manufacture. The 
iuTariablc story of their find is what we might expect it they had been 
Moideutally djopped, at no very distant period, in or near the loctUiliea 
whence Ihcj'wcit afterwurds unctirlhcd. Thus thoy have been picked 
up by labourers, &.s the plough-share passed over on old uutilled field: 
one was extracted from the uprootvd fibres of an uged pear tree ; another 
obtained on or near the situation of a disiiecd road; two in caves ; one in 
a potato garden ; others in heaps of rubbish or clay near human dwell- 
ings — in a word, under circumstances that at once raise a conjecture 
they cannot possibly be of any extremely ancient date. There also 
seems to be satisfactory evidence that similar seals have never yet been 
found in England or on the Continent. 

The peculiar characters on the^e t^ala arc admittedly of great anti- 
quity ; but this fdgnities little. It i*^ the commJn seal- writing employed 
by the Chinese for centuries, and etill seen on their ordinary seals made 
and used in the present day; eomewbat refitmbling our own black Uiter, 
which is prootioally obsolete, though in daily ufic for legal writings^ 
deeds, &c. 

Mr. Getty collated the circurastances under which these seals were 
found in Ireland, and obtained the aid of educated Chinese and scholorB 
in that language, hoping thns to unravel the problem of their importA- 
tiou hero, and wide dispersion over the country. Following out his 
ideas (which appear to present the only reasonable hope of sueeees), 1 
believe their alleged claim to a vcneruble antiquity can be disproved, 
though 1 am still unable to offer any suggestion ns to how they reached 
our shores, or were scattered broudea^t through so many counties. 

An inquiry of a similar nature wor worked out a few years ago 
respecting certain Chinese porcelain bottles obtained in Egypt, and 
aaserted to have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs by travellers, 
like our porcelain seals, they were supposed to point to a distant erm, 
when Pharaoh*s subjects traded with China, and several interesting 
speculations were based on this slender substructure. There were in 
all twelve of these bottles discovered. They fortunately presented five 
different poetic inscriptions that could be deciphered, and Kr. W. H. 
Medhurst decided thoy were extratte from the writings of Cliinese 
{loeta that, at the farthest, lived under dynasties dating from A. D. 700 
to nOO. Tbc bottles, therefore, might be so old: in all probability 
they were much more recent; indeed Mr. Medhurst's Chinese teacher 
referred them to the period of the "Ming" d}Tja8ty, to which there are 
good grounds for concluding our porcelain seals also belong. (See 
"Trans. Chincw Branch of Royal Asiatic Society," port 3, for 1851-2), 

My inquiries in China wei*e for a long time unsuccessful; forin that 
vast Empire circiimstnnceB and ohjecis which are familiar to persons in 
one district may be quite unknown elsewhere ; thus my correspondents 
in Hong Kong, Ningpo, and iVkin, could give mo no aid, and I finally 
got satisfactory resniti' at Canton. 

In the Catalogue of the Aeailrmy'* Museum, Sir W. Wilde describe* 
thoie aeola OS ** cubical portions of white porcelain about five-eighths 





I inch upon each side of the equare, embossed on the under surface 
characters which are proved to be a very ancient fomi of Chineae 
writing, and aonnountcd by the fif^ure of an ape^ Mr. Getty bIbo con- 
eidered the image on the top of the seals represented a baboon, and his 
coUrged riew brings out the Ukeneas in a pointed manner. In the 
UDiqae oral aeal in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy, found 
at Bathkeale, the figure is supposed to be a Guinea pig's. Both con- 
jectarea are excusable ; but on appeal to the Chinese — who ore, perhaps, 
the beat authorities as to what they intend by those designs — it seems 
thejr ought to be "lions/* for they arc termed ** lion- head seals ;" and 
ia one aeal vguK me from Canton the animal is well represented in a 
spirited position, half seated, in a maimer resembling aome of our own 
luTaldic fignrea. 

Sir W. Wilde further states — "It is said that no porcelain seal of a 
aimilar shape and size can be procured in China." 1 lay before the 
Academy three such seals, identiofd with our Irish ones, sent from 
Canton by Bev. James Legge, of the London Missionary Soeiety, witb 
two othtTSf diflering in the position of the animal on their top. 2£r. 
says — '^The)' are obtainable^ but can hardly be said to be in 
ii they are kept, so far as I can learn, simply as nick-nacks or oma- 
Thus far it appears clear : — 

1. That the seals are of undoubted Chinese manufacture. 

2. That they are known in Canton as "lion-head seals." 

3. They are purchoseable as objects of curiosity, but not used at 
the present day. 

idea of their antiquity originated in the peculiar characters 
used by the Chinese for seal impressions. On this point Mr. Legge 
stetee — ** Every question about the history of porcelain seals in China 
could he answered if one had access to a large library. I consulted a 
Chinese scholar of extraordinary research upon thia subject, and he 
awaxee me that porcelain seals were first made during the * Sung' dy- 
naaty, A. D. 975 to A. D. 1 279 ; no mention of them can be found before 
that time. Previous lo the *■ Tsiu' dynasty (B. C. 220) seals were made 
of jade and other precious stonea^ and also of gold and silver. Under 
the 'fian' d)'nasty (B.C. 201) seals made of brass came into rogue, and 
wen long used, till townrdHthe end of the 'Yuen' dynasty (A.D. 136?) 
they were in a great measure superseded by soapstono seals, 

"Under tlie *Sung* dynasty, however, porcelain seals had been 
iBftdo : the name of a puttery where many were produced between the 
jrcen A« D. 1111 and A.D. 1118 is still famous. But it was under the 
'lling' dynasty, immediately preceding the present, that these seals 
were aoet in vogue. The 'Green kiln,' with more than 300 furnaces, 
waa constantly at work in the lant c|uarter of the fourteenth centur>', 
pnxliu'iug aU aorta of email articles. Since the 'Ming' dynasty porce- 
lain seal* have very much fallen intx) disuse. Such," says Dr. Legge, 
"ta the ftubstonce of a short treatise which my Chinese friend has 
composed on this subject. Porcelain seids are also^ it appears, still 


manufacturod in the province of Fuh-Keen, and sold under the nam< 
'eeals from the Fuh-Kcen potteries;' but the best of them are spoken 
of in Chinese books as very inferior to those made in former timca." 

The concluding part of Rev. Dr. Legffe*B letter contains an ingenious 
conjecture, which I must confess myselJf unable either to verify or dis- 
prove. He says — " The question as to how these aeals found their way 
to Ireland will probably ever remain a problem not fiilly solved. The 
above detail throws a little light on it It was during the *Ming' dy- 
na3t3' that such articles came to be 'the rage' in China, and it waa at 
the same time that European commerce with the £mpire oommcncod ; 
Queon Elizabeth sent an envoy to the Emperor in 1696. Some of the 
early visitors &om England and Ireland must have taken the seals back 
with them from China- How they came to be sown over so large a 
tract of Ireland we shall never be able to discover-'* 

The settled point, so far, appears to be, that these seals cannot be 
older than the end of the fourteenth or commencement of the fifteenth 
century; how much later than thia era they came to Ireland wo have 
as ynt no evidence. The antiquity of the seal inscriptions is of no 
momeut ; seal writing, like " black letter," is a remnant of past timea 
which has not yet entirely disappeared ; indeed the Chincee, eminently 
conservative in their ideas, still employ for their seals those extremely 
ancient characters, which are well understood by the learned of that 
lan(L At all events porcelain seals have turned up in Ireland from time 
to time during about eighty years past; and even ifwe fancy that a hatftil 
was once imported by some aarunt anxious to puzzle posterity, and scat- 
tered broadcast over the surface of the kingdom, still it seema he must 
have been uncommonly diligent to deposit them in almost every county^ 
with perhaps such a preponderance of southern localities that we might 
fancy their original owner had hi» habitation there. At all cventa, 
almost half a hatful have been already ])icked up. The evidence, so 
far, we must conclude, fails to est^ihlish any ambient Irish traffic 
with the flowery laud, and these seals were neither known to or import«d 
by "Phwniciau or Milesian, or the plundering Noruian peers." 

Mr. Kaye, of the Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and ChioA, 
deserves my best acknowleilgments, in the first instance, for the interest 
lie took in these inquiries. Residing in Hong Kong, he made diligent 
inquiries for any information that could be procured. He failed al- 
together to get porcelain seals at that city; and though he sunt to 
Canton, and had the shops searched, be could obtain none there but 
specimens of recent tioapstono wnU At lagt he learned that a gcaitle- 
xnan hud once got some of them, which ho picked up at Vaeao. By his 
exertions lU'V. Dr. Legge wiis enlisted in carrying on theseiirrh; and 
to him I owe the successful results, not alone of getting mo autlicntic 
Chinese specimens cxut tly similar to our Irish ones, but also for the 
satisfactory account he drew up of their histor>', and of which I have 
so largely availed myself. I will append to these- remarks tha list that 
is Kuhjotncd, of all the nuthenlic " tiuds" of porcelain seals in Ireland^ 
so fur M I can complete it: — 

^™ J 

List 0/ Cuikksx ^iLMa/ound in Irtland i^ 16(15. ^^^H 


[a Miueam of Boyal 

Gut neu- Kilniainh*ni, Co. Dublin. Fraienled bf Thof. ^^^^| 

Iruh AtMdntnj. 

Young, Esq. ^^^H 



So lii»tory. PreWDled by Uisa Ifurpbr. ^^^H 



Turned up in k plouglieii ficlil, iii'ar Borruokaoe, Co. ^^^H 
Tipperarv, 1832. (From Dfan D«w«u'b CoUectioo.) ^M 
Thi* 14 No. 26 of Mr. Gettv'x list. ^H 



(Ko. 1 of Mr. Getty'a Uat.) ' Formerly in poMcadon of ■ 
IC Fannio, Esq. ^H 



Unique oval Seal, found at Ratblteolc, Co. Limerick, ^M 
and presented by Rev. Dr. Todd. ^1 


Rot to be tncod. 

(No. 1 of Mr. Getty'* lUt.) Found in Norlh of Ireland. ^M 
Formerly in possessioo of Dr. St^^kr^, Alcrnoa-»f]uare, ^H 


(No. 2, do'.) Dcftcribed by J. H. Smith, Z6*i., Dublin. ^M 


In Bd&« HoMum. 

(No. 8, do.) Found in a piece of ground never appa- ^H 
nnlly cultivated, parisli of Killileagb, Co. Down, in ^| 


(Na 6, do.) Got on north lide of (Tarlow, on or aboot ^M 
tfae iite of an old road, doied np since 1798, that led ^M 
from an ext«naive quarry to the Kuman Catholic ^H 
tttuia] gruund. U waa found at an inconsiderable ^H 
depth from the aaKace. when removing »ome clay, by ^| 
a workman in Mr. MonlK«>>neryV etupluym^nt ^H 


(No. 6, do.) Ifdonged to Mr. Vi^rnr^, Carlow. ^H 


(No. 7, do.) Found about eighty-flve years ago near ^M 
Mountrath, ljui>fn'« County, in a bog, by a turf cuttvr, ^^ 
wbo gave it to his employer. In 1810 it tvas in (ho 
poascaaion of ftiiaa Beaufort, Halch-itrect, Dublin. 



(No. 8, do.) DMcribed by J. H. Soiilh, Esq., Dublin. 
(No. 9. do.) do. do. 


. . 


Not to b« tnced. 

(No. 10. do.) Got in Wactmeatb. Bclouged to iho 
late R. Hall, F^., Dublin. 


(No. 11, do.J Described by J. H. Smith, Enq., Dublin. 
(No. IS, do.) Owned by Mr. Cbri^ii^-. Dog up at 


. , . . , . 

Kircaasock, Co. Down, about flfly or Hfiyfire year* 

ago, in aa orchard, in taking up the roota of an old 

pear tree. 



(No. 13, do.) In the poeaeaaion of Uio family of the 
late P. Boylan, Eaq., Gr«non*fllrect, for at least 
cigbly<five or ninety years. 


la BcUmI lloMon. 

(NOb M, do.) Found in Co. Down. Formerly in pofl- 
acMiun of the late Mr. Cltwlow, near Belfast. 


In poiKMion of [the 

(No. 15. do.) Found in a poljito garden whilst being 

UtcJ J. Wtndelc. 

ploughed, at Koocknamorifr, about eight miles we^t 

E«).. Ul«lr'« Cu- 

of Cork. 

tit, Co. Cork. 


Formerly in th« 
PilcowD MoMuin 
(aow M>M). 

(No. 16, do.) Got near Clonmel, Co. Tlpfitrar)*. 



(No. 17, do.) Found at Ballyhack, Co. Wexford, 
under an ancient quarry. 


(No. 18. do.) Found about IBU in the parish of Bally. 
1 voumev.Co. Cork. Uwntd bv [llio lato] A.AI«II, li-ij. 
, (No, 19, do.) Sent to Mr. J. W. Murphy, by T. Cfof- 


ton Croker, Em)., on a viiiting card of the lale Colonel 




2( bttok* 



»1 > P«nMrff la POlvn 








No information can 

b« procured re- 

specting tboee 



r>r. W. Frazer, Dob- 



Dr. Belcher, DnbUo. 

Hiet Deborah Moore, 
Quay, Waterford. 

T, KjrT*^. Tt^. 

OE*. SI. 4a.> rt-ij ef ^ bk K. 


(3leu2»,4a.) Get ■■ &e Cml «f C«k. 

(5a. 43, 4a.) h 1S$« is the 
Jacob. ClevML 

(X«L 44, da.) 

(5o. 45, dou) Powd ahcMt IMS » a cav* «« tW 
eoMft «t MyTtlevae, aear Much ef Cork Baihav. In 
1850, Ae pnpertT of T. CnftoB O^cr, Esq. 

(Xa 4C, dei) ■l¥hihited ia 1S47 at the Britkk Ar- 
chsolopad At a nciarin «, aad (iiwiaiinl hr Mr. Goof^ 
iMacs to T. C (Vokcr, Em). 

(Ho. 17-48. do.) ParchaMd ftom Mr. Etbm, MMldox- 
■traet, Undoo, by T. C Ooker, Eeq. 

(Xo. 49, do.) Befiend to be ia | mil Mini of Mm 
Jaeofaa, Waterford, in 1850. 

(No. 50, da) Lady GleogalL Fovd ia 1840 or 1841 
immediatHy ootade of Cahir CaMle, at waet ade, 
when renooring iooM daj. With the Seal vere 
fbond eoaie human booea, '^dch cmnbled iato diat 
oo expoenre. 

(No. 61, 53, da) BeSooged to Miai Jaeoba, Cloaowl. 

(No. 5S, do.) Belonged to Lady Louiaa Kerr, fcand at 
Glenvm Caatle, hi her graodffttber, L<ord Antrim'* 
drawer, and eoppoeed to hare beeo foond oa the An- 
trim estateo. 

(Noe. 24, 28, 29, 54, 65, 66, 67, 58, 69, 60, 61, of do.) 

Obtained tome yean before 1660 at BCHtowB, Co. Dab- 

Uo, in iome ezcaratlona hi day. 
BecelTed about 1857 ftom a fHoid, Dr. Broime, to 

whom it bad been presented by eome peraon in 

Youghal, where It was said to hare been found in a 

care on tbe sea shore. 
Impression sent me by Dr. Briscoe, Pfltown. Tbe Seal 

was obtained in rubbish whibt repairing an old boose 

on the quay at Waterford, about twenty-foor years 

A second Seal was found in another place in Waterford, 

and rince lost by a child, to whom it was giren as a 

pUythiog. (Dr. Briscoe). 
Some years rince one or more of these Seals were fbund 

at Bosbereon, near New Boss. Impressions were sent 

to Dr. Petrie at the time. (Dr. Briscoe.) 


J. Wnulde, £«)., 

KUkeonj Arcbvolo- 
gical HuMutn. 

In the coUMtion of 
J«mei G. Robert- 
no, esq. 

Fomid on bredung up an untilled fleld near Rtveratown' 

aboat seven milei from Cork city. 
A Seal in posaesnoo of a lady at Kiogitown (given on 

the jiUlement of Dr. M'GowaD). 
Found at Thoniastown many years ago, and prcacnUKl 

by Ker. James Grares (Vol. ii. "Kilkenny Arcbeo* 

logical Joumar). 
An impressioa exhibited by Q. Robertson, Eaq., KlU 

kenny, co the Kilkenny Arcbawlogical Soduly, of a 

Seal in his poaseasioa January, 1855, (5i:« Vv). ii. 

" Kilkenny Archiuologicjil Jounul.") 
Uention made of M>m# in the colleclion of the Duko of 

Northumberland. One inscription iransUtod by Rev. 

0. T. Browne, Southwick Vicarage, Kortliambeilaod. 

XXV.— Cataloottb or 101 Drawtwos of Coats of Ab¥8 fbom Obiodtal 
Sketches fbom Toicbstoxes. By Geobgk V. Dv Notbh, Esq., 
M. R. r. A., District Sur\'eyor, Her Majesty's Geological Survey of 
Ireland ; presented by him to the Libnuy of the Royal Irish 
Academy, to form VoL X. of " Antiquarian Sketches." 

[Read lOth of February. 186^.] 












1 * 






VUUf • . . . - 


Raloo and Ballygaltv, 











/Bryui, . 
T Bryunan, . f 
JBroian, . i 
■ Brannion, , . . ) 






Island Msgee, 



UuchaniidD. .... 





Bull, . . 










B«n^ . 

















1 Caldwell, . \ 
ICaUweU. . . . . f 




















Chad. ... 


Oldbridgc, Dclfaiit, 








Oark. ... 





Cochrane, .... 





Coojw, ..... 





Cfmlg. .... 




B. 1. A. raOC— TOL. X. 

2 U 












(0* Doughy, 


















Danlop, . 





DuBlop, . 




Fannin, . 




Ksher, . 




Gftrdiner, . 









Getty. . 









GIa«gow, . 





Graig, . 





Haddan, . 













Do. . 





Do. . 


Raloo and Ballygally, 



Hay, . . 





HolUdav. . 




HoIIiday, ? 




Holmes, . 


Lame and Ballygahan, 



Houston, . 










Irwin, . 





Jaff^y, . 





Johnston, ? 




Johnston, . 
(Kein, . . 


1 Island Magee, 



Kain. . . 



(Cain, . . 



Kincaid, . 


Island Magee, 

















Lecky, . 





Legffi • . 




Loan, . . 










MagUI, . 





Manfod, . 





Martin, . 





Mitfihell, . 















Moora, . 





H'Mnnn, . 











Uanroe, . 

'. . i 









M'NmI. . . 















Pttrick, . 





Pwcy, . . 




BvmBuig*. . 




«*•, . . 









RoUlUOB, . 





SUw. . . 





Shaw aod Bums 


Ballygalfy C«ll«, 



SkiiUtf, . . 




Staith, . . 









Deny. . 

Antrim. ' 


StoplMBM, ' 







Bally carry, 








Tboin» . . 





Todd, . 










IWatt. . . 





WaUon, . . 




Wilwa. . . 




WTWn, . . 

Onna^ belli V, 



Wi)I«i«, . . 





WiUfv . . 





Toniv? . . 








DEScairnoif op trb FORBOonro 101 Coats op Ar»s. 

}(i>. 1- AttKs, Per bond engrailed; in chief, two creeoents; in 
bfup, a mullet or estoilo. Greet, a pelican or swun ; 
motto, Virescit milnfre. 

Xi>. 2. Bajllie. Foity per t'eaoe; chief in tierce, cacli char( 
with three mullets in tierco ; in base, the moon d< 
cent, between letters A. B. ; motto, Amor, htmoTf Hjt 

Kw. 3. Dl&ik. Three maaclcB on a chief engrailed over saltier en- 
grailed, charged with the Bome. Crest, a stag seguntj 
motto, Amo prohwi. i 

N'o, 4. Bl%ib- a saltier charged with four mnacles ; in chief, 

mallet; dexter and sinister Ride, the moon increscent, 
in base, a garb or wheat sheaf. Crest, a stag at speed oB'' 
wreath over helmet in profile ; plain for esquire; motto, 
A mo prohut. 






















No. 15. 

No. 16. 
No. 17 

No. 18 
No. 10. 

BoTB. Party per fessc, chcqu<^c, three crcsceots — two and 
one. Crest, a band in benediction appaum^e ; motto, 

Bbownb. Party per cheveron ; throe ficur-de-lyB — two and 
one- Crest, quatro foil slipped with two leaves — over 
helmet in profile; plain for eEH^uirc. 

liiLYNAM, BuYNNAM, Bbena5, Brakviox. In bofdute, two 
swords en saltier; erect or eombattont. Crest, a helmet 
on a wreath in profile ; barred, for baron or knight-. 

BccnANAX, In a treasure fleury, a lion rampant. Crest, a 
hand appaumce holding a fish over wreath on helmet in 
profile ; plain for esqnirc. 

Bull. A tower embattled, bearing three bulls — one and 
two — supporters, dogs. Crest, a mounted knight at 
speed, Bword in hand, combattant. 

BuRSEV. Party per fesae ; in chief, a bended bow, with 
arrow strung ; in base, three boots or human legs cou- 
ple below the knee. Crest, a lion*8 head erased ; motto, 
Sapere aud^ indipe \ji\c on tombetonc]. 

Bdkns. In chief, two mallets over a bu»le bom. Crest, 
the moon increeceut over wreath on helmet in profile ; 
plain for esquire. 

BritxH. In dexter chief, the moon decrescent ; in fease, a 
mermaid; in base, a garb, with three birds pecking — 
one dexter and two sinister. Crest, a hand appaumce 
over wreath ; motto, Rubra tnanuM dmrum h<nmm, 

Cahax. Party per cross; in first, a lion rampant; in 
second, a garb ; in third, a fiah ; in fonrtii, a lymphad or 
gaily. Crest, a lion passant on a wreath. 

Cahan. In bordure, party per cross; in first, a lion ram- 
pant; in second, a garb; in third, a fish; in fourth, n 
boat and man. Crest, a lion passant over wreath uu 
sovereign helmet affi-ont^e^ barred. 

Calwell, Caldwell. Three piles in chief, or a chief 
dauoette, over a field wavey or undi-e. Crest, an eaglet 
displayed over wreath ; motto, In domino coiifido. 

Campbell. G^^roney, in a bordure, charged with crescents. 
Crest, head of sauglier, or wild boar, over a wreath. 

Campbell. In bordure engrailed, a mullet on a canton ; 
in fesse, head of sauglier coupec ; in base, two swords en 
saltier inverted. Crest, a wolf's or dog's head and neck 
ertL9od, over a wreath on helmet in profile ; plain for 

Cabt. In bordure a bend charged with three cinquo 
foils; in chief, n swan. Crest, a swan on wreath over 
helmet in profile ; plain for e8<iuirc ; motto. Sint pmcuU, 

Chad. On a bend, three cinque foils; in chief, two; in 
hose, one rinquc foil. 


Xol 2U. Coichester and Egtannsxody. Impaled, in dexter, a chief 
vert over a field chequee, for Cltichestcr ; sinister, three 
wolves' beads erased — two and one— for Retannsnody. 
Crest, a bird with snake in bill on a helmet in profile ; 
plain for esquire ; motto, /nti'^WH Bequiter bono9 ; or, IIo- 
ntfr ^equiter fugicnUm, 
Tou 21. Clark. In chief, a leopard's or lioness's face between two 
books, over a JUur-ds-Ii/*, Crest, arm and hand holding 
a book. 

Ko. 23. CociLBAJFE. Party per cross ; first, party per pale, gyrony 
on siniflter side ; second and third, boar's head erased; 
fourth, a canton gyrony. Crest, boar's head erased on a 
wreath ; motto, JV# oblivisick. 

Xo. 23. CoopEB. Impaled dexter, party per fcsse; in chief, three 
annulets ; in base, a crescent over three martlets — two 
and one ; sinister party per bend engrailed ; in chief, an 
escaUop. Crest, a lion's head erased on wreath over 
helmet in profile; barred, for baronet or knight. 
lo. 24. Crajq. Party per fesse charged with three crescents, a chief 
vivre, ermined in the points, or a chief indented of two 
lines, ermined in the poinis. Crest, mailed arm and 
hand, with sword erect combattant. 
Tou 26. Dawsoit. a bend engrailed, three martlets. Crest, a mul- 

Xo. 26. O'DovAQKY and MTohachy. In a borduro a chevron ; in 
chief, two lions rampant facing; in base, a sauglier. 
Crest, arm couple at the elbow, witli hand and dagger. 

So. 27. M'DoxALD. In Iwrdure three eastern crownti — two and ouc; 
mullet in honor point. Great, mailed arm, hand with 
scimitar combattant, on a wreath over helmet in profile, 
barred, for baronet or knight; supporters, savage men 
[8. Do5EL, or DoxALD. In bordure a lion rampant; in dexter 
chief, a hand coupi5e at the wrist. Crest, a castle on 
wreath ; motto, My hope is centred in thee, 

No. 29. DirxLOP. In bordure an imperial engle, or eagle with two 
hcadfl respectively looking to the dexter and sinister side. 
Crest, a baud holding u peonou over MTeath on helmet in 
profile, barred, tor barua or knight ; motto, Men'tu. 
'o. 30. DiWLOP. Three bugle horns — two and one; party per chevron 
chequee. Crest, imperial eagle on wreath ; motto, Sui- 
vejf raitf/n. 

V(h 81. Fasxik. In bonlure three martletfi — two and one, party per 
chevron. CVest, a martlet on wreath over helmet in pro- 
file ; plain for esquire ; motto, Soh in deo iptt. 
iD. ft^. PiAQEiL. Three fi»h. Crest, horse's head and iieok couple, on 
a wreath ; motto, Oatidiam adfirro. 


No. 33. QABONEa. Thrco walvL'ti' or dogs* heads erased — two and one; 
party per chevron charged with two lionoella. Crest, a 
demi Wyvem. 

No. 34. QAViir. Iq bordiire a saltier engrailed over a sword in pole. 
CrosU muUet in middle chief. 

No. 35. Oettt. Three boars* heads couple, with escutcheon of pre- 
tence — void. 

Ko. 36. Given. Party per chevron, guJes; in chief, three mulleta; 
in biLse, a lion rampant. Crest, mailed arm and hand 
holding a mullet pierced. 

No. 37. 0l\800w. In pale, a tree in leaf rifling from a mound ; dexter 
aide a fish, with ring in mouth ; sinister side, a bell bq$- 
ponded from a branch. Crest, the dove with oUve branch 
on wrL'ftth over helmet in profile ; plain for cjs<iuire. 

No. 38. Obaio. Lion rampant. Crest^ demi lion rampant crowned 
royal, with dogger erect in dexter paw ; motto, Pro r«y# 
•*« tt/rannot. 

No. 39. HiPDAN. Tiirty per chevron — two and one ; three garbs. Great, 
a wreath. 

No. 40, 0'iUo4y. Party per fesse; base, party per pale; in chief, 
an impeiial eagle. Crest, a square pennon on a helmet 
in profile; plain for enquire. 

No. 41. UiiirLTox. Iropailed dcster side, threo cinque feil»— two 
and one, with lozenge in honor point; siniater side three 
bends sinister, with crescent in dexter chief. Crest, an 
oak true I'ructed and penetrated transvr^rKoIy in the main 
stem by a frame saw on wreath over helmet in profile, 
barred, for boron or knight 

No. -12, Hamilton. In bordure three cinque foils — two and one. 
Crest, oak tree and frame saw ; motto, Thrott^h.^ 

No. 43. Hamiltosc. Three martlets — two and one ; party per fesfi*. 
ermin^e. Crest, a garb on wreath ; motto, Godfccda Mr 

No. 44. Hat. Threo iucsoutcheons, void — two and one. Crest, bi- 
com bead and neck eraftod, over helmet in profile; plidu 
for esquire ; motto, Malum bvne unice. 

No. 46. HoixinAT. In bordure a saltier in a canton, or quarter cut 
off ; in minister side a sword in pale erect over a cresccjit. 
Crest, botir'e head on wreath over helmet in profile; bar- 
red, for baron or knight. 

No. 46. HoLUOAT? In bordure, three mullets in chief over a bugle 
horn. Crest, woIPe or dog's head erased on wreath over 
helmet in profile; barred, for baron or knight 

• Sec " En^lUti Henldr}'/* by Bontell. p. IM. Lootfoo . CumU, Pclttf, sua Gftl|)in, 


Xo. 47. Houus. Lion rampant of the field. Crest, stag's head and 

neok coupee on a wreath. 
Ko. -18. HovBXOir. Three quatrefoile, two and one; party per chevron; 

ermin^e. Crest, an hour-glass on wreath over helmet in 

profile; barred, for baronet or knight. 
K«k -49. Iitvixx. Three goblets or garbs — two and one; party per 

chevron- Great, a hand coupeo, nt the wrist holding a 

thistle, slipped, on helmet in profile ; plain for esquire. 
NoL JO. In bordure. Three cstoilts uf eight rays — one and two; party 

per fease. Crest, arm ooup^e at the elbow ; hand holding a 

thistle, slipped. Motto, Stih noU, tuh umbra vir. 
No. 61. JjkrTBAY. Paly of three; r^coud, fourth, and sixth, ermin^e. 

Over all a fease, charged with three mullets. Crest, the sun 

in splendour, on a wreath, over a helmet, in profile ; plain 

for eaquire. Motto, fai nuhi6a Ph<cbu$, 
Na 52. JoHxaxoiv. In bordure. Three human hearts — two and one. 

Crest, hand couple at the wrist, with dogger. 
No. 63. JoHVSTOV. In chief, three wool sacks ; in base, a saltier, in 

bordure. Crest, a rouelle spur, winged on a wreath, over 

helmet in profile; barred for baronet or knight. Motto, 

NuH^uam ttonparatu*. 
No. 64. KxiK, Kujr, Cauv. On a chie^ three muUcts; a hand 

coup£*o at the wrist. Crest, a garb on wreath, over helmet, 

in profile; plain for esquire. Mottu, Avior probua. 
•^. 65. Kjncaid. In bordure, a fesae erminne; in chief, two 
*■ mullets; in base, a tower. Crest, naked arm coupee, at 

the wrist, with hand holding dagger ereot on helmet; in 

profile ; barred for baron or knight. 
No. 66. M'Kkioht. In bordure. Party per cross, first and fourth ; 

a hand and wrist couple, holding a croi^s patee fitch^e; 

second and third, a tower. Crest, a tower. 
Xo. 67. Ksrox. Three boars' heads couple — two and one ; in pale, a 

battle use. Crest, hand and wrist coupee, with battle-aze, 

cumbatt^mt on a wreath. 
Xo. 68. Lkabjtoittb. Per cross, first and fourth ; a chevron, charged 

with thrte moscles; second and third, a fes&e, charged 

with three cinque foils. Crest, quartre foil, slipped, with 

leaves ; on a wreath over helmet, in profile ; plain, for esquire. 
Kow 69, Lbcet. Three mullets — two and one ; parly per chevron. 
So. 60. Lboo. Stages head, cabossed. Crest, coronet with four plumes. 

Uotto, Oaudit tentamine virtu$. 
So. 61. LoAy. Three fiworda, paily, erect, of the field; two mullets 

in chief. Crest, demi-lion rampant, holding a mullet in the 

d»xt»'r paw, on wreath, over helmet, in profile; plain for 

t^'iuirc. Motto, Virtute etfidea. 
No. 62. LocQiuanoE. In chief, three mullets ; in base, a stag tripping. 

Crust, a martlet on a wreath. 
>'o. 63. Maqox. Three martlets — two and one. 

my; urur< 

ale — HI 

No. 64. Mantod. Lioa rampant; <|ueue iburchec. Crest, a garb, 
on wreath, orer helmet, in profile ; barred for baron or 

No. 65. Mahtin. Three crescents ; party per chevron. Crest, a lion 
rampant, with crfrscent in dexter paw, on wreath- 

No. 66, Mjtchell. Three greyhminds running, in pale. Great, hand 
and open book on a wrcatJi, over helmet in profile; plain for 
eB(]uirc. Motto, Prfss forward to th« niark for the prize. 

No. 67. JIowTfiOMKHL In bordure. Sword and club in Baltier (flword 
erect from sinister, club depressed from dexter ^idc), in middle 
chief, and dexter and sinister Bide, a Heur-de-lys; in base, 
thret! signet rings — one and two. Crest, hand holding fleur- 
de-lys, slipped, over wreath on sovereign helmet 
of six bars. 

No. 6fi. MoDWTOOMEQT. PoTty per fesae, sword erect in pole — I 

and fourtli ; three fleur-do-Iys — two and one — second wni 
third ; three roundeUs or annulets, two and one. Crest, I 
ship in full sail on wreath over helmet in profile ; barrec 
for baron or knight. Motto, Oarde bun, ^m 

No. 69. MooiiK. Party per fe^se, charged with llirec muUeta Cr«^H 
garb on wreath over helmet in profile ; plain for esquire. 

No. 70, M'MuNJT. Party per chevron; throe anchors — two and one 
Crest, a lymphad on wreath, over a sovereign helmet afiront^ 
of six bars. Motto, Hold sure, 
UnvEO. A sovereign helmet afirontee of six bars crested witi 
eagle displayed. Crest, cocatrioe. head erased on wreatli orci 
helmet in profile ; baiTed for baron or knight. 
Ml'nuoe. Impailed ; dexter tiide, a helmet in profile ; plain foi 
esquire, crested with a raven ; sinister side, lion rampant 
Crest, helmet in profile ; plain for esquire, 
M'NsAX. In bordure, party per pale ; dexter side, party pei 
fcasc charged with a fish, in chief, a hand cuupw at the wrist ; 
in base, a lion rampant ; sinister side, party per fessc, charged 
with three mullets; in chief, a lion rampant; in base, « 
lymphad. Crest, mailed arm, with hand holding dag:gei 
combattunt on a \^T^ath. 
Pabk. Per fesse counter componey ; three stags^ heads, caboeaedi 

Motto, Promd^tia wfi connHith, 
Patbrsok. In chief, tha*e mullets, on base embattled; three 
pelicans. Crest, hand with dagger erect on wreath 
helmet in profile; plain fur esquire. Motto, Pro rei 

PxTBicK. Three greyhounds running — two and one. 

a stag tripping; on wreath over helmet in profile; plai 

Peuct. Three towers— two and one. Crest, a tower with demi- 

lion rampant, holding a pennon ; supporters, wingless Yrjr- 

Tcms; tails; nowdleos. 



No. 78. RAMHAeE. In bordure; ragged stoff' in fesse; three unicorn 
heads, neck coiipee — two and one. Crest, unicorn's hend anii 
neck coupec, on MTeath over helmet in profile ; barred for 
baron or knight. 

Xo. 79. Rba. In bordure; three stagfl at speed. Crest, a stag at gaze 
on a wreath. Motto, In omnia promptus, 

Xo. 80. HoBiNsov. In bordure ; three wjrvem heads erased -^two and 
one, with three moons incresaent in fesse. Crest, hand sup- 
porting carl's coronet on wreath ; over helmet in profile ,- 
plain for esquire. 

Xo. $1. Eoanrsorr. Throe wolves' heads erased — ^two and one, with 
three ercsoenta— one and two. Crest, a orown royal over 
helmet in profile; plain for esquire. 

Xot 82. Shaw. Three covered cnps, jewelled — two and one. 

Xo. W. Shaw and BmNs? In bordure party per pale; dexter side, 
three covered cups — two and one, with mullet in honor 
point tor cadency, for Shaw; on ainister side three tablets — 
two and one. With hunting horns in fesse for Bums? 
Motto, Qod* pr0vid^n9 m mij inhert'taM* 
JTo. ft4. Sbctteb. Three bars wavcy, in middle chief, a demi-lion 
rampant. Crest, a ship in full sail, on wreath over helmet, 
in profile; plain for esriuire. 
Sxirn. Party per saltier, charged with a garb in fesse, in 
chief, dexter and sinister side, a crescent. Crest, hand 
holding u pen, on wreath. 
M'SpABiiox. In bordure, a garb over a sickle. Crest, dove 
witli olive branch ; supporters, dexter side, a lion rampant ; 
■inister side, an eagle folded. Motto, Pro patria. 
Steki.k. On a fesse three mascles ; in dexter chief a mullet. 
Strphexsow. In bordure, a crescent in middle chief; in fesse, 
B rose or cinque foil ; on doxter and sinister sides, two 
martlets, in pale ; in base, three javelin heads, in pale, 
depressed. Crest, swan or eagle ; in profile, displayed, on 
wreath, over helmet in profile ; plain for esquire, 

ICo. 89. SvjiiKOTOK. Party per pale ; dexter side, a sword erect, 
per bend, with mullet in chief, and base ; sinister side, an 
eaglet displayed. Crest, a unicorn head with neck couple, 
on wreath, over helmet, in profile; barred for baron or knight. 

Xo. 90. TESirLKTOH. A cock in chief on a cross, saltier, with cluh 
erect in sinister chief. Crest, a church. Motto, Pittas. 

Ko. 91. Tbom. a bend, charged with two crescents, and mullet in 
fesse. Crest, a »tag*B head and neck erased; on a wreath. 

Ko. M- Todd. Per bond ; three human hearts — two and one. Crest, 
mailed arm with hand holding dagger, combattant. 

* Tram Uu lintel of tba doorway to the old culle of Bftlly^lr, tamp, now uMd at 
«Ma4-(aanl lUtioti. 

B- f. 4^ fKOC, — VOL. X. 2 


No. 93. Thohfson. Per fewe; engrailed, charged with three mullets; 
in dexter chief, the sun in splendour. Crest, a garb on a 
helmet, in profile; plain for esquire. Motto, Amor probu9. 

No. 94. Watb or "Watt. On a chie^ the moon increscent between 
two mullets ; in base, a tree in leaf on a mound. Crest, a 
crescent on wreath, over helmet, in profile; barred for 
baronet or knight. Motto, Oradatim. 

No. 96, "Watbok. Per chevron; tliree martlets — ^two and one, and 
three crescents — one and two. Crest, wolf's head erased, with 
neck coroneted, on wreath. Motto, E»te quam videre. 

No. 96, WiLsoir, In bordure, per chevron ; in chief, two mallets ; 
in base, a crescent. Ci^t, mailed arm with hand and dagger 

No. 97. "Wilson. Per chevron ; three crescents — two and one. 

No. 98. Wnxsoir. Per chevron ; three muUets — two and one. Crest, 
demi-lion rampant, on wreath. Motto, Semper viffilan$. 

No. 99. WiuB, Impal^ ; dexter side, party per fesse ; in chief, a 
fox passant ; in base, two mullets ; sinister side, parte per 
cross; first and fourth, three mullets — two and one; second 
and third, three signet rings — two and one. Crest, an 
hour-glass, on wreath, over helmet, in profile; plain for 

No. 100. Yomre. Party, per fesse ; in chief three lions rampant ; in 
fasse. Crest, a wolfs or leopard's head erased over a coronet. 

No. 101. Young. A trellis. Over all a fesse; charged with three roses. 

* Anna on nnistw aids, pouibly for Montgomeri. 

jtflpf«.— llifl mottoes u« given as th^ are cnt on the tombstonea. 

la almost erwy instance the form of the sMeld adopted in the drawings U coiven- 
tioosl, as it would hare oecnpied too much time to hare copied that given on the carr« 
Ingfc— G. V. D. 










«ii*cu* m*t» ^tw- 

OGHAM CAVE DRUML06HAN. volxplAtexv. 

■AffCNt 'mnattr 







vol X PUTf xvin 

ITE X\t 




^-^^^ .. J . ^ - 4 "' 





t^t^ w**t%tm 

1«k*CVl« «»** 



Rev. W. G. p£5>T, M. A., Professor of Malheinalius in the 
tolic University of Ireland, and iato Mathematical Scholar in the 
itv of Oxford. 


[RoAd Ftfbniar}- 24, 1868. 

object of the present Paper ia, in the first place, to ascertain 
r the various disturbing forces which act upon the heavenly bo- 
dttce any permanent effect upon their rotation; and, secondly, 
ng such on effect to ejost in general, to ascertain under what 
tancee it will cease to do eo — that ia to say, what are the con- 
onder which they would rotate permanently without any but 


inquiry may be of acme interest-, for two reasons : — First, it haa 
certaiued that the observed acceleration in the motion of the 
LB been only partially accounted for by the diminution of the 
loity of the earth's orbit, to which cause part of it, though not 
loro than half, is undoubtedly due ; that is, if we calculate 
Lght to have been the angular distance of the sun and moun at 
J of an ancient eclipse — say ioOOyoars ago — it is found that, 
iking allowance for the acceleration produced by the cause men- 
that their angular distance so cidculuted does not agree with 
was ftctnoUy observed to have been. Now, such an error might 
iced either by an error in the supposed velocity of the moon, or 
of the sun, i. e. of the earth ; but both these have been care- 
amined, and found to be inadequate to explain the phenomena. 
, however, a third cauae which would give rise to the same dia- 
IT between theory and ob&crvation — namely, an error in the mea- 
timt — jufit 05 an error in a ship's longitude at sea might be 
}j an error in the rate of the chronometer. Just so an error in 
Jar distance of the sun and moon a certain number of years ago 
» c&osed by an error of any one of the three elements which 
to it — the length of the year, the length of the month, and the 
if the day; and so it is evident that, if the length of the day has 
ne any sensible alteration since the date of the ecliptse above 
)<1 the real length of time that has clappi'd aince then must b« 
\ to what would be supposed if the length of the day had re- 
iSTiriable ; and thus the relative positions of the sun and moon 
lao be different. Accordingly, it was suggested by M. Dclaunay 
siblj' the length of the day — or, in other words, the velocitj- of 
b's rotation — had varied- 
he next place, tlic moon, and it is said satellites genemlly, turn 
the same Coce towards their primaries ; that is, they rotate about 
tea in the same time that they perform a revolution about 
imary. And it has been asked whether there is any cause for 
, otherwords, whether the body about which they revolve exerts 
iMBce upon them which would affect the rotatory motion, so as 

VBOC. — VOL. X. 2 D 

to iiuk£ it coincide in period with that in the orbit, w ip powing ttud 
there had ever been a time when they did not do mk 

The general resaltA arriTed at may be thoa stated : — 

( 1 ). That in all bodice which are perfectly symmetrical with 
to the three planes containing their principal axes of rotation, 
an ellipsoid (not one of revolution), there is no permaoent change 
duced ; nor in any in which the moments of inertia about the 
principal axes which arc perpendicolar to that about which it is 
ing aie equal ; I think there is a permanent change whenerer the thn» 
moments arc unequal, though the body may be perfectly symmetned 
with respect to each axis ; 

(2). That in other cases there is in general a permanent 

(3). That in the case of the earth disturbed by the lunar moon, the 
change produced will be so very small as to account for a very minute 
fraction of the whole amount required to explain the phenomena nbore 
alluded to ; 

(4). That one condition under which there will be no permanent 
rariation, is when the time of rotation nearly or exactly coincides with 
that in the orbit; but this is only one out of several other such rela- 
tions as might exist; just as there ore always several positions La 
which a body might remain in statical equilibrium ; and that in some 
cases, though not in all, the forces are such as to produce the relation 
above spoken of; and, lastly, 

(5). Tliat the effects are enormously more rapid in the case of a n- 
teUite described by its primary than vire verad. 

I have supposed, in treating the question, only one disturbing force 
to be acting upon the body, and also that its orbit is a fixed plane ; 
neither of which, especially for the earth or moon, is strictly the case, 
but will bo sufficiently near the truth for the present purpose; also, I 
have supposed the body to be entirely solid, instead of being partially 
covered with a thin layer of fluid. Mr. Airy, however, is said to have 
examined the effect of the tidal wave, which it was Bupposed might by 
its position, &c., produce some retardation upon the eorth'a motion, and 
has found it to be insensible. 

KeBult (4.) has been spoken of as only an approximate one — indeeii 
to pretend to extract anything more out of differential equations which 
can only be solved by successive approximations, as is the case in the pre- 
sent instance, would seem almost to amount to a contradiction of terms, 

2. The differential equations of motion are 

dt"" A *''"' 'a ((X - »,)• + Cy - yx? + C^ - x,)")^ 

dm^ AC 


= - Xm - r=r^=rT , 





U^-.Wi " -= 


y*i - *yx 

(jr - «|« + y - y» + I - 1,' ! 


'A'lae solution of these equations will give the Talues of m,, w^ and u^, 

MXM.^ these being known, the value of m.' = y/w* + w,' + «,•,*, or the value 

o^ the Telocity about the actual or instantaneous axes of rotation is 

]c:z3 own also ; and if any one of the quantities a<,, »,» or vj, contain any 

t^x-m which increases with the time, and is not periodic, there will be 

•. 'pennanent change. The body is supposed to be rotating very nearly 

l^i&xnjt the axis of i, about which w, is the velocity, and where Ui, wi, Wj, 

^kR the angular velocities about the principal axes, A^ B^ C, the moments 

o^ inertia about the same ; also x^ y„ «,, are the co-ordinates of any par- 

^dde m referred to the principal axes, the origio being at the centre of 

grravity of the disturbed body, and x, y, z, are the co-ordinates of the 

dijBturbed body, the plane of x, y being that of the orbit, the intersec- 

tioQ of the plknee of z^, yi, and x, y, the axis off, and the origin as 


Let • be the angle between the planes of a?, y, and x„ yi ; 6 the lon- 

S^tude of the disturbed body measured from the axis of x on the plane 

of the orbit, the right ascension of the axis of Xy measured on the 

plinc of Xi, y, that is, the angular distance of the axis of x^ from that 

^i; r the distance of the disturbing body from the centre of the dis- 

tQrbrd, and rx the dititunce of uuy particle m from the origin. Then we 

^ have by spherical trigonometry, 

X 1+cofit ,, ^. I - cos I . ^- 
- =. — cos (0 - ^) + — cos (^ + ff) 

y 1 + COB « . , ^ ^ 1 - COS I . - ^. 

I a 

an 1 sin ('. 

KjQttiont which are usually given in the form 

- = sin cos + cos t cos sin 0, &c» 

Bat the form given above will bo much the moat convenient fbr the 
present purpose. The equations (^4) c^in only bo solved by successive 
approximation. The first approximation will be when the right hand 
member is 0, that is, when there is no disturbing force, or when the dis- 
turbed body is spherical. The next will he wlien the bodies are supposed 
to be spheroids of revolution. This very nearly represents the case of 
the heavenly bodies; but inasmuch as they have a variety of irregu- 
[laritics both of form and density, will not aceurately do so; and it be- 
r-eomes therefore necessary to examine what will be the general effect of 
the said inequalities of surface ; and specially to see whether there will 
be any permanent alteration in the velocity of rotation arising from 
Ihem. Supposing such to exist, it is manifest that in consequence of 
the bodies being so nearly spherical, it will take place very slowly ; 
but the ultimate amount of alteration will be none the leas than if tho 

:E-^^,^((^^^*^-ll»,+«p,+»J + T/ + y,* + .,*tK 




Tv}«rti^ te Ac jt^semX the fntW t«ris$ in the derelopmeiiU 

&T t^ p«f*nT orf AecMtiToffr»TitTKidtieprindpalMce», 
tanw S^w K» ^ AMi «l*o ^."i 'iji>f ^'^P v'a&ish ; and it isj 



the &»( of 0(0^009 ,wf ' 



aud if in the?e we substitute the values of xy and », given above, they 
will become 


O ^1 


1 + cos* 

rf« * "T" " "■* " 2 H "T 

Sin I 

V 2 

cos (0 - 2^) 

1 - COS 4 


iP + 2^)^ 


[im, B-A 

i fg A ' C . /cofl * + 1 . ,^ «^^ 

. . COS* - 1 . ,, ^^1 
COS < Bm 9 -f — Bin (0 4^ 2^! 

— '^-iH 

S ^ B- A (1 -I- cost 

sin (30 -2^ 

+ } Kn*iim30-i> 



+ wl 

b flie first of these three there are three teniu on the right-hand side, 
«k of which being integrated will gire a tenn in Vi of the general 
imJff'Bin(x); and corresponding to tibia there will also be a term inwt 
if fte fiotin Jreoa (x)- Now, if these two are substituted for V| and 

B -^ A 
■k ia die fimcticm — ^^— m^m^ which occnn on the left nde of the 

ftod of the abore equations, it is erident that they will only produce 
tperiodic term; bat this is because one of them is a sine, and Uie 
ifter a cosine. I^ howerer, they had both of them been sines, or 
klh eoonea, the case would hare been reiy different^ and the mnlti- 
at them together would hare |noduoed a constant term, 
we hare to do, therefore, is to see whether the farther derelop- 
MBt of the distarbing fiinctioa will produce any such terms. And it 
fa very roadily that it does i»oduc6 a eonsidenble namber of them, oor- 
*T*ffiidTng to different combinations of and 9 of the same kind as 
«e in the equations last formed. Those which I shall sdeot for eza- 
»«tstiffn at present are those which hare ^ - for their argument ; so 
ftit we must develop the disturbing fimction so as to include all terms 
if the form BUi0-0oroos0-0 whererer they occur in the first two 
s^BstiooB ; that is, those for »i and «,. 

Let us resume, therefore, the two last terms in equation (J3) which 
kd been rejected, and whidi will contain all the terms of lowest di- 
Mosions of the form required, we shall then hare for this part of the 
fimction on the right side of the equation for »i 

nbstituting the va lues of <, y , ftc, in this, and retaining only terms of 
tiie Ibnn sin 0-0, cos - 0, the first part of this expression will give 

1 3 u^, ^ - 1 +C0Si . .^ ^. 

"12^^'"'''^^ —2 «n(0- tf) 

§at shortness, let 

1 + COB* 

» a and 

I - cos* 



also let 2 (m r/ti), Ac, be deaoted by ri*Si, and similar expressions for 

the others. 

Also the latter part will give 

~ 3 T r ^"^ (»yi - y«») («"*i" + yVi* + ^i' + ^y *iy i + 2«« «i«i + syry a) 

Multiplying these two factors together, and retaining all sach terms as 
we either of one dimension x and y, or of three dimensions, which are 
the only ones which will produce terms of the form required, we 

" 2 T r (**y' ^^(y'" 2«»y)y;Ui +iV«? + 2(ay - x*«) x^^t, j 
a; = ocos0-^+/3cos0+0» and y = -asin0-9-/3sin0+0 

.-. a:* » i(«*4|/3*) f ^* cos 20 - 20 + aj3 cos 2^ + a/3 cos 20 

+ ii3"co8 20 + 2^ 

Multipl ying th is by the value of y, and retaining terms whose argu- 
ment is - C^, 

«V-(-i(«» + «i/3') + J«» + i«i^-i*^)8ia0^=-J(a» + 2/3»a)sm0^ 

which is the coefficient of Xi'/, above. 
Also in like manner 

y» = _ J (fl» + 2/3'o) sin ^ - 


x"y = — (1 - cos 20) (a sin - + /3 sin + ^) 

« - J 8in»i (2o - /3) sin - 6. 
Thus the coefficient of y,'xi becomes 

- (} (a» + 2^a) - sin'i ) 4a - 2/9)) 
and that of 

/,» is - i sin*! 2a - /3 sin - 0, 


y» = i(o» + /3») - ^» cos 20 - 20 + ^/3 cos 20 - ^)3 cos 20 


- J/3»co8 20 + 20 
.. 2y« = J(a» + 2ay3») cos 0-0 

xz^ - J sin** 2n - ^ cos - 


^ C-B I -_ . ^ ^ . 1 „ . ^ . 

^+— 2-«iS»jif»m(»-»i*+«)-ji*^ooi(ii-»,<f«) 

jl •^"-^'*'«(»-»i<+0 + ^^-«*(»-»i<+«) 

fliefintaftiwie,aiidfi)rUieTmliieor-^, whiehwiH 

Ae VMolt, lobBtitate its Tdoe as derived from the ieoond, we 
oUnntiiefidlowiiig equation, from vbich «^ haa been eliminated: 


*-i — s—^-"!^*-*" 



TIk tenns introdnoed into «, by the integration of this, will be 



A "-*'- A^B 



■& Qds, for shortnees, 

cos (»-»■< + «) 

•8m(«i-iii / + «) 

^, co« (« - s, < 4- «) -H j^i sin (a - •! < + c) 
In like mMmpf the initiation of the equation w, will give 


«it = ^s coe(ii-ii, < + e) + ^s 0in(a-iii < + €) 


«-a, A~C 

«• - • - »,• 

A B '^"*"*> 

Ae eomplete integral will also contain arbitrary quantities of the 

c cos 

a. I. k. Pioc — Toi. X. 

UC'BC'A . ^ 


For tilt' earth, however, Ihe coiiBtiint i is quite Lneensible ; tutfof' 
moon, T-:i]>l;tcc says that it is variable. However, it wiU not aSectthi' 
lotont in.iuiiy in either Oiise, and therefore may be dismiBsed for till- 

Formation of the Conttant Qmntitifi in the Differential £quati9M, 

li, now, we mcdtiply together the two values of n^i and ^ 
above, we shall have 

«!•,= [Ai co6(ii ^ n, ^ + «) -^ £] 0m(» - Ni ^ + f)j 

- ^A.Ai + B^B^} + 
periodic terms ; retaiaing the constant part 


1 B-A 

2 C 

(a,a^ + b,b\ 

or, putting for ^i, &o., their values^ and dividing numerator and 
minator by 

C-A C-B 



2 ABC 



^° AB '*''" 


This part, therefore, of the differential equation for ^^-s contains a 
constant term ; but before we can say that the entire equation does ^ 
it is necessary to develop tha term on t^e right side of the equadi^ 
Now, if this is expanded, it will be easily eeen to consist entirely of 
sines and cosines, of which the gencrul form may be said to be 

/ ain {pn - jtti i + v) 

where / is some innction of i, and p and q are whole numbers. It 
would appear, therefore, at first sight, to contain no constant term ; 
but in reality it will be seen that it does. For, it is easily seen thst 
every term in Wi and wj, such as those found above, will introduce a 
periodic term into the value of <, as also of f and 0, and the multipli- 
cation together of periodic terms may produce a constant To see what 
terms in the development spoken of will be necessary, we must find the 
variations of i, ^ and 0^ then, 



Potior f its first iqypioziiiiate value nt 

27 » A^i OOB - «s em 0. 

«iOQef «|(^, 006(2»-«i< + «) + Bi Bm(2fi -n, < + c) 

+ At COB (nit + c) - ^1 sin (nj + <)) 

^ m ^ " ^ (il, flin (an -»,<+«)- -ffi cos (2n -»,' + «) 

+ ^t Bin («»i^ + Ct) + .^t OOB {nit + «)) 
taking the differenoe, and integrating, 

+ j(-i^^ — ?8in(n,i+e) + — ^ ! coB(n,<+e)| 

for the Tariations of <p we have 

rffl cos* . , 

^ = *,-^(«, 8m^ + »,C08^), 

^^"JuiattonB, therefore, will arise partly from those of «,, and partly 
"^ those of «i and m^ We may set aside the former for the present, 
^ confine ourselves to those of «i and «f 
^en, priming the function 

cos i . . 

~. — («i sm + «3 cos 0} 
sm«^ ^ ^ 

***ctly in the same way as above, and integrating, we have 

2 sm < ( 2» - »i ^ 2» - n, ^ ■') 

+ - -: — J cos (nit + «) ; — Sin (»,< + e)} 

2 sin ( ( ni ^ ^ n{ ^ ') 

uio once the differential equation for >jt is 

-i. e _ _ (*, Sin a + «3 COB «) 

at Bin* 

the Tariations of ^ will be the same as those of <p, only not multipled 
by COB I. 





We must, therefore, carefully Beck out all terms in tkederi 
of it, whose argument b either 2p - & or &, The latter, ho^e 
be fouud to disappear. Then, 

= + -l.iii5^o«ooB2^-2^ + 2o/ioo6 3f + /3*ooB2f + 2^j 

^ _1 ii^[o*Bm2^-2^ + a/3Bin2^ + /3«8in2^ + 2^|(«/-] 
C r* 2 \ y 


1 /• IS/.. 

= — — — (a* - 2ap) Xi^iti sin I sin 2^ - ^ 

^ ^ H (a» - 2ay3) (7,« -^») Bin 4 cos 20^) 

Now, taking the value of i found above, we shall have 

Bin i = sin 

sin 2n - «,+ 

neglecting, for the present, the other tenn, 

A, + B, . 

= sin *, + i cos *, sin 2n - n, + 

^, + J?a . 

cos i = COS *i - i Bin *, sin 2» - «, -, &c. 

" 2n-n 

, ^ 1 + cos * , ti 1 

Then, since a stands for — , we shall have 


^ ^^ 

a' = 1 [ 1 + cos <i* - 1 + C09 *, sin *, — ^ ^ A^ + B^ sin 2r 

2aB = - ^ sin^i = - i ( sin**,' + sin d cos *, — ^ ^ sin 2w 

^ *^ 2}i~n, 

.M>-2c0=|(l+oo8<i*- 2 8m\)-jBin*, (I +3 cob*,) 

^. + 5, . 


sin 2ii - m' 

lalti^ljiiig tint by tiie Tifaie of sin •', we have 

(tf - 3i^ im < == 1(1 -I- eo«<,* - 2 «in*fi) sin i, 

+ (i (TTooei,' - 2 sn's) m<, - 1 un\* (1 + 3 eo««,) j 

2fi - »• ^ 

ibii comridmng the miitions introdaoed into ^, we have 

a = mi + 4^—^ — cos 2ii - »■ 

^ ■ «in *, 2ii - »" 

ibtfis the true loogitode measured from the moreable azia iHioee 
laptode measored backwards is -f- ; therefore if i»i< be the longitode 
■wjimcjd from a fixed axis, Uiat measored tnm the moyeable axis will 
htHf ^; or, from the valne of yfr given abore, 

!•'< + - ". — -^ r COB 2ii - »», 

2sm<, 2fi-ii' 

.'.2s~$m2ia~n*t-¥i ~ — ^ ^cos2«i-ii*. 

nn2p'-0^an2n~n* -¥ i 

2cos»,-l ^ + ir, 
sin c, 2n - »■ 

Holtiplying this by the raloe of (a* - 2 afi) an t, we shall have for the 
eooBtant term depending apon At + M„ 


{— [l + co6«,»-2Bin*<,)(3co6i,-l)-gsin\ (l + 3coei,) j 

which may be pat into the simpler fonn 

-(1 +coe*,-- Bm\(l+3co«i,))- i 

and in like manner the quantity (a* + 2a^) sin ( will contain the con- 
stant quantity 

- ^1 + cosi. -- sin'., (1 +3co8*,)j 2^^' 


On substitatiDg these values, the right-httnd side of the equation for 
detennining «, contains the constant terms 

This latter hcior may be more conveniently pat into the f onn 
Let us first find the value of the first pair of these tenns. Now, 




+ sin *< 2a - /3 »|* - — ar,'ii 

15 u ~ 

i\r« — . ^ (a» + 2a/3« - 2a ->3 sin'i) a!,y,/, 
4 r* 


A x^i^x + i (^,* - y,«) -ffi 

becomes, considering first the term multiplied by n - n', 

+ sin «« 2a -/Sit,* J - - ^^ i;^ + ^ _. («s + 2/3«a 

- 2^::^ sin '0 (^ - y.^) j '^ 


^f y |(2(a» + 2/3*a) - 2^^ 8m»i) (^, + y;%) + Bin'* 27r^;^'| 


This oodBdenty it is easily seen, is eqaal to ^ (JC + M^), bo that we 
m^ r^Uoe tiie above expressioa by 

«- fM 

ia like manner it will be seen that the part multiplied by n becomes 
1 if , + Jf- B~C 

tfaos, the two terms in question become 

I M^^M^ a!|y,i, / »-«, B - C \ 
2 i) 2»-n,V ^ **" ^^ "/ 

uut in like manner the latter pair become 

1/ Jtf;+Jf; \ xiyi^i ( n-n> A-C \ 
'2\ D I2n-n\ B '^ AB ^ ) 

^fore the sum of the four is 


2 AB 

M^TMy a;,y,8, 

f*^ the constant terms of the right-hand side of the equation for w, 

- -(^1 +C08*--S1UM+3C08.J ^^,.. - ^^(^—^J 

^f^ on putting for a and /3 their values, it is easily seen that the value 

15 m/ 5 . \ 

— - — 1 + COB « - - sm ** 1 + 3 cos I a^iyi^i 
o f* \ 4 J 

?^ that the expression just found for the constant term in the deve- 
^*|>ment of N reduces itself to 

2ABC\ D I 
A^d this is identical with that part on the other side of the equation for 
^^, which arises from the multiplication together of m^ and utt so that 
tliese tenns identically destroy each other. 

lit H-** TTnraTfS 

i» - i» , ia. 4^'_ ii t r 

sxd V- 

JLi^i tiSfrw ▼tZ ir^sf rr r»^ wtt* . frTfC h ^ ericas that sach a tens 

3 i^ jK, ^^ {uTin^ the argtunent 
Lto *.^, lio^ hariD^ the aign- 

»vtf : % t-*^. i2- :2:«:-^\ ▼h.'fi: ic:il::plied bj eoe r, where it occurs in 
Ut.- ;>^xiix'Ct :','r I. V'-:. •; cct? •. wcTil-i pmdace terms having 2it - 2«* 
^^ :5^'i.r AT^itawn: 12 :ii^ eiprtfSKOE for 1". These term?, however, will 
K.- stta^'-^j-^-c by h^ power? of an 1' than thoee which arise in the 
tttststu^NT -<\»u: to V ex imfrr ed. and therefore for a first approximation^ 
ji; UN«*e. w^v N» the^tected. et^peciallr in cases where 1 ia small ; and 

to TcseiTc them, and, if 

PhBVHH^WWb biafc to TcseiTc them, and, if aeMMBj, 
litav Mi mmtmA lAv Iwirar powcn Katc iMen irranrinnd, 
k pftar, ^id man iiaport^nt w«j in which Faeh terms arise is «» 
is: — Take the ralqe already fomiul for f i, rix. — 

I eaari LAt^Bj -= . A.-JB^ , 

m mriz^ IP ] eoa 2« - »* 4- " ' ■ ' coeit' 


eea0 = eoti 

1 cot I, i/ At-B^ ^,+g, \ 
""4 Ida*, |\ n' " 2»i-ii' j 


^(hit by <»a ^^ t t(mm -^ ^ Bimm^n^t and retgoi the terma 
COS 3« * ^-. aiid ve harv 

>^=V| eoa^ — wi fiia 

. ^ 1 &»f, i Ai ^Mt Ai ~Bt\ . 

1 coat ^ ^tT^,iA,-gt ^i-f^,^ ,4-i^i 
S Sn^ j 2n - ft* i? 

o am < ( ) 

— rr- : Bin (2» - 2m') 

K. I. A. PaoC. — TOL. X. 



No account, however, has as yet been taken of the first terms which 
occur in the development of £, namely, 

^ /I B 

2 r* C 

!a* sin 2^ - 20 + 2a/3 sin 2^ -f /S* sin 2^ + 20 

Now, it is evident that these wiU contain constant terms, which, if 
they do not identically destroy each other, or are destroyed by terms 
which may arise in other parts of the differential equations, ^nll give 
terms indicating a gradual and permanent change of motion. Let us 
see how constant terms might atise in the above expression. 

In the first place it has been already seen that the expression for i 
contains, amongst others, terms of the form 

^sin 2» - »', JTcoB n>, &c., 
we shall thus have 

cos < s cos (t'l + JT'sin 2« - n* + ^cos ni) « cos (i| + P) 

h|l-iP»+7l + sin.|i'-:^-7) 

= C0S<| 

C08«| {1 -Jrsin2n-n» Xcosn*) + Psini,, &c. 

= co8«i {l-iJ5r£'sin2n-2n*+|i?2'8in2nj +Psin#,. 

In like manner if sin (20 - 20) be developed, it will contain the 
term sin 2» - 2ft*, terms multiplied by P, a nd cons tant terms. The 
first of which, when multiplied by ^iT sin 2» - 2n\ will produce a 
constant term, and the second when multiplied by P sin t„ and the 
third when multiplied by cos «j. 

Again, the first approximate values already found for i^p and 0, 
will, by substitution in the difierential equations, produce terms having 
the arguments 

2n - 2»„ 2n, &c., in i p and y^. 

And these will arise in two ways : first, it is evident that such a term 
as M cos ft' occurring in the expression for «, would, when introduced 
into o or cos t, where it occurs in the terms in the differential equations 
already used f or determining terms in *„ &c., having the argument 
^ - or n - n*, would introduce terms into •»„ &c., having the argu- 
ment » - 2»„ and these, when multiplied by cos (p, where it occurs in 
the equation for *, viz. •, cos^, would produce terms having 2» - 2i»* 
for their argument in the expression for i. These terms, however, will 
be multiplied by higher powers of sin t than those which arise in the 
manner about to be examined, and therefore for a first approximation, 
at least, may be neglected, especially in cases where i is small ; and 


even where it is not, it will be best to reseire them, and, if neeessaxy, 
to take them into account after lower powers have been examined. 

The other, and more important way in which such terms arise is as 
follows: — ^Take tiie value already found for <p„ viz. — 

. 1 cos I, iAi-Bt ^ r A,-Bt 

2 1 sin H (2» - n' 


-. " J. am 2» - »* * Bin n' 

2» - »' «' 

this will give 

coe0 = cos»--T— :^ — i . -— ^ ~] 

4 1 sini, \ n' 2»-n* j 

Bin « - «* - r + — =— : COS » - »' 

^oltiply this by »| = u <i cos « - n' + ^, sin n - »', and retain the terms 
involving cos 2fi - 2nS and we have 

to, cos 

1 cosi, |/ ^i -A .^i+^A 
'^"i Isinij \\ n' 2n-«» j ' 

At'Bi At + B 

'° like manner we diall find 

1 cos*, ifAi +Bt Ai -Bj 

*>, sin = - -: — 

{f A,+B, . A,-B, \ , 

8 sin *, \\ 2n - n* 


f^^^-^ii^VJco8 2;r:2S^ 

\2»-fi* n» J 'j 

dt ^ • ^ 1 cost i^,-^a^,-£i Ai + M^ Af\-Bi 

'• ^ = 'WiCOS0-W,8in0=- -: ' ■ + -=■ —- 

ft* 2n - ft* ) 

I COS< ,-: =r^~ ^ — -~ 7i. 2n.-2H' 

''-S^,U» + -B>^>*B,-A,-B,A,-JS,)^^—^,COs2n-2n, 

I cost 
8 sin 

^ [Aj + Bi A.^Bi 'Ay-BtAt-B] 
in* ( ) 

sin (2» - 2»») 

(2» - n') n 
a. I. A. paoc — TOL. X. 2 f 


If now we put for 2 . and 2i their values, and midtqily this by the 
value found above for 1 + cos . ^, we shall have, observing that the 

constant terms in SX, cos 2f» - 2»^ destroy each other, and retaining 
the constant term, 

.. . —7 — — . (/ 1 cos i.-l' cost. + 1* 1 

(1 +co8«)»8m20-2d« {(-- ;--— i +- 

(\ 4 Sinn o 

Sm'l,-- l + C08<tC08i, •--:-: -5 1 + COS il rr: 77 rr"i} '^ 

4 V2n-n»»> » (2»-»)(n -»')»>) 

the former part may be put into the foim 

^ - J sin'* - I 1 •(- cos « 2 00s It 

- J Sin'i - j4C08i (1 + OOSi, -1 -COSli) Ot - | 1 +C08« 

therefore the whole expres^on becomes 


- I I + cos *,• rr— P, 

Therefore, finally, the function which we have been examining contains 
the constant term 

or, as it may be more shortly written 

( B~A \Zfi l-i-cosi' 1 ,A n ^A7i\ 

On- putting for Ai^ &c., their values, and multiplying oat, the latter 
factor beeomes 

NI.^(C-B A-C\ „U-C C-B\\ 

This may be much simplified for bodies nearly spherical, and might be 
put into the form 

N M^ + M , 

("-''''- ^^"li""^ -"') 


if we neglect small quantities wbioh will be multiplied hy B-A, &c), 
orobsemng that the latter factor is the same as Dj it becomes simply 

n AB * 

tnd the term becomes 

B'-A 3 1 +CO S *,* f* 1 
ABC 8 4 

which is true for every ralue of i. Suppose, for simplicity, that cos * 
does nt>t much differ from unity ; then on this supposition we should 

upon substituting these values for i^i and i/« + M^ the expression a 

B-AU5f,.\> 1 1 (3(x-;H, + y^)-x7) -— - , 

This term, it will be observed, is multiplied by the cube of -3, 
vberMs the t«rmB which have been previously examined were only 

Bialtiplied by the square. If now we resume the expression in the de- 
Telopment of N which is multiplied by 

we shall see that, on continuing the approximation, {Ai + ^2) and 
(At - Bi) will receive an increment such that when their new value is 
mbstituted for them in the above expression, it will be multiplied by 

the cube of — , The term which so arises will not destroy that pre- 
viously found, but will be of the same order, and will modify it ; 
therefore it must be sought out. To find it, 
Let US return to the original equations for a>, wj, namely, 

d40^ 3fiC-B. (l+cosi ^^ 

— - + . « r , — -j — sm ( j — - — cos rp ~ 20-^coii cos <p 

1 - cos * -- — —I 
5 — cos i- 29; 

Te proceed, 


-l^ea9« n(^'2^ 

▼inrT ^«£L 

jmi. 1:^:5 

C 1M> 

k«^« m2s-2b' 

•I 1-^if Q - 

O * «ws ^|.P«» ^ - 3i' - ^ Peoftft - 3ii* 

-I -A 


^ i a J* »^ --^ - H»^«» **'^' ^ *<^ 

Tii^ icrB§ 4^^ a^w fca^ ftr «i sex pu srisac frtNn ^ em m - n' 

(the terms ^ the form -i. + 5 cos ii - ■', and may oe rejected ; be- 
cause A, •¥ Bi contain* B - A for a factor ; and as they are multiplied 
by P, which contains the same factor, they would produce termfl mul- 
tiplied by ^ - A. Similariy, 

cos I , „ — 
sin « • 


cos I!* - n* cossn 
- + -^ — 


V 2" 


with corresponding quantities for ^. 

There is another way, also, in which terms will arise which moat be 
taken into account, as follows : — The term P fin '2n - n' when intro- 
duced into the value of in the equations for e-i and a-j will augment 
the value of ^i so as to make it become i4, (I + ^P). Similarly, B^ 
will become Bt{\ - ^P)y &c., and hence the term in 

■* 2n - n} 


is augmented by 

i-i pam2n-n'; 

uid the tenns in and ^ are augmented in the same manner. Adding, 
then, these additional increments to those just found, we shall have for 
the whole increments depending upon P, 

i^. + i ^f'"-^'^ Pco8(2n-n)l ^-f'"-^;^ i^cos2^::3^' 
' 2n-»» ^ '♦ 2n-n' 

^ coBi . Ai-Bt ^ . , cos* , ill - jBj _ . „-^ 

»/ = -: — i-^ -P8in2rt-n^ + - — i -—-—,/* sin 2n- 3m') 

Bin i " 2» - »' sin i * 2n - 3/*' ' 

+ i* sin 2» - 2n* 

f«4-i4^— ^PBin2T:r2^'+ J- i^:^PBin2;rr3^> 

Bin * * 2» - »* sin « * 2n - 3»* 

^^^ terms must be added to those given in t, &c., by the first ap- 
^ximation, and then substitute for t, &c., in N. Also it must be re- 
'Dcmbered that corresponding to the term sin i sin 20 - 0, which arose 
^ the multiplication together of sin < sin ^ sin 20 - 20, there will 
^ another term, sin < sin (20 - 39). Making the substitutions, there- 
in, we shall have 

sin * (sin 20-9 - sin 20 - 39) = ( - + , 

^ ^ ^ ' V2 2n - «> 4 2» - 3n* 


which will therefore give the term in N 

\5 ( 1 1 1 1 \\ — — ^ 

the last part of this, however, namely, that multiplied by — -. will 

vanish ; for the term sin t sin sin (29 - 29'), will produce in term in 
of the form Q A^ - B^ cos 2n - »', which, when introduced into the 
first part of TV, viz. 

B-A , 

y^ Sin 29 - 29' 

m. I. A. pHoc. — \oh. I. 2 


it is easily seen, will destroy the term spoken of. If, then, we cancel 
this term, and substitute for P, Ai~ Jit, their values, we shaU hare, 

observing that such a quantity as -— may be replaced very nearly by 

imity, and rejecting any terms multiplied by products otB ~ A and 
C ^ A^ &c., for this part of iV 

ffi\n5ZZB''AI 2 1 \ 

\r') 8 82 -45(7 V2«-n> "''2»-3»»j 

The terms found are the only ones depending upon the same com- 
bination of x/^i, &c, and having the same divisor 2>„ and not multi- 
plied by sin V„ or higher powers o£ B - A. 

There is one other term, however, i t will be advisable to take into 
account. It arises thus : the term P sin 2n - 2n^ when introduced into 
cos ~ O^f &c., in the equations for wj and «„ produces not only terms 
liaving n - n^, but also terms having 3» - 3»' for t heir argu ments; so 
that «K &c., will contain terms of the form JSTcos 3n- 3n>, &c. Now, 
these terms will obviously contain the same combination of a;i's„ &c., 
in tiieir coefficients, that i4|, &c., do; and for this reason they had 
better be retained. Their divisors, however, wiU be deficient ; but if 
we neglect quantities depending upon products of 

C-B C'A 

it is plain that the divisor of the latter may be pat equal to } of the 
divisor of the former ; in fact, 5'wiU become | A^P. 

In like manner if «} contains the term JT sin 3n - 3n\ we shall have 
jr° ^ BtP* The effect of these terms will be to introduce into < the term 

with similar ter ms in <f> and V^ ; and these, when introduced into the 
term - sini sin 20 - B0 will gire 

15 1 1 

2 122n-3n>^'*'~'^» 

that is, they will reduce the term multiplied by 


in eauation C to ^rds the value it has there. 


Suppose, now, we muke this reduction, and collect the results, aa 
given by equations (-4,), (i?,), and (C), and we have, finally, 

dvt 135/ A Y£ 

(tt " 32 VH/ "^ 

1 1 

^ ^ 6.2n 


X^C /?»-«' \,n' 6 . 2« - ;iK' 

It contains, therefore, a constant term ; and hence #3 will contain anew 
periodic term multiplied by the time. 

Corresponding also to equation (A)^ there will be a term arising 
from the second term in the first port of AT, viz., ein^t &in2.p, and in 
{B) a term arisin* from cos^ in the equation for *,, &c, as has been 
before mentioned : but these destroy each other. 

There will oUo bo constant terms depending upon the arguments 

^S - 20\ and 20 - 0\ 

vlueh arise in the same way oa those given above ; that ia, in every 
case the term arising from 0^1**^ on the left side is identically de- 
stroyed by a term ou the other sidu, while on the other hand the 
inttenn of the function iVwill produce, just as above, a term which 
is not destroyed, and another arising f^om the substitution of the 
next approximate values of»,, &c., in the second part of JV^; also in 
[idl cases the constant tfrm produced by the function sin '1* f>ia 2ip in the 
part of ^ is identically destroyed. The constant terms, however, 
these latter cases, are multiplied by sin '1, and depend upon quite 
Terent constant qualities. The one which has been examined ap- 
to be the most important, and is the only on© which would exist 
lependeully of siu 1 ; that is, when the plane of the equator does not 
sensibly from that of the orbit. The rest it is needless to say 
Bore about at present ; and it only remains to discuss that already 

DUcuMton of tha foregoing RetulU. 

{1.) Application to the Earth. 

The principal object there is to ascertain whether sufficient change 
been produced in the motion of the earth to be perceptible by the 

"•baerrations of the last 2000 years. In the term -4- which occurs, put 

r= a, and multiply numerator and denominator by /i + ;t| where /i| i» 
the mass of the earth, it becomes 

— 1 or, putbng -—-— 

^ + Mi 

we have 


And for the moon, disturbed by the earth, we should have for the co»* 
naponding quantity 


Also />■=(»- n')», nearly. 
The expreaaion for — ^, may therefore be written 

C 32 V + /iiJ (n-n^)»\n''*^6(2n-3n^)j fl» 

S(OT(3(g«z + y«g)-^)) S(iwa;,y,E, ) 

Where a^ is the radius of the earth, a the radius of the orbit, to eatimate 
the numerical value of this, we have 

also -r =* ^TTi; *fi ^ the quantity ^-^ t-^— 

it appears to be identical with one which occurs in the " Lunar Theory," 
and which has been estimated by M. Bessel from a great number of 
observations on the pendulum at about W^^ (see M. Pontecoulaat, 
" Syst^me du Monde," vol. iv., p. 497). And we cannot, without mak- 
ing unwarrantable suppositionB, attribute a greater value than thia 

either to — ^— , or to the r«maimng quantity. Suppose, to fix the 

ideas, that we were to put each of them at about ^fhxi' ■^^» ^® ^^' 

-rr- may be written — =^, or =- ; 
30^ "^ n 30» 30* 

and to find the annual variations we must take n^ to represent the mean 
motion in a year, i. e. about 17.000000'', which, expressed in linear 
measure, may be put at about 85, so that we have for the annual 
variation of n 

135 1 85 1 1 

32 80^ 30* 60« 3U0O» ' 
and the change in 2500 years will be thus multiplied by 2500, i. e. about 
J_ 1 

70 (1000000/ "• 

Now, to produce an effect such as is required to account for the accele- 



ration of the moon, I e. about ^i^ it has been shown in tho " Connais- 
Mnce du Temps/' for 1 BOO, that a variation in the length of the day of 
abont a ten-miUioDlh of a second, or, roughly, of about a million mil- 
lionth part of the entire length would Bufliee ; whcreaR, the value above 
given only amounts to about u seventy millionth part of this. And in 
like manner we shall find that the other terms mentioned, viz. those 
depending upon the argument 0\ will only produce quantities which 
may be put down as quantities of the same ordur, and apparently not 
important than the above. The above efi'ect is wholly due to the 

»D ; diat owing to the sun will be still smaller. Also, the earth 
hett% treated as a solid body, no account being taken of its being 
partially covered with Huid. But Mr. Airy, I believe, has shown that 
the effect of the friction of the tidal wave in altering the rotation ia 
quite insensible ; so that we may conclude thut no effect sufficient to be 
perceptible in 2000 years has been produced by the action of gravity ; 
and hence direct perturbation of the rotatorj' motion is wholly inade- 
quate to explain the phenomena mentioned. 

A possible cxpbnation, however, may be given by supposing that 
the slight alterations in figure which have been going on from geologi- 
cal or other causes may have been of a kind that shall suffice to cause 
SQch an alteration as would be required. If it^ is the angular velocity, 
it is well known that 



r being a constant, ni and r the mass and distance from the centre of any 
particle. Now, the mass remaining constant, it will be seen that a va- 
riation in length of the radius of gyration amounting to about a three 
thomaiidth part of an inch would be sufficient to produce the requisite 
effect. It is no violent supposition to suppose that such a change may 
hare happened : perhaps the real difficulty would be, on the other 
band, to suppose that a body with a radius of 4000 miles had remained 
Jo cousUint. But, on the other hand, the variation ought to be in in- 
create, not a diminution in the radius; and there is nothing to show 
ttut any changes that have tiikcn place have tended in this direction 
nther than the other, further than this : — that any departure from the 
clrcalar form in tho sections parallel to tho Kquaior tends to increase 
the radius of gyration ; so that if the general effect of geologicul changes 
has been to increase the inequalities of the surface, their ellcct would 
oiaa have beeu slightly to lengthen the day, und hence, also, to cause 
an apparent acceleration of the moon. 

(2 ) Application to the Moon. 

The chief qutrstion of interest which here occurs is : •' what ore tho 
lions of stable rot-ation?" or, in other words, what must be the rc- 
between n and n* in order thul there may be no permanent varia- 
tm in the rotation 't To answer this, it will be neoessary to put down 

the general form which the equation for -— * will assume after the ap- 

proximate values, includmf^ those arising from perlnrbation, hire been 
substituted lor *, 4>i and 0' ia the general equation. When this has been 
doDc, its general form will bo 

-^ ~ y^^Ai COB (n - n^ I + e) f Bi sin (n ~h* t + •) 

+ A^ COB (2n - 2n < + 2e) -f J7, (sin 2m - 2n £ -(• 2«} 4-f &c 

+ /* ain i*^ cos (/?-£< + ye) -f siu «, ' ain (^ - y < - ye) +, 4c. 

where N^ ia the constant part^ and where A^, &.c, do not contain bIq i, 
US a multiplier, and where the last line repreaenta the general form of 
those terms which are multiplied by sin ii, of which the t4.Tma in the 
expansion of N wtiich have been used ore an example, vue. 

M 15 

^ Bin i — COS (2n - «* < + «), Ac. 

Let us omit for a moment the periodic termB, and consider the value 
of JVo, or rather that part of it found above, and which will be the only 
part when sin i| = 0. This term may be put under the form 

H \ fl 1 \ 

D »-»'\n» '*"6 2«-3f»7 

Now thiu ohangen its sign, first, when the latter factor does, i. c. when 
12h- 7n, becomes ; that is, when n ih something less than }n*. Thisi 
therefore, would, as far as this term is concerned, be one condition 
under which the rotation would be stable ; but this would be no more 
than an approximate value, bfoanse it does not take account of terms 
multiplied by sin '«, which, for the moon, though small, is not 0. 
Again, it changes its sign when n ~ n^ does ; that is, supposing the co- 

cfBcicnt of 


to bo positive, it would cause on acceleration or retar- 

dation according as n was greater or lesa than m' 
might be stable rotation when n 


but in order that there 

it ia evident that — ;- ouirht to 

change its sign by passing through z«roy not by passing through infi- 
nity, as it appears at first sight to do when n -»' « 0. Let us examine 
what the true value is under such circumstances. It is quite evident 
that it must be either or infinite, since it is only by pacing through 
one or other of these that it can change its sign. To see which it really 
is, it will be neccssarj' to look back to the process by which the ftjno- 
tion containing it was formed; and if we do so, we shall see tliat th« 
term i a in reality only the first of a scries, consisting of odd nombera of 
- " n*i having its signs alternately positive and negative ; so that 


although, if we wer e to take only the first turn, it would certainly bo 
infinite when n - n* « ; yet it docs not follow that the entire series ia 
80. On the other hand, it is quite evident that it is not ; for it arises 
from the multiplication to[;ethcr of such terms as sin i and sin n. ^ow, 
whatever be the value of i or r, sin t and x are never greater than unit)*, 
and hence iheir product must consist of terms whose sum cannot be 
greater than unity. In expanding sin r, &c., we only took the terms 
of lowest dimeosion that occurred, that is, we put 

• = *i + «> or sini = sin (i, + a) 

m am \\ ~ l«* + -=a* +j + cosi I o- =- - &o. | 
I 4 ) V 3 / 

The higher powers of the quantities represented by a. were rejected ; if 
they had been retained, we should have had a series such as that mcn- 
tioaed. If, then, the nonperiodic term cannot become infinite, and yet 
Conges its sign when n becomes equal to n', it is plain that for such a 
Talue it must disappear, and that as far as this term only is concerned, 
n - It* = will be approximately a condition of stable rotation. If, 
however, we had t^ken Into account terms depending upon the urgu- 
m^ntA tf* 20 - 0', &c., it will be found that we should have introduced 
into the constant terms quantities multiplied by sin ^j, and which do 
»o( change their sign when n = n^\ so that the entire value of N^ will 
k« a quantity which docs not change its sign, and cannot become when 
« s «' ; and the relation between n and »* thus obtained by equating 
will be the relation which ought to be used instead of n = n' ; 
. would appear also that in addition to this relation, the conditions 

L wiU alM bo very approximately satisfied by n = n'. To show this, let 

I Jl^i be tho value which N^ assumes when n = it'. 

I. -"-"'■^ 


.1 ♦ w4, cos « + £, Bin • -I- il, cos 2» + Bj sin 2«. 
M, may bo rejected. Now, if we put this 

it will give us a value by 

which c may be determined so as to satisfy tlie equation -r* = when 


fl e M* ; for, for no value of • can sin « and cos e be simultaneously eqoal 
lo 0; and since JV^^i is very small corapart-d with j/, /?„ and espe- 
cially Bj, it is evident that a possible value of e may be found to satisfy 
the equation 

-^«— + ^1 cos c + &c. = 0. 

In other words, it must have a principal axis inclined at a particular 
angle to the radius vector of the disturbing body ; and this angle, 
Ihoogh it appears to be small, cannot be 0. And the^e appear to be 
the only conditions when the mean value of < is nothing ; but in other 


coses there will be other conditions, which will be seen thus: I 

•^\p-9) represent the value which No taken when the relation betwe 
ft and n' is such that pn <- qn^. Then, when this is the case, the eqi 
lion for w, becomes 


■^(M> + -P fi"i *i" ^ (P«) + ^ sinii COB (pe) + periodic ietma, 

!Now, the terms sin {pe) not containing the time, arc constant qi 

titles, and to &nd, when —j- is 0, we must equate the three terms gti 

above to zero, and this will ^tc us on equation for determining whai^ 
must be in order that the body may revolve permanently with the relation 
pH ~ yn'. That such a condition may be possible, will, of course, imply 
that the coefficients, &c., in the above equation, have such a rolue M 
to give values of sin p« and cos pn not greater than unity. And it if 
evident, in order that such a requisition may be ful&lled, the coefficient 
of either of them cannot be small with respect bo A—, And this will 
show, that though there are several such relations, there con only be 
a limited number ; for, as the quantities^ and q become large, so 

does the power of — or — -, which multiplies such terma, bccox 

large; and hence for large values of j? and 7, the coefficients is qa< 
tion rapidly diminish, the more so when t is small, and the*« wfll; 
be many of them which are larger than iV^.^, and couseq 
many different conditions of stable rotation. /Toir many then 
course, impossible to say without more linowledgothan weh 
can have, of the numerical values of the various quantities ci 
We may conclude, then, certainly, that there will aiwa; 
on acceleration or retardation of a body revolving freely al 
point, and acted on by a disturbing force moving round it, e 
certain given relations exist between n and «' ; but tchich 
will be it is quite impossible to say, without knowing mor* 
form af the revolving body than we do of the moon ; for w 
knowledge we cannot determine the algebraic signs of the 
efficients. One thing, however, appears highly probable, ac 
that if the conditions of equable rotation c;in be satisfied I 
n not vert/ much greater than a' such as n « |b', or, on the 
by values not very much less than n', auch as n = \n\ if its i 
ever been very much greater, or very much smaller than it 13, it woi 
seem that the cliangc ought to have ceased whuu it came to a podi 
of equable rotation, such as cither of the former, without furthi 
diminishing or iuereasiug till it became equal to »* ; and from hei 
it would appear that its rotation can never hiivo been very diffe 
from what we actually observe it to be. 


'II. — KoTis o:« laiBB Spoxoks, P*rt I. — A List of the Species. 
By Edwaki* Pebcetal Wkiqht, M, D., F. L. S., Professor of Zo- 
ology, Ttinity CoUt-ge, Dublin. 

[Bud February 24, 1868.] 

Iv June, 1858, when engaged with Frofesaor J. Reay Greene of Cork 
in in ve«ti gating the marine zoology of the south and south-west coasts 
of Ireland, my attention was attracted by the large number of sponges 
nwit with while dredging in the bays of Custletownsend, Crook- 
baven, and Bantry. The only work at that time which described the 
species of BritUh sponges was that by the lute Dr. Johnson ; but the 
coologist was led to expect the publlcatiun each year of a work on 
■ponges by Dr. Bowerbank ; which, naming the species, from more 
fixed and better marked characters than those of colour and extemnl 
form, would greatly facilitate the study of this order. While thus 
^jr&iting, no opportunity was neglected of studying the characters of 
^^Kr Irish Sponges, and a series of dredgings was made in Bantry^ard 
^^fcntry Bays^ along the coast at Connemara — the rich collecting ground 
^Hf M'Colla and Dr. Farran — and around the Arran Islands: during 
^^niicb I became more and more persuaded of the extreme uncertainty, 
uy, in ei.imo cases, impossibility, of naming the species, even from 
fri^ specimens, without an examination by means of, often, very high 
power* of the microscope. During 1862 Prolessor Oscar Schmidt^s 
v«rk on the Sponges of the Adriatic Sea was published. This con- 
liiafl very many of our Irish fjponges — very often not only the same 
but the same species. During 1865 and 186G, with the eicep- 
of dredging excursions to Malahide, a ft^rlile field in spring time for 
e sponges, annelids, and nudibranchiate mollusca, I did little 
than read up the now rapidly increasing literature of the subject. 
AS 1 w.i£ leaving for a short trip to the Indian Ocean Dr. Bowerbank's 
ograph made its appearance, and on my return T rcsolvwl to work up 
Bpecieflof sjtonges met with in this country. There are in my own col- 
ioD many species not yet investigated, and several probably new; but 
ously to dcpcribing thesfc I have thought it advisable to examine tho 
ectionfl of Irish sponges in the lluseumsof the Royal Dublin Society, 
rinity College, and Belfast, and determining when possible, by my own 
ination of the specimens, what species were to be mot with in 
collections. The series of specimens in the first named museum 
ma apparently almost altogether collected byM'Colla, fliough I doubt 
not but that the majority of these species were named by Prof. Scouler. 
some cases, either from the falling off and accidental misplacement 
labels, and in others because ceilain characteristics of the species 
3 not at the time properly known, I have found mistakes in the 
enclature, but these were of .small consequence, and detracted in 
way from the value of this collection. The few specimens in the 
College museum were unnamed, but had the localities generally affixed. 
B. I. A. raoc. — VOL. x. 2 r 



Those in the Belfast maseum had either been submitted to Dr. Johnson 
or to Dr. Bowerbank ; and in quoting such species I have referred to 
them as such ; again, several species have been named for the first time 
by Dr. Bowerbank from specimens forwarded to him by Professor 
Dickie, and these T pive on the very excellent authority of Dr, B wer- 
bank. The total number of species thus enumerated amounts tofifty- 
three, or a little more than one-fourth of those described as British; but 
I doubt not that the collection still in mjTjoaseiifiion will enable me, 
ere long, to double this number ; and there is no reason why the nnmber 
of species of sponges on our coast should be less than that of Great Bri- 
tain. At present wo havts representatives of almost all the British 

"While regarding Dr. Bowerbank's monograph as the text-book for the 
British sponges, I have still thought it advisable to add here and there a 
few synonyms. Dr. Bowerbank divides the sponges into three Orders — 
1. Calcarea, 2. Silicea, and 3. Keratosa. For facility of reference to the 
monograph on sponges I have followed this arrangement, referring the 
Bhident to Professor Oscar Schmidl^s work, to Dr. J. E. Gray's *• If oles on 
the arrangement ofSponges," and to Professor "VTyvillo Thomson's paper 
**0n Vitreous Sponges," for further information on the sabject, as well 
as for some criticisms on the arrangement of Dr. Bowerbank, The order 
CorticaUe for the Barked sponges appears to me to be a very natural one. 
So is that of Halisarcinre for Halisarca, this genus being destitute of 
Bpicnlen, while the Keratosa of Bowerbankj equalling the Spongina of 
Lieberkiihn, vnW probably rank as an order equivalent to that of Corti- 
catie ; but doubtless many classifioationB will be made and then become 
obsolete ere & satisfactory one be established for this group of animals. 


George Johnston. — k History of British Sponges. Edinburgh, 1842. 

Oscar Schmidt. — Die Spongien des Adriatischen Mecrcs. Leipzig, 1862. 

„ ,, Supplement, enthaltend die Histiologie und Systcma- 

tische Erganzungen. Leipzig, I8t>4. 
„ ,, ZweitcB Supplement enthaltend die Vergleichung der 

Adriatischen und Britischen Spongieu Gattungen. 
Leipzig, 1866. 
J. S. Bowerbank. — A Monograph of the British Spongiadffl. VoL I. 

1864 ; Vol. II., 1866. Kay Society. 
J. E. Gray. — Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges, with the Deacrip- 
tion of some new Genera. " Proc, Zool. Soc., London-** 
May 9. 1867. 
Wyville Thomson.— On the "Vitreous Sponges." " Ann. and Mag. of 
Nat. Hist.,'* February, 1868. 





Scs Class 1._CAXCAR£A. Bowerbauk. 

Grantia compressa (Fab.) 

Artynu comprf$ta. Gray. Proo. ZooL Soc. Load. 1867, p. 655. 
On stems of algae, all round the coast 

itieal on Fuci, all round the eoast. Of largo size in the tidal 
ertoAzy of the Liffuy. 

Leuoosolenia botryoides (Ellis and Solander.) 
Grantia lieberhthni Sdt. Die Spongien, p. 17| and 2nd Supp., p. 8. 
Panuitical on Fuci and Hydrozoa, all around tho coast. 

L. laounosa (Bean) 
Smriota lacunoaa Sdt Die Spongien, 2nd Supp., p, 8. 
B^fiurtLongh. G. Hyndman, 1858. 

L. coriacea (Mont.) 
Malahide. Dubliji Bay. A, H. HassalL Killough. W. Thompson 

Leuoonia nivea (Flem.) 
$oiida 6dt. Die Spongien, p. 18, 2ad Sapp., p. 8. 
Weat coast of Ireland. M*Calla. 

L. fistulosa (Johnst.) 
ferry. W. T. Fid^ Dr. Johnston. 

Sra Class 2.— SILICEA. Bowerbank. 

Paohymatisma jobaBtonia Bowerbank. 

TaiUhondriaJQhnMtonia (Bowerbank). 1841. 
Paehymatitma johnttonia Bowerbank. 1842. 
Amphitrcma M'CaUii Scouler M. S. 1846.* 

This sponge is mentioned by Dr. Bowerbank as found on the south 
eotst of Iruiand. Specimens marked Amphitrema 31'CaUii are in the 
Royal Dublin Society's Musi'um, from Connemam, and are, without 
doabt, part of the collection made by Mr. M'Calla in Bcrtraghboy Bay 
for Dr. Scouler. Specimens arc often found incrustiiig rocks at low 
water mark. At present I only know of its occurrence on the western 
coast of Ireland. Bouudstone. 

* Tvo Ui^ ina«MB of ffpong« ■» in tb« Roysl DobUa Society's eolleetion, marked 

M*CalliL Tliu iiAme wiu then changed to th^t of HopM^nu Griffithaii. 

of fcbcK M ccruinly PaehfrnotiKma Johmtonia, Bk., which nime roost tund^ ■! 

tr Scouler never publubed bis naine for ibii ypocies. The otbtr spMimcn is pri»- 

kaUy PufriUma GH^tktia (Bk.). 

(Xardo, 1841) ; but I am at a loss to know why Sclimidt fancies tbis 
■pecies baa been overlooked by Bowerbank. Dr. Gray has distribated 
the ipocies of Mr. Hancock among seven genera.* 

HaliBorca dujardinii. 

Will probably be found when attentively looked for all around our 
coastA. Prof. T)ickie hax found it on Stmngford Lougb, and I hare 
taken it at Malahide. There is evidently some mistake about the 
Bpeoies of this genus, as Dr. Bowerbank informs me thut he meets 
with spicules in the Rbovo Bpecies, whilo Lieberkuhn and Schmidt 
describe it as aspiculoos, making it the type of an Order. 

Haliohondria panicoa (Pallas). 
Common everywhere. Schmidt says this species should be, without 
any question, referred to Nardo's genus Reniera. 

H. thompsoai (Bowerbank). 
Dendoryx thompsont (Qray). Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. 1865, p. £37> 

This species is described by Dr. Bowerbank from a specimen takea 
ia Belfast Lough by the late W. Thompson. 

H. inonistans (Esper). 

Dendoryx ineru»tans (Gray). Proc. Zool. Soc Lond 1865, p. 537. 

Eoundstone Bay (M*Calla). Bantry Bay and ]falahidc, and probably in 
all suitable localities around the coast. Schmidt docs not think that 
tbis species should bo placed in the genus Halichondria. 

H. dickioi (Bowerbank). 
Dftidort/z dickUi (Gray). Proc Zool. Soc. Lond. 1865, p. 537. 
Strangford Lough. 

H. pattersoni (Bowerbank). 
Dendoryx patUrtoHti {Qf^y), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1 867, p. 635. 
Both these species are from Strangford Lough, where they were found 
by Prof. Dickie. They appear to be very closely allied to Hal. in- 
crufitans (Esper). 

H. hyndmani (Bowerbank). 
Alehton hyndmani (Oray). Proc Zool. Soc Load. 1867, p. 534. 
Found by the late G. Hyndman in Strangford Lough. 

H. nigricans (Bowerbank). 
lophon nigrieant (Oray). Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 534. 
fitrangfoi^ Lough (Prof. Dickie). 

H. farinaria (Bowerbank). 
Belfast Bay, on Pecten operculans (W. Thompson). 



Isodiotya cinorea (Grant). 

Connemcra; (M'Calla), Dublin Bay; ( A. H. Haaeall) ; Clew Bay [W. 

I. pcaohii (Bowerbank). 
Jantry Bay ; Rev. A. >f. Norman. 

I. simulo (Eowerbonk). 
Same locality as last. 

I. simulans (Johnston). 
Adocia timilant (Gray). Proc. ZooL Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 522. 
Connemara; (M'Calk), Dublin Bay, A. H, H. I have taken it at Ma- 
lahide, and probably it will be found all around the coast. 

I. fuoonun (Esper). 
Common in all suitable localities, inrestiug Fuci and Sertulariie. 

I, gracilis (Bowerbank). 
tATna Lough (Prof. Dickie). 

Spongilla flnviatilis (Pallas). 

Ephydatia flmiatilU (Gray), ProcZool. Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 550. 
To be found apparently in every suitable locality in Ireland. In Dublin 

Tery common in the canals, and of too irequcnt occurrence in the &eah 

Tster pipes of the city. 

S. laoustriB (Fleming). 

apmgiUa lacuttrU (Gray). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 652, 
Lower Lake of Killamcy. Prof. Allman (1848). Lakes in the counties 
of Wicklow and Golway not uncommon. 

Desmaoidon acgagropila (Soouler). 
HtUuptrngia agagropila Scooler MS. Johnston, ** British Sponges,*' 

p. 119, Plate XL, Fig. 1. 
Eiptria agagropila SdU Die Spongicn 2nd Sup. p. 18. 
.^gpgr^pila variam (Gray). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 533. 
D^amaMoH agogropila Bowerbank, " British Sponges," p. 352. 
Dr. Bowerbank, in his '* Monograph of the British Spongiadai," ap- 

pettXM to liavD overlooked both the Irish localities for thi^ species^ as 

well as the fact that its spcci&c name was given to it by Prof. 

ficouler. It was first found in Roundstono Bay by Mr. M'Calla. "W. 

Thompson records it from Deny. Bertraghboy Bay. 

Papillina suberea Sdt. 
Raphgrui ^^/A^itf Bowerbank, 1864. 
Halirhondria celata, var. a (Johnston). 
RaphyrvM ethtui {Qnj). Proc. Soc. Lond. 1867, p. 516. 


Ac., with the primitire deoigns or scoring. The ignorance and vati- 
dalism of some modern " excursioniste" is evidenced by their hftviog 
even scraped portions of the rock in order to eocnro & fairer field for 
idle scribbling. 

Nevertheless, a very ooDsideruble portion of the ancient carving still 
remains, and in no place has it been wholly destroyed. Its character 
will be beat understood by reference to the six sheets of rubbings, most 
carefully made by my^lf, and which I now beg to present to the 
Academy . 

With the simple crosses, or croases enclosed in a rectan^lar 
figure, antiquaries ore already familiar. They occur plentifully upon 
the myHteriouB rock at Kyeficld, county of Cavan, noticed by Mr. Du 
Koyer in the ** Procoo<Iings of the Kilkenny and South- East of Irt'land 
Archaeological Society." A similar figure may be seen in the group of 
carvings on the cell of the grand chamber at Slcivc-na-Caillighe, near 
Loughcrew. This style of cross also occurs at Dowth, on the Boyne. 
It will be seen from the rubbings that at Knockmore it is found in its 
simplest style, and in some iastonccs elaborated in a manner YQxy un- 

Figs. 1 and 2, sheet I., represent the cross in its plainest fonn. In 
sheet II., figs. 1 and 2, in sheet HI., tig. 1, and in sheet V., figs. I and 
2, it may be seen enclosed within a rectangular, or lozenge-shaped 
scoring. In sheet IV., figs. 1 and 2, it is enriched by cross batching 
in a stylo which I hare not elsewhere noticed. Detached crossets of the 
plainer kind in different stages of decay occur on various part« of the 
walls. I have only rubbed such aa are very distinctly marked, and 
which appear to be associated with neighbouring engravings. 

Sheet No. I. is a very careful rubbing of the moat complicated of 
all the designs which the cave exhibit*. We find here two of the pri- 
mitive crosses ; an iuterlacing knot or figure of 8 ; some long wild 
scorea, and others shorter in character — the latter having much the 
appearance of oghumic writing; a tree-like figure, somewhat similar to 
a very remarkable carving at Kewgrange; a couple of deep-jogged 
punctures (figa. \ and 5), and a number of wavy lines, not unlike the 
rude carvings sometimes found upon the walls of pagan sepulchral 
chambers. It is not my intention now to speculate upon what relation, 
if any, the cartings in each group may bear one to another ; but I may 
gay that they all appear to have been made at the same time and bj 
the same kind of instrnmenL 

Sheet No. II. presenta aome of the crosses already referred to, and 
another (fig. 3) which may be considered a second variety. The acores, 
fig. 4, have all the appearance of oghamic writing. The four cuttinga 
represented upon this sheet would seem to form a group in themselveif. 

Sheet No. III. contains two varieties of the early (prehistoric?) 
crosi (figs- I and 8), and a very perfect interlacing knot. It may be 
remarked that a similar knot, sheet lY., is accompanied by an early 
erosa, and that in each ioatance the latter device occupies a positioa 
to the left of the knot. 



Sheet No. IT. exhibite two interlacing knots accompanied bj 
the (prelustoric ?) crow, and displays a deagn formed of two yertical 
scores croseed at right angles by a third. All these dusigns aro 
deeply cut 

Sheet No. V. Here are two primitive crosses, (figs, I and 2), 
and two carvings, which have an alphabetic look. This group is 
quite detached from any other carving. 

Sheet No. VI. Whatever may be thought of the age and cha- 
racter of the simply 8cored erosBes, and of similar markings enclosed 
within Iwengc or rectangular figures, which the cave exhibits, and 
which have been just noticed, there can be little doubt amongst an- 
tiquariee tha^ the interlacing erons here shown rou»t be referred to 
early Christian times. It occurs upon the lelt-hond side, not far from 
the entrance, and is beautifully and deeply engraved. Immediately 
bmwth the left arm of the cross iu early Iri«h character, iinnly cut, 
is the letter D, followed by two strokes, which indicate that other 
letters had followed. Unfortunately at this place the rock has been 
greatly scratched and rublwd by modem visitor*. The letters were 

>\axh\y D N I^ a form of dedication, not nnfrcqueiitly met with on 
intones in the south of Ireland. I do not wish to hazard any un- 
Bpeculation in connexion with this curious inscription, but 
■hould the rubbing come under the notice of the Lord Bishop of 
limerick, bi^ Lord^ip, from intimate knowledge of the subjc^ct, would 
yvobttbly be able to tlirow light upon the ogham, or oghamic writing 
vUeb Accompanies it, and which appears bo possess a very distinctly 
iBtrkcd character. 

That a cave in many respects so interesting, and, as its scars attest, 
m frequently reported to by '* ejccursiouists,'' should not have hitherto 
'ted the notice of an antiquary, is a fact scai'cely to be accounted 
True it is that about six years ago lir. P. Magennis, a master under 
^Hfttional Board of Education, who lives near the eastern cliif of 
lore* in a laudable thirst for investigation, made an attempt 
«o|iy some of the carvings. He then entered Jnto correspondence 
iUi eereral gentlemen interested in archieological inquiry — with 
llbe Bev. James Graves amongst others. Mr. Graves, with his cha- 
racteristic ze^l, caused the drawings, or a portion of them, to be laid be- 
fore Profee&or George Stf pheua, F. S. A., who, in a letter from Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, dated Dec. 16, 1661. described them as representing 
" Scribbles of the Northmen, Wild Hunes, and Blind Runea," not 
now decipherable. Mr. Mogennis, who kindly accompanied mo to 
the cavo, was very willing to arknowlcdge that his attempt to copy 
the lines was anything but successful. There are at any rate ntf 
*' scorings" at present in the place from which the rubbing or "dia- 
gram," as copied in a woodcut in the Kilkenny Journal, from which 
Profntaor Stephens appears to have drawn his deduction, could have been 
traced. The carvings are all varieties of well-known Irish work — some 
of tfaem probably of the age of the stone chambers — and tlic interlacing 


cross, the knots, and letters of an oitremely early Christian period — 
all of them much older than the date of the first authenticated descent 
of htUrfid Northmen upon the shores of Ireland, 

XXIX. — Ok Rock Castikgs. By Hoddbb li. Westbopp. 

[RejidlUy U, 1868] 

The presence of carvings on rocks, stones, monoliths, cromlechs, 
other megalithic structures in many oountricR, bearing a remarkable 
analogy and likeness to one another, has justly excited much wonder and 
speculation. Sir James Simpson has publitihed a very careful and accu- 
rate account of the eculpturings of cups und concentric rings in various 
parts of Scotland, accompanied by excellent illustrations ; Mr. Tate has 
published those discovered in Northumberland ; Mr. Du Noyer has also 
written some interesting papers on the rook cartings found in Ireland, 
In Brittany the blocks used in the construction of the gallerj* and 
chamber of the jrreat sepulchral mound at Gaor Inis, in the Morhihan, 
are densely covered with continuous circular, spijul, zigzag, looped, and 
various other types of carving. The stones of the tumuli andcromlfchs 
at Loc Mariaker present ligures of vnrious military weapons and armi^ 
witli some imperfect figures of animals. 

Analogous oorvings of circles and very rude sketches of ships (nt- 
thcr canoes) and crews have been found on rocks and cromlechs in 

Rude representations of animals, with inscriptions, occur on rocks 
near Mount Sinai, which have been attributed to wandering pastonl 

Humboldt mentions rocks covered with sculptured figures in Bcvonl 
partfl of South America. He thus notices some on the Orinoco : — *• "Wo 
were shown near the rock CuUmacari, on the banks of the Cassiqui- 
are, and at the port of Cayoara, in the Lower Orinoco, traces which were 
believed to be regular chamctera. Tliey were, however, only misshapen 
figures representing the heavenly bodies, together with tigers, croco- 
diles, boaH, und instruments used for making the fiour of Cas.siva. It 
was impoB.Mble to recognize in these pointed rocks {piedraspinfadoa')^ the 
name by which the natives denote those masses loaded with figures), 
any symmetrical arrangement or characters with regular spaces. 

Mr. Squiers has discovered analogous carved rocks at Masara, in 
Nicaragua, and Mr. Bollaert notices several in different ports of South 

At the Cape the caves inhabited by the Bushmen, one of the rudest 
raccft of humanity, are frequently found painted with the representations 
of the animals of the neighbourhood, and sometimes with battle and hunt- 
ing scenes. 

Various have been the conjectures with regard \o the origin oi 


of these H 



tenlptorefi, the age at which they were carred, and the rnce of men who 
carrcd them. 

I^fe«90T NilseoD attributes thoee found in Scandinavia to Pha^nician 
ori^n, and considers the circles as si.'mbols of the sun and other hca- 
Tenlv bodies— ft most untenable hypothefiis, ns there exist no similar 
carvings amoog PhoeDician remains to connect them with. Further, 
analo^us and identical circles and cnrvings are found in America and 
other countries where no Phoenician influence could possibly have 
reached. Others suggest that they are symbols, or sj-mbolic enumera- 
tions of families and tribes, or some variety of archaic writing or philo- 
Bophioal emblems. 

We shall. I thinli, be led to n more just conclusion as to their ori'^in 
if we bring before our mind that man, in his rude, early, and primitive 
age, bears a ^reat analogy in his actions and thoughts to those cf a 
child. The savage and primitive man has the same fondness for imita- 
tioo, the same love of laborious idleness as the child. A child will 
pMB hours whittling and paring a stick, building a diminutive house or 
wall, and tracing forms on the turf. The savage will wear away years 
in carving hie war club and polishing his Htone adze. Tbest* conRide- 
rationA lead me to attribute these carvings and sculpture to the laborious 
idlen^M of a pastoral people, passing the long and weari* day in tending 
thezr flocks and herds ; thoy amused themselves by carving and cutting 
IhoM various figures of the sun, the raoon, or any animals or objects in 
tbcir neighbourhood, on the rocks near them. For, as Sir James Simp- 
«a remarks, man has been in all ages "a sculpturing and a painting 

These rude outlines by primitive men, in various countries, like the 
twde attempts at drawing by children, cannot but bear a family rcsem- 
tlaacc to one another, their utter absence of art being irequeotly their 
ckbf point of reUtion.ship. 

Tbeee views may seem absurd, but they have the sanction of a high 
■Btiiority. Humboldt, when noticing the sculptured rocks in South 
America, considers these figures, " instead of being symb«ilioal, rather 
M the fruits of the idleness of hunting nations." As some would rccog- 
niae alphabetic characters in these car^Mngs, he obi^erves further (Cor- 
dillfiTtf, I.. 154): — "We cannot btr too careful not to confound what 
Mf Iw the effect of chance or itilf amu*ement with letters or syllabic 
AtfAOtOTB.'* Mr. Trutio relates, that in the southern extremity of 
Aftica« among the lit Ijuauas, he saw children busy in tracing on a rock 
with some sharp instrument characters which bore the roost perfect re- 
•cmblance with the P and the M of the Itoman alphabet, notwithstond- 
utg which these rude tribes were perfectly ignorant of writing. 

Sir James Simpson's note, at page 107 of his work, eonx>boratea tliis 
view. — ** Three years ago. my triend Dr. Arthur Mitchell saw the her- 
ring Bshcrmcn, in a day of idhfust, cutting circles with their knives on 
the face of the rock without the operators being able to assign any reason 

their work, eiccpt that uthers had done il befure them." 



Cftirings occur also on the cromlechs lately discovered in the north 
of Ai'rica, near Constautine. At first they were thought to be desig^aa 
or charactt^R ; but a more careful examination led to the oouviction that 
they were lines traced by Ihe Aral thephet-di with the point of a stoD£ 
or knife. 

Sevoral of the walls of Pompeii and of the Guard-room of the Pre- 
torian Cohort, on the Palatine Hill at Rome, are covered wich rude 
scratchings (graffiti) and writings; and at the present day the same 
fashion continues on public wall» and in more retired places — all pro- 
ceeding from the same spirit of idleness. The Ioto of iiddling and of 
doing something in idle moments is natural to man iu all ages and 

Hon, indeed, is the same in all climes, and is instinctively led to do 
the same thing in the same way under similar circumsmncea in regions 
widest aparU As Uumbuldt remarks — ''Nationsof very diifereut descent, 
when in a nimilar Hneinlized staU^ having tht^ wime disposition to sim- 
plify and generalize outlines, and, being impelled by inherent mental 
disposition^ may be led to product similar gttfns and symboU.'^ 

Hence wo find identi(!ai forms in the carvings and sculpturinga in 
countries the most remote from one another. 

Identical circles with crosses within them, are found carved on the 
cromlechs of Scandina\iu, on blocks forming an interior chamber of* 
tumulus atDowth, and on the rocks near Veraguas, in America. 

These rude car\'ings cannot be considered as ornamentation, as their 
total want of symmetrical arrangement, and the absence of continuity in 
their repetition, preclude this. 

Some of these traced figures may, however, be like the " bo miirke** 
of the Scandinavian a, private marks of proiwrty adopted by the Scandi* 
navian peajnants, or like the " totem" of the Hod Indian, the mark of 
his nation and of the individual Carving, then, in idle moments ii 
as natural to the savage or rude nature of Scandinavia as to the idler 
of the present day, who carves his initials or monogram on a tree or 

Sir James Simpson has shown that most of these earrings belong to 
the Stone age, which was synchronous witb the pu.storal phase of civi- 
lization. Some of a ruder description may belong to an earlier age, or 
the hunting phase. 



XXX. — Ox THB Gf.ot,ogy of the Coowtt of Antrim, with Pabts of 
THE ADJACENT CouwTiKa. By JoHN Kellt, C. E., Fellow of the 
Koyal Geological Sociuty. 

[R«Ad Uay 11 Aod 2o, 1868.] 

Tbe Mmnty of Antrim is hounded on the north hy the Atlnntic Ocean, 
on the e«»t by the Irish Sea, on tl)c south by the counties of Down 
and Armagh, and on the we«t by Deirj* and Tyrone. It, is 54 milcB 
long fipom Bangor Head, on the north, to the Aqueduct bridge, near 
ICotra* on the fiouth ; and 3-i miles in its ^eaiest breadth, from Black 
Head, near Carrickfergus, to Toome Bridge. It coutainB, by the Ord- 
nance Map, about 1 190 square miles. 

This county, and the eastern part of Dorry, are so nearly similar in 
nouQlains, in rocks, and in fosailfi, that for the physical features, the 
geology, and the palneontolo^, they may he joined together^ aod 
treated as one. General Portlock has, however, written on Derry, and 
pMta of Tyrone. I do not mean to go into details after him, except 
by an occasional reference where there may be suitable matter to illuB- 
tnie the adjacent parts of the countrj'. In the map, therefore, accom- 
Maying this paper, I omit the whole of the county west of the Bana 
fiirer and Lough Neagh. 

Tliia area, taken as one, is composed of two hifjh ridges of land, 
one oti the east, and one on the west side of the district : both assum- 
ing anorth and south direction, ondwith u widedepression between them. 
vfaich runs in the same direction, in which lies the Viilley of the Bann 
KivcT and Lough Neagh. This depression may be taken to be at the 
IcTel of the sea ; for the Bunn, at Coleraiue on the north, and Carling- 
ford Bay on the fiouth, are at the sea-level ; while the 1>ottom of Lough 
Kaagh, about midway between them, may also bo considered to be so; 
tat Uiough the surfuce of the Lough is 48 feet above the sea, its depth 
is aa mocb, or a litUo more ; so that at thofie three pointA the surface of 
tbe rook is on the same level, and the intervals between them, I 
mar say the bottom of the depression the whole way, not much 

Taking the Antrim side in itself, it forms an inclined surface, high 
OB the east side, near the coast, and low on the west, along the afore- 
said valley. 

It is a matter of some interest to compare the heights of the two 
lidgea on the Antrim and Derry side. I'or this purpose I have drawn 
Bp the following Table from the Ordnance Survey, showing the heights 
along the crest« of both ridges : — 


also the ^eensione, and in this character it coutinues towards Innish- 
owen Head, Frum near Culdaff, by Kinncgo, the clay slate and grit hare 
a persistent dip to the south-eiist for three or four miles, so that the 
thickness of this system must bo very great Four miles, dipping at 
45'*, would give about 15.000 feet. Since there are no foseilB known 
in this great masa of slates ond grits, 1 take it to be the e<)uivalent of 
the Cambrian rocks, and the whole of it lies over the mica slate of Cul- 
daff, and in, couree, newer than it, Piom this statement it may be un- 
derstood that ([uariz rock is the oldest stnititied rock known in Ireland, 
and mica alate, with its associated limestone, &c., the second eldest. 

The mica slate near Ouldaff is characterized by containing beds of 
crystalline limestone, as just stated. The oafle is exactly Aimilnr in the 
extensive mica slate district, between Dun^ven and iJcrry; in which 
generally tlie dip approaching Derry is N. W., the reverse of what 
it is at Culdaff, suggesting the idea that it posses in a eynclinnl 
band under the Innishowen clay slate mountains. Another small 
district of mica slate, lying to the west of the road irom Garvogh to 
Maghera, has many quarries of gray crystalline limestone, from which 
it is raised and burned for economic use. 

Hica slate, is the lowest rock on the Derry side of the basaltic area 
also, but there it is vastly more cstcnBivo than in Antrim. The whole 
breadth of the county to the west of Dungiven is mica slate, from the 
couuty boundary' at the top of Sawet, a mountain 2236 feet high on the 
south, to Ballykelly on the north, near the shore of Lough Foyle, a dis- 
tance of 15 miles. The general dip of the rock the whole way from 
Sawel to Ballykelly is to the north, at angles varying from 25° to 45^. 
Unless thero may be parallel faults in on east and west direction through 
the country, by which the same groups of strata might be counted over 
aud over, the thickness of the mica slate on this, which is nearly a 
meridian line, is very great ; for 15 miles, with on average dip of 3o° 
would give it a thickness of 45,460 feet. Of the mica slate of the 
Knocklayd district, upwaj-d.4 of two-thirds of it belongs to the taJcos* 
variety, the other one-third to the common, or that which contains m 
large proportion of quartz, and a small amount of mica. The clifiFa of 
Cushleak, on the coast between Olcndun and Murlogh bay, present 
mica slate, containing subonlinat'O beds of primur}' limestone, with veins 
or dykes of syenite, and of felspar porph}Ty. Several veins of reddish 
brown felspar trap are found also on thiM coast, and are seen inland on 
the old road from Cushendun to BoUycastle. The limestone at Tor 
point is about 60 feet thick ; iu colour it varies from gray to reddish 
gray, and greenish gray. The texture passes from compact to grantt* 
lar. It is intersected by thin veins of calcareous spar. Hornblende 
slate is found in the valley of (ilendun, and also in many places along 
the coast, in the mica slate. Granite was found by Sir Richard Griifith 
on the coast at Castle Park, hall' a mile north-east of Cusheudun. and 
at Ardsillagh on the moimtain side higher up. I shall make allusion 
to this granite in another part of this paper. 





lo ibo north-eaat of Antrim io the Barony uf Cary, the geologist 
iravellmg from Cushcndun to Ballycaatle will p^> over a flat-topped 
plalforra of mica Blutc, of our oIdt-»t type 750 feet high, extending from 
Knocklayd, on the west, to Xor Point on tho east, about 6 miles. On 
tbii miea slate plutform reet three rouudish distrietB of chulk, and trap 
in Knocklayd, in Ballypatrick, and in Carnlea, near the east roast. 

Between these two, little in space, but great in time, there are 
WKUig many wbolu furmutiouD. as they occur in suecesaion in other 
parts of the globe. If the mica slate itBelf be not Cambrian, the 
Cambrian is nbscnt, so in the Silurian, and the carbonii'eroas> with most of 

secondary rocks, as X huve ub*eady stated. 

Biiowx Devonian Gkit. 

TDck occnpies a small district extending along the ahorc be- 
Cushendall and Cushendnn. It i« three miles long in this 
direction » and reaebes inland from the shore about u miloand a half in 
10 widest part, through the top of Cross Slievc Mountain. 
The age of Sandstones is very difficult to be determined, beenuse in 
leral there are no fossils in them, and they occor in fonualiona of 
rery age. 
T)n« brown grit, between Cuahendall and Cushendnn, has been 
Old Red Sandstone by every one who wrote about it. Among 
wore Mr. Bryee, Mr. Mac Adam Sir Kiehurd Griffith, and others, 
browTi hard grit, exactly simihir in oppearanec, occure between 
Pcneroy, in the county of T}Tone, and Lisbellaw, in Fermanagh ; 
a rock exactly similar in lithological eharueter, in the Cur- 
Mountaina in Roscommon and Mayo ; in Galway, in the vicinity 
Killtry Harbour; at Mounie; at Jvilbride, near Lough Mask; and 
the Dingle peninsula in Kerry. In all thoH^ places it is conform- 
>Ie to. and associated with, bands of rock, teeming with Silurian fos- 
; and tliough no fossils hare been foiind in it in this locality, nor, 
in this purple grit, anywhere that 1 know of, it is, neverthe- 
I am convinced, an undoubted transition grit. 
It bus even been stated that tlie part of this rock, in a band a fur* 
long wide along the shore, is ^ew Red Sandstone, because it contains 
>unded pebbles, which give it a conglomeratic character, and that the 
bc-dj of the new red sandstone in Red Bay are composed of a 
strong conglomerate; but conglomerates are common to sand- 
and grits of every age. Sonic of the most magnificent conglo- 
merates in Ireland are at Lisbellaw and at Lisnarrick, in Fermanagh, 
■ad at Bliu-kwater Bridge, near Killery Uarbour, in Galway, and thcsti 
arc all in Silurian rocks. The lower beds of tlio Old Red Sandstone 
exhibit u conglomerate everywhere it occurs. Conglomerates are no 
proof of the age of a rock. Besides this, the conglomeratic chantcter 
near Cuahendun is not confined to the coast. It is in the hills of Bol- 
Ijbrack, a mile north-west of Cushendall, which seems to be all com- 
of it. It is seen in the bye-roads about that hill plentifully. 
in the stream at Cloghs are seen in the brown grit many pebbles 



Th Coal ^MMTM. 

This series occurs on the north-eastern shore of the county; fron 
BuUyeastle to Murlogh Bay it is aomewhiit above four miles long, im 
its average breadth from the shore southward ii a mile and a bfllc 1 
contains about 4300 acres. 

The different groups of the coal measures of this district are vari- 
able, and unlike each other in different places. The same may be con 
veuiently divided into three subdivisions. The first lies along the scA 
shore from Ballycafitle to Carrickmore dyke ; the second from Owrick- 
more dyke, by Fair Head, to Murlogh Bay ; the third tlie souths 
border of the district, in the vicinity of Carey river. 

At Ballycaiitle the coal measures are best seen in the magnificent 
cliff, which stretches from near the town at Bath Lodge, eastward^ 
along the shore to Carrickmorc dyke, about two miles. 

This cliff ranges from *iOO to 300 feet high, and exposes a 
section of the Coal rock^, the whole way, about thix'e-luunhs of tha 
volumu of which is white or yellowish sandstone. The cliff along 
Bliorc is divided into parts by whin dykes, or sometimes clay dyki 
which, as a general rule, have a direction to the nortli, and eut the sand 
stone rocks vertically, separating the cliff into blocks, each of which is 
heaved up, or thrown down from the uiljacent blocks, at the dyke or 
joint All the beds have a general dip south-east, van-ing from 5' to 
10° and sometimes more; and tlie outcrops of 200 to 300 feet thick of 
them ai*e visible, and uraong the rest tlie Coai, a bed four feet thick 
here, accompanied by about twtnty feet thick of black shale and other 
soft rockti wliich underlie it Tliis black band appears as a conspicu< 
ous object in the cliff* in some of the divisions high up near the top, 
9ome towards the miildle, and in some low down. The blocks 
divisions made by iUa dykes are each a separate collier)', the mode 
working in which wuh regulated by the height of the out crop of tb 
coal in the cliff, for when the coal was high up, the usual way wii« 
sink pits at the top, a little inland, which soon came upon the de 
treasure. When the coal was low down, levels or adits were driven 
horizontally into the face of the cliff, a little above high-water, by whic 
the coal was soonii^t reached. In this manner, where the out crop 
the coal was high or low, pits above or levels below were the maia 
features of tlie principle by which the working of the several colli 
was regulated. 

Writing in 1784, Dr. Robinson says, *' about twelve yean 
(1772) the workmen, in pushing forward a new adit toward.-* tlie 
unexpectedly broke through the rock into a cavern. The hole which 
they opened was not very largo, and two young lads were made to 
creep in, with candles, to explore this new region. They accordingly 
went forward, and entered an extensive labyrinth branching off into 
uumeroufl apartments, in the mazes and wiudiu^s of which they were 
at lost completely lost. After various vain attempts to return, th<>ir 
[hts were exlingnished, and they sat down together in utter despair 


(>t an escape from this dreary dungeon. In the mean time the people 
without in the drift level were alarmed for their safety^ freeh hands 
^ere employed, a passage was at last made for the workmt^n, and the 
two unibrtuuate adventareni extricatod after a -nhole night's imprison- 

On examining this guhterranean wonder, it was found to be a cora- 
i^te gallery, which had been driven forward many hundred yards to 
the bed of coal; that it branched otl* into various chumbcrs when the 
ainers had pnshed on their different works; that pillars were left at 
>per intervals to support the roof; in short was found to be an ex- 
msive rnine^ wrought by a set of people at least &» expert in the 
I the present generution. Some remains of the tools, and 
ren the basket* used in the works, were discovered, but in such u state 
lat on being touchtrd they immediately fell to powder." 
The antiquity of this work is pretty evident from hence, that there 
not remain the most remote tradition of ii in the country ; but it 
still more strongly demonstrable from a natural process which hua 
takes plaoe since its formation, for stalactite pillars had been formed 
reeching from the roof of the cavern to the floor, and the sides and sup- 
ports were found covered with sparry incnistations, which the present 
workmen do not observe to be deposited in any definite portion of 

The people of this place attributed these works to the Danes; but 

slight consideration of the matter must satisfy any one that this 

ioo is ill-founded. The Danes were never peaceable possessors of 

id, but always engaged in bloody wars with the natives, in which 

were alternately victors and vanquished." 

' Upon the whole, during the dreary interval of a thousand years 
the eighth to the eighteenth century, it is in vain to look for the 
works of industry and peace, in a kingdom where war was 
trade, and where all property turned on the edge of the sword." 
ono four- foot bed of coal is supposed to be worked out now 
the coast. No works have been carried on for years, and it 
Id not perhaps be worth the trouble of entering into much detail in 
drttcribing it, were it not that the peculiarity of structure, occasioned 
\jj the whin dykes, gives it a geological interest worth considering. Such 
HI amoant of rock in any colliery is rarely laid open to view. 

The foUowing Table shows the names of the several collieries, begin- 
ning at i^th Lodge, and proceeding eastward. 

Tile £rst colomn shows the number of the colliery ; the second is 
Iho name ; the third is the averngc height ot the outcrop of 
the coal above sea level; the fourth column shuws how much 
the outcrop isthrowu up or down from what it is in the adjacent 
colliery, or block, to the west of it. It is thought advisable lu 
'IDArk this at the west side of every colliery, so that in proooodiiig 
-cmtirftrd the reference may be more easy ; the fifth is the dip of 


tbe southern dip of the rocks it could porfaapa be traced a little inlam) 
from the top of th(3 precijjice. The bed of limofltono, which is 148 fwi 
below tho cotil, ristm sufficiently high to be viaiblo in the face of tbe 
cliff all the way in this division. From the anticlinal position all tk 
rodks at the west side ot'thifi colliery dip west, and oil thoee atthecHt 
dip east The dip in both is about 1 0^ 

No6. 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, arc all much alike. The rocks have a generaldif 
eastward. The coal crops out in the cliff in all, but at different heighli^ 
Di stated in the table. 

No. 10. Gol*b MtM. — In this the rocks assume a synclinal poutii 
and in the hollow formed by this downward curve flowed the trap whici 
caps the summit, and is fifty-one feet high there. The precipice pne- 
sents no appearance of a fissure, through which tliis trap might have 
been erupted. Tho mass of trap probably flowed southward in the syn- 
clinal hollow before mentioned from the source, which miglit have bceo 
a crater lying to the north. 

11. Tho Portnagrst Dirision has a western dip in its bods. Tha 
whole block stands at a lower level than the Oobb criUicry, and 
it slipped dowHt or the Oobb was upheaved. 

There are in the cliff here seven whin dykes^ and Ere cloy 
separating those collieries. Some clay dykes are one, two, or throe 

It is probable that the whin dykes and the clay dykes are of 
difibront periods as to ago. Tho whin dykes tirstf when the subtenW 
DOB gasee and other matter wore in an expanding condition ; tiie clay 
dykee afterwards, when the wholo mass was cooling, and blooks 
slipping down &om their equivalents, along fissures made in the reek 
ftxim cooling by contrftotion. 

The effect produced by those dykes upon the BsUycastle collienM, 
that of dividing the rocks of the coast into distinct blocks or divisions, 
is to be seen in other places. A similar disposition of such blocks, se- 
parated by dykes and slips, occurs on tho 6hore on the south side of 
Belihst Lough at Cultra, five miles from Belfast. Here there arc soreo 
or eight dykes, running nearly parallel to each other, and alright angles 
to the ^ore, which separate tho Permian rocks of that plsoe into divi> 
sions. Those divisions of the Permian and oool rocks are thrown up 
and down, exactly simiUr to those at Ballyeastlo. Here, however, 
there is no hi^h cliff in which the amount of the dislocation can be mea* 
rared. The tops of all the blocks are under high water mark, and oecriy 
lerel ; but the variety of colour in tho yellow and rod sandstone, aad 
the yellow, red, and gray limestone of the Permian rocks, and nearly 
bLick coal shales, which occur near them, show that different zones 
of tho group oomc into juxta-position at tho surface, and that the 
blocks at this place between tho whin dykes have been thrown up 
and down from their original position, like those at the collieries at 

The northern shore of Antrim, from Ballycastle westward by the 
(Hant's Cauwway to the Bann, presents similar phenomena. It has 



ken up into great blocks, some of which are heaved up, and 
down, in the same way as at the Ballycostle colliery. In this 
le coast these changes ore recognisable by the white limestone 
[ the lias, the posilioas of which are well known, and whioh 
giiidee in this part of the inquiry. 

Carrickmore dyke» at the Ballycastle collieries, is a feature, 
hough not a very prominent one, point* to great physical 
in the Antrim eotU district. All the t^trata to the west of it, 
BallycosUe, appear tu belong to a di^erent zone of the coal 
I from those on the eaat, towards Murlogh Buy : and which of 
is the lowest and oldest is a matter not easy to decide here, 
Lhe carboniferous limestone, and the old red Rundstono, the 
ich always accompany the cool measures, are not visible, and 
10 other sure guide as to succession in this district. All the 
J of the collieries already described to the west of the dyke is 
' yellowish white. The sandstone to the east of it is red. This 
itone continues towards Pair Head, and is there covered by the 
le of that fine headland. Here, however, the continuity is in- 
I by the talus of dehrU which covers the slope from the bottom 
rpendicular greenstone cliff down to the sea. The next rock 
ipears to the east of Fair Head^ under the greenstone, is black 
itb thin beds of non-flaming cool. Farther south is a down- 
the coal strata, to the south, as may be seen in PI. XXVI. 

3 following Table the succcsiiion of strata, exhibited in the face 
flr» is taken in a line, sloping to the southward, hut the com- 
fkness of each stratum, is given at right angles to the dip.*^ 

9/tiie Su4C€Mion of the Coal Meatures at Murloyh Bay^ eom^ 
meneing at the top of the cliff. 

ft. in. 

moar greenstone, upper range at Fair Head, 100 

^nish red sandstone, 20 

uinous coul, ....... 1 

sandstone, 80 

t shale. 6 

, highly bituminous (White mine), .36 

miflh red sandstone, 40 u 

, highly bituminous, ...... 6 


^ shale, 

^H CarriH forward J 260 


rsbl«, M wrll ai thai at p. 344, is copitfd from SlrK. Griffith's Keporf of the 

U DlAiict I accompanied him on that oarvey In 1817, aailttttl Jo the mea- 

4 psna of It. and made tha dnwiagi chat illutrata lbs Report. 


Brought forxcard, 

11. Coal| bituminous (Goodman^B vein), 

12. Black ahale, .... 

13. Cool, carbonaceous, uninflammable, 

14. Black shale, passing into dinty slate, 

15. Trap, second columnar range; 

1 6. Black shale, .... 

17. Cool, non-darning, alternating with thin beds of black 

shale. 8 G 

18. Black sbolef thickness unknown, the face of cliff being 

covered by a talus of fragments of rock of various 

kinds, say, 10 





437 6 

In this part is red sandstone, black shale, and both bituminous and 
non-flaming coal. To sum up, yellow or white sandstone ia the pre- 
vailing rock in the Ballycastle clifis, with bituminous coal. At Mur- 
logh Buy, black shale and red sandstone prevail, with thin beds of 
both bituminouH and non-fluming coal. It is evident, on eomparisoo, 
that the cool measures at the two localities are not equivalents. Fron 
the black shale, the red sandstone, and the non-flaming coal to tbt 
east of Fair Head, it appears to me that the eastern part of the district 
about Fair Head is the lower zone of the two I have been companng, 
and that Uie part west of the Coirickmore dyke belongs to a higher 
portion of the group, which has been thrown down at this place, by a 
fault, some hundreds of feet in depth. 

There arc other pruofs that the strata westward from Ballycastlc 
have been thrown down from the position tiiey occupied in the g«olo- 
gical BuccessioD. In ]Hurlogh Bay is to bo seen near iho mica slate 
on the shore, a couglomeratc, very similar to that of the Devonian 
brown grit at Cushcudun, and which 1 believe to be its equivalent. In 
Ireland, black shale is the prevailing rock at the bottom of the ooul 
measures everywhere. In Murlogh Bay, as usual, it prevails below. Tb« 
rock over it is red sandstone of the coal-measures, which is also of com* 
mon occurrence in the cool measures of Scotland. Over all these cool- 
measurcs, in Murlogh Bay is seen new red sandstone and chalk, at 800 
feet high iu the cUif, and in part covered by the greenstone of Pair- 
Head (PI. XXVI.). The group of collieries to the west of Carrickmore 
dyke appears to have been thrown down from the Fair Head coal-mea- 
sures ; and the western head of this dyke corruborales this view. The Salt 
Pans colliery, from its coal being dilFercnt trom the rest in the number 
and thickness of the beds, but alxtve all from the hade of the clay dyke 
which forms its eastern boundary, appears to bo thrown down still far- 
ther ; and loat of all, the chalk, the umnistakcable index of the couutry, 
on the shore at Ballycastle at, and in parts under sea level, is 800 feet 
lower than it is, where it lies over the coal measures at Murlogh Bay. 
All these rircumiitances hold out more than a probability that the roal 


measures at Murlogli Bay ore lower in the Bequence than those next 
to Ballycastle. 

The Carey sub-diviaioQ of this coal-fleld is separated &om the shore 
collieries oa the north, by the high ground, or watershed between the 
shore and the Carey River, and on the Bouth it is bounded by the mica 
sla-to of the Ballypatrick mountains. It is between three and four 
miles from Glenshesk eastward, and a mile from north to south, hav- 
ing the Carey Kiver running westward through the valley a good part 
of the way. 

The country adjacent to the shore is nearly all covered with a sandy 
drift, from six to ten yards in thickness. The stones in the drift are 
wbite limestone, trap, coal shales and sandstones, and a small proportion 
of mica slate. There is but very little rock visible in it The junction 
of mica slate with the carbouiierous system is visible on the south side 
of it, in the Olenmakeeran stream, at the east boundary of the townland 
of Ballynogard, a mile and a quarter S. £. of Carey HUL White sand- 
stone, black shale, and red eaudtstone, are seen at this plaue with a dip 
of 30* N. lying unconfonnably on mica slate. Here there is also a 
whin dyke; another at the bridge near Carey Mill, and a hummock of 
Irap, apparently a part of the same mass fifty perches east of the mill. 
The miners say that these three protrusions of trap are in a continua- 
tion of the dyke, called the Great Gau, which is ten yards wide near 
Bath Lodge on the nhore ; but this may be doubted. Whin dykes ore 
plenty hereabouts, and to say that one rock of trap i« a part of another 
•een a mile off, and none to be seen between them, is too great a dia- 
ta>c«r in a country where there are often half a dozen of them in a 

From there being no rocks visible, no accoimt can be given of them 
from personal observation. The best that can be done is to record the 
borings made in this valley by Mr. Brough, on experienced mining 
engineer in 1817; and to give the result of some trials of a similar 
kind made by Mr. John Dumimore, an experienced miner sent there by 
the Lord Chancellor, in whose care the estate is vested at present. Mr. 
Dansroore kindly allowed me to copy his notes. 

Mr. Brough made several borings in the Carey valley in search of 
eo«L Of these Sir Bichanl Griffith, in his Report of the Antrim Cool 
District, gives us the details of four trials, which ho got from Mr. 
MacXcill. who was manager of the colliery at that time; but although 
he prints the results of these trials, he gives no map to show the posi- 
tions of them on the ground, nor any other means by which those posi- 
tion* can be accurately determined. It is, therefore, necessary for the 
benefit of persons that may be concerned in the mines hereafter, to have 
this part of his Report revised. To show the necessity of this, in page 
75 of the Report, the boring No. 4, in Drimadoon, is said to be threc- 
qoarters of u mile south-east of No. 3, in Borni^h, and immediately 
north nf the road. lasoortnined the spot where Mr. Brough's trial in 
Bamish had been made, and I found that the nearest part of Drimadoon 
on the road side to the site of the boring on Barnish is a mile and a quar- 


ter. Here ia an error of half a mile — no small affair vhen a man u 
lookiDg for an old coal pit. Again, in the table at p. 72, the boring 
No, 4 is shown to be 36 yards in depth ; iu the expIanatioD of the samCi 
at p. 75, he says, " It waa only sunk to the depth of aigkU*n ^Mrd*,"' 
Such work tella its own story, 

I travelled over the ground, and from the rough and inaocarata 
account before me, make the following attempt to revise the poai- 
tions of the trials, eo that a future explorer may be better able to 
find them. 

I take Carey Mill aa a well known object in the valley, and from 
this I mcaaare, on the Ordnance Map of Antrim, Sheet 9, the distance 
to the site of a boring in perchest, in a strnight line. Thus, the boring 
No. 3, in fiamish. is 207 perches south-east of the mill, in vhesoutbem 
corner of the townland. The four trials then stand thus : — 

1. The first iitin the townland of Drumohitt, eip;ht perches from 
Glenshesk River ; 1 20 perches southward from the bridge on the nor- 
thern boundar)- of the townland, and this point is 99 perches south-west 
of Carey Mill 

2. The second was made in the townland of Rgliah, close to the 
river. TJiore is no tj^nvnland called Eglish on the map. I believe this 
Eglish is Ballinaglogh — the townland on which the church is built. 
Eglish, an Irish word, means " The Church." The place would be 
80 perches west of the mill, on the north hank of the river, and close 
to it There is an Eglisli to the south, in the mica slate country, but 
cannot be the one meant 

3. The third trial was made in Bnmish. on the north bank of 
the river, and is 207 perches from the mill, in a direction a little 
to the south of c^u^t, near the south-east comer of the townland. 

4. The fourth is in Drimadoon, as stated, close to the road, on the 
north side of it I take the spot to bo at the western house, on the 
townland of those lyingclose to, and northof the old road from HuUycastle 
to Cushendall. This spot Ucs due east from Carey Mill, and 584 perrhea 
distant from it. It is 24 perches south-east of the bridge on the northern 
boimdary of the townland. 

By this plan of proceeding a mining engineer may lay down on the 
Ordnance Map of Antrim, the lines as I point them out, and a«oert«Ul 
the positions of the trials as I found them. 

Of the four trials just mentioned I have ftill confidence in the posi- 
tion of No. 3, in the south-east comer of Bamish townland, because it 
was pointed out to me by Mr. DunHmore as well known. Of No. 2, I 
am also pretty sure. In Nos. 1 and 4, I have Ices confidence, for the 
data given in the Report before alluded to are both vague and inaccu- 
rate. I have selected for these numbers spots whore triaU were most 
likely to hare been made. 

The boring marked No. 6, on Brackney, see Map, P1.XXIII., isone 
of Mr. Brough's trials. There is no record of what was done at that plaoe^ 
nnly the one, that it was not suooessftil. 



I now proceed to gire in detail the rocks passed through m the 
tEiols made by Mr. Brongh, so &r as they are known. 

Nc. 1. — J<mmdl of Boring at Drumahitty 1616. 

This place, on the Ordnance Map is 99 perches West of Carey Hill, 8 
perches to the east of Glenshesk Biver, and 120 perches southward 
team, a little bridge on the northern boundary of the townland. 

ft. in. 

1. Sor&ce soil, 10 

2. Drift, containing coal, white limestone, and whin tum- 

blers, 12 6 

3. Dark blue indurated clay, 10 

4. Cool, ^lint, 1 

5. Dark gray shale, 10 4 

6. Strong dark grey freestone, 2 6 

7. Bkck bituminous shale, with three thin layers of coal, 3 

8. Dark gray shale, with thin beds of dark freestone, . 18 6 

9. Gray ediale, nearly the same as last, but less freestone, . 16 8 

10. Bhick shale, yery soft, with coal smeet through it, . 4 

11. Bluish gray sandstone, with partings of brown shide, . 14 5 


lb. 2. — Boring in Search of Coal in EgUkk^ 80 perek$» eaat of Careg 
Mill, cloie to the River on the North Side, October, 1816. 

ft. ixL 

L Gray freestone, 5 

2. Dark shale, 11 

3. Gray freestone, 3 9 

4. Dark gray shale, 16 

5. Gray freestone, 16 

6. Dark gray shale, 18 

7- Gray firestonc, Ill 

8. Gray shale, 2 11 

9. Black slate, 3 6 

10. CW, 16 

11. Dark gray shale, 14 

13. Black slate, 6 3 

13. Dark gray shale, 6 

U. Coal, 7 

16. Dark gray shale, 1 11 

16. Gray freestone, 13 

17. Dark gray shale, 19 6 

U. Gray freestone, 4 

Carried forward, 74 


Brought forward. 



















19. Dark gray shale, 

20. Coal, 

21. Bark shale parting, 

22. Coo/ soft, . 

23. Bark gray shale, 

24. Black shale, 

25. Blae shale, 

26. Coal, 

27. Fire day, 


No. 8. — Trial in Search of Coal at Bamith, 207 pwehst ea*t of Car0jf 
Mill on the North Side of the River, and eloee to it, 1816. 

ft. ia. 

1. Sand and gravel, . 48 

2. Brown strong clay, 14 

3. Blue stone, very fine grit, with good casts of plants, 3 

4. Bluish gray shale, with thin bands of post, . 3 6 

5. Bluish gray freestone, with soft shale partings, . . 6 9 

6. Bark gray shale, ' 2 6 

7. Strong white freestone, 6 

8. Bluish gray shale, with thin layers of post, . 2 3 

9. Strong bluish gray freestone, 5 

10. Gray shale, with hard layers, 3 6 

11. Bluish gray freestone, 4 10 

12. Bark gray shale, 6 3 

13. Strong bluish gray poet, 6 

14. Gray freestone, dark, 16 

15. Bluish gray freestone, 1 10 

16. Black shale, 4 

17. Gray shale, 4 

18. Strong gray freestone, 2 1 

19. Dark gray shale, 2 4 

20. Gray freestone, 3 3 

21. Gray shale, 4 

22. Black shale, 18 

23. Gray shale, 6 5 

24. Gray freestone, 10 

25. Gray shale, 15 

26. Black shale, mixed with coal, 4 11 

27. Dark gray shale, 12 

28. Black shale, mixed with coal, 9 

29. Bark gray shale, 4 4 

30. Strong gray freestone, 6 

Carried forward, . 118 11 


ft. in. 

Brought forward^ 118 11 

81. Onyahale, 11 11 

32. Dark gray ahale, . 7 8 

33. Very dark shale, 8 6 

34. Blaiah gray shale, 8 10 

85. Coal, 4 

36. Pavement (Coal seat? ironstone), . . , II 

37. Blue shale, 16 

38. Gray shale, . ' 5 6 

39. Dark brown shale, 8 2 

40. Strong gray fireestone, 6 

41. Dark brown shale, 8 9 

42. Gray shale, 2 1 

43. Dark gray shale, ....... 9 

44. Light gray shale, 4 7 

45. Dark ]»d shale, 2 

46. White shale, 6 

47* Dark gray shale, 6 

43. Light gray shale, with white spar of lime, . . 21 5 

49. Dark red shale, 5 

60. Light gray shale, 10 

51. Light blue shale, mixed with spar, 8 11 

62. Dark gray freestone, 2 6 

63. Very strong, light brown limestone, .... 9 

64. Marl, dark parting, 12 

68l Blttii^ gray limestone, 10 

Total passed through, 213 10 

No, 4. — Boring in Search of Coal in the Lands of Drimadoon, 
January lUA, 1817. 

ft. in. 

1. Strong clay, 16 3 

2. Ghray freestone, 2 

8. Dark gray shale, 16 

4. Gray shale, 6 

5. Gray shale, 16 

6. Coal, Tery good, 10 

7. Dark gray shale, 13 3 

8. Black shale, 10 

9. Dark gray shale, 2 5 

10. CW, soft, 11 

11. Fireclay (pavement), 3 5 

12. Light gray shale, 5 

Carried forward, . 68 

». I. A, FBOC. — VOL. I. 2 IC 


' ft. in. 

Brought forward, • . 103 1 

25. Bkok shale, 4 

26. Gray Bandstone, 5 3 

27. Brown shale, 12 

28. Gray sandy shale, 3 6 

29. Brown shale, 8 6 

80. Light gray shale, 2 6 

31. Brown shale, . . - 16 

82. Dark gray shale, 5 

33. Gray sandy shale, 4 8 

Total, . 141 4 

J^o. 3. — Braehney Boring J February 16, 1858. 

ft. io. 

1. Snr&oe drift, 22 6 

2. Blue clay, 8 3 

3. Dark gray sandy shale, 10 1 

4. Light gray shale, 8 6 

5. Black shale, mixed with ironstone balls, . 19 6 

6. Coal, 9| 

7. Fire clay, 2 9 

8. Black shale, 4 

9. Coal, X \l 

10. Dark gray shale, mixed with coal, .... 1 4 

11. Fireclay, . . .' 10 

12. Dark gray shale, 4 3 

18. Fonl coal, 9 

14. Gray sandy shale, 18 4 

15. Brown sandy shale, 15 

Total, 100 n 

No, ^—Trial at Brachney, February 16, 1858. 

ft. is. 

1. Drift, composed of earth, sand, and grarel, . 31 9 

2. Soft sandstone, 12 8 

3. Light gray sandy shale, 9 6 

4. Brown shale, 3 

5. Light gray soft shale, 5 

6. Black shale, 10 

7. Coal, 14 

8. Fireclay, 2 

9. Dark gray shale, 3 6 

10. Black shale, 6 

11. Coal, 3 

12. Black shale, 9 3 

Total depth, 77 11 


Bnckncy, No. 5. The result of this trial gave a depth of 36 feet of 
sand. They bored no fiother. 

Brackn^, No. 6, is the positioa of one of Kr. Brough's trials, of 
which, as before stated, there is no record left. 

A boring was made by Kr. Dunsmore in the townland of Ballyvoy. 
The site of it is 53 perches northward from the cross roads at the 
pound, and eight perches west of the high road leading from those 
cross roads to the shore. This boring was 72 yards deep, all in sand. 

The beds of coal in the Antrim district, in ascending order, accord- 
ing to the view I take, are : — 

Murlogh Bay Division, 

ft. in. 

1. Coal, non-flaming, impure, with bands of black shale 

2 feet below the second, or 70 foot range of basaltic 

pillars, 7 or eight feet thick, say, . . . . 7 

2. CW, non-flaming, 2 feet above the second range of ba- 

saltic pillars, 2 6 

8. Coal, bituminous, Goodman's vein, further south, to- 
wards Murlogh Bay, 2 6 

4* Bituminous Coal, 6 

6. Coal, highly bituminous, white mine, .... 2 6 
6). Coal, bituminous, 10 

BtUlyecutU CoUieryt ^ Oobl Mmt, 

7. Coal, 153 feet below the main bed, .... 1 6 
& Coal, and shale, 53 feet below the main bed, . 2 
A. Impure coal, 2 feet below main bed, .... 2 

10, Coal, main bed, 4 

8(dt Pan» Colliery. 

11, Coal, 40 yards below the leyel of the sea, the bed irre- 

gular, being 6 to 9 feet thick, say, ... 6 

12, Coal, upper bed, at Bath Lodge, . . . , 2 4 

Total yet discoYered, 33 10 


RMroitpect of Bortngs in Carey Vallr 


NuQS of msit. UraL or Shaft. 





a tn. 
74 « 
97 7 
66 1 
185 10 
78 5 
46 1 

Ur. Brougb'i, Ko. 1, Dramthitt, . 
.. 2, Egliih, . - 
., 8, BaroiBh,. . 
H 4, Drimidoon« 

Mr. Duasniore'», „ 1, Brackney, . 

II n *i «i 
II « 3, ,« 
ft ti '» n 

ft. lA. 

16 11 

13 9 


6 t 


9 11 

12 8 

ft. to. 

67 6 

75 10 
69 8 

81 10 
58 U 
190 6 
75 9 
81 11 

6 b 

J D 
6 3 
6 6 
9 8 

1 7 

82 6 

671 6 

23 6 

085 7 

Carey Valley, aTenge, . . . 
Harlogfa Bay aectian, . . . 
BallycaMla, oout McdoD, . . 

10 4 

71 6 

9i( 6 


2 11 

7 6 

85 8 
267 6 
322 6 

By inspection of this table, it in Re<m timt in the 

Carey Valley section Sandstone ia to ahale = 1 to 7. 
In Murlogh Bay Sandstone is to shale » 6 : 5. 
In BoUycastlo Sandstone is to shale « 4 : 1 . 

It appears that where sandstone prevails in the coal-measures there 
is the greater chance of a good colliery ; and that the beds are thin and 
scarce where shale ia prevalent, as in Carey Valley. The same obserralion 
applies to the Monklond district, near Carluke, Lanarkshire, Scotland. 

BallTcustle has not as much coal in the amount of the section M 
Murlogh Bay ; but one bed. four feet thick, wos a profitable colliery, 
and that in a conrenient place. This is thought to be all worked out now 
above sea level ; and unless by boring below the level of the sea on the 
shore a good bed should be still discovered, which might be the cose, there 
can be little hope of any more coal being worked profitably at this plao6w 

Murlogh Bay, with two beds of good bituminous coal, two feetsiK 
inches thick each, would be a good colliery in another phico. There ia 
no shipping place, however, and five miles land carriage to Ballyeastl© 
would add b», a ton to the cost. Still thi& colliery might be worked to 
advantage, by cutting a good road irom the top, along the side of the 
cliff, down as far as the mouth of one or more adits^ to be driven into 
the coal beds, and working the colliery by such adits, as in the old 
Oobb mine. By means of this road the coals could be carried to Bolly- 
oiiatle to sell. Probably half of them would be carried away from the 
mine by the people of the country. Such a rood could be made for a 
few hundred pounds. 

Any man who knows a mine is doing good service to posterity by 
publishing an account of the excavations made in that mine. When at 
BoUycoBtle last August (18o8), I saw at Mr. Boyd's an old map, mode 
by James Williamson, in 1784. On this map was laid down, and num- 
bered, apparently with great care, the position of every shaft and 
•very adit in the coUier>' There was also a table of reference, giving 


mber of the shafts the name, and the distance irom the mouth 
pit or adit> to the coal-bed. I made a copy of this table, and 
rred the several numberB of reference to the Ordnance Map of 
I, Sheet 5. I found many of the old pits and adite laid down in 
rue positions on my map, and I marked a few that were not so, 
1 from Wiliiamson's old map. Agl do not mean to engrave this 
, have made the following table, by means of which any person 
ted can lay down the position of any or all of the twenty-six 
and levels, on s similar sheet of the Antrim map, and thus make 
of the colliery for himficlf. 

xed on Bath Lodge as a well-known object on the shore, and 
ritb tlie road passing by it eastward, give enfficient data for the 
e. Thus, to fix the place of the Low Muck shaft, No. 19, it is 
y the table that it is 360 perches east of Bath Lodge, and 36 
i ttom the nearest part of the coast-road. Taking the first line 
.us, and describing an arch, and the second parallel to the road, 
will intersect each other; the point of intersection is the posi- 
the shaft. 

ef HLne, Level, or Sb«fl. 

l)^iie pil, fn Saltpans mina« . . 
Iding shaft pit. worked 17>19, . 
trdon ftliaft pit, worked 1750, . 
r fthoft pit, worked 17G0, . . 
nlojkgccrigli, White mloe, . . 
hite mine level, or adit, . . 
t, in White roioe, .... 
ythesloae houie lerel, Faltane, 
vUk Korih SiAf o>llien', . . 
>rtli Star level, working in 1787, 
cJl mine, old level, .... 

pper Mack lev^ 

dUrd level, 

ifflii law level, 

)bb miitc, low level, .... 
*Alw>'« <)(wr, or Gobb jUrwji/, - 
trtnapve levd, ..... 

dUrd flhaft, 

m Uuck ihaft, 

oyntli »\iatt 

lane M'Aulev's ftir nhafl, . . 
iro«ibaddji«b dun, .... 


■ft. . 

Mft,«ml4ibMtbi«-k. . . . 

Name of 


8 8.W. 


. . 




24 E. 


62 E. 


91 E. 


103 K. 


110 E. 


260 E. 


291 E. 


838 E. 


858 E. 


881 E. 

Blotted off map, 

Bally voj, 

422 E. 








860 E. 


307 E. 


200 E. 


319 E. 


64 E. 


83 B. 

B rung ban lea. 

71 E. 


74 E. 























6 8. 




3 8. 


5 8. 




, . 




8 8. 



68 8. 


36 8. 


&4 3. 


40 & 


72 a 


86 fi. 


37 a 


28 a 






With regard to fossils. I had not a sufficient opportunity to get them 
in those coal rocks, hccause the works are all stopped, and nothing is 
doing now (1858). The best place to examine the black shales for 
fossils is Murlogh Bay, where, if a proper excavation wen? made in 
the roof of the coal, the result, no doubt, would be satisfactory. Two 
old adits have already been driven into the coal there, near the south 
end of the greenstone, which would facilitate a search. On a former 
occasion I examined several blocks of sandstone that full from the cliffit 
near the Gobb CoUiery, and got there some of the very finest specimens 
of Lepidodendron, many of them a foot in breudth, and well marked. 
There were also many round forms like trunks of trees, some of t hoa 
from one to two feet in diameter. 

New Reo Sawdstoxe. 
The new red sandstone underlies the chalk of the north-east 

St of ■ 
seen ■ 

Ireland generally. The bottom of it, so for as I know, is to be 
only in two places in the province of Ulster — that is, at Lissan De- 
mesne, in the county of Tyrone, and at Cushendall. The cong-lome- 
ratc, which is general at the base of it, in both these places is composed 
of pebbles of the adjacent rocks, mixed up with red sand, and all har- 
dened. At Lissan the pebbles ore ongiilar, and of the same kind of red 
granite which occurs a short distance to the north of it. Ilere there ia 
a large greenstuno protrusion between the granite and the new red con- 
glomerate ; and it is remarkable, that a single pebble of the greenston« 
could not be fonnd in the conglomerate, although it is the rock imme- 
diately underlying it— a fact which leads to the conclusion, that the 
greenstone is more recent than either the granite or the New Red 

At Cushendall the pebbles are mostly of the same kind of reddudi 
and bluish porphyry, on which it rests, with many pebbles of mica 
slate, the native rock of which is not in contact here, but exists in the 
country a mile and a half to the west There ace also some pebbles 
of brown granite rock in the conglomerate, and similar pebbles are nn- 
merous both in the porphyry, and in the brown Silurian grit to the 
north. This conglomerate is well exposed on the shore, to the north 
of Rcdbay Castle. The pebbles of porphyry, which ore numerous, and 
of mtca slate, which are few, range from nine inches in diametar 

The new red sandstone is most developed in the vicinity of Bel- 
fast There, south of the liivor Lagan, it joins tbe old grauwacke of 
the northern part of the county of Down, and the manner in which 
they join is worthy of obsen-ation. The junction is first visible on the 
south shore of Belfast Lough, two miles south-east of Holy wood : oppo- 
site to this village it i» half a mile wide, extending southward to the 
base of the steep grauwacke ridge, which lies there. From tliis place 
it joins the grauwacke as far as Warringstown, three miles south-west 
of Magheralin, a distance of 26 miles. At the eastern end of this red 
tandstone, beyond Cultra, it dips at about an average angle of 10* 




north-west. At LarganviUe» 20 milefl south-west of thi!^ and a mile 
and a half sonth-east ofMoira, it dips north-west at irom 3° to 6^. 
Again, from Waringston westward, the gniuwackt? joins trap Ud far as 
Rich Hillt t«n miles; next limcstono south of Lougbgull. three miles, 
and then old red sandstone to Armagh, two miles. Aft^r that it is 
in contact with carboniferous limestone, which continues by Middle- 
ton, Honaghan. and CloncB, to join the great limestone district about 
Loagh Erne, I go into these detail* to show that there may be either 
of two conditions existing along this line of junction; the first that 
there may be a fault along the north-west margin of the grauwacke from 
Hollywood to Armagh, a dititance of above 40 miles. The chief ar- 
gument in favour of this view is the kind of succession at the surface 
that occurs in passing westward over the country on the north side 
of this junction; there is new red sandfitone, trap, mountain lime- 
stobe, old red sandstone. The other view of this case is, that as it 
•tands it may be without a iault. The dips along the junction are all 
at a low angle to the north-west, away from the grauwacke, the usual 
way in Ireland alon^ scores of miles of such junctions. In this case the 
carbooiferous sea was deep at Armagh at the time of the deposition of 
the limestone there, but very mucli duept-r at Hollywood, where, by the 
tmul miocesfiion, the limestone must be 2000 feet below the surface, ao 
M to have room over it for the coal-measures, and part of the new red 
wndntnTir. which are at sea level there. These upper rocks may have 
been deposited at a low angle^ having their outcrop resting against a 
■tecf old aea ahore at Comber, and according as they were deposited one 

^^^prind op the other, and none but the last appeared at the surface ; 

^^Ki last, covering up all the others along this junction* and oonoooling 

^VB the outcrops. 

A» I have already stated, this rock appears to b© most developed in 
the vicinity of Belfast. On the southern shore of Belfast Lough some 
dialocated patches of the mognesian limestone aro visible, and even a 
HmU Area of the top of the coal-measures, which immediately underlie 
tfuMB, appears on both sides of the little pier at C ultra. From the west 
iid« of the coal-measures at this place, in the new red Bondstone, the 
hedt have a low dip westwards, which continues as far as rock is vi- 
able tit low water towards Belfast. The coarse conglomerate which is 
wuUy found to exist at its base is not to be seen at the base of the 
nd rocks here joining the coal series; hut the locality is much dia- 
locttted, and penetrated by whin dykes, and there is probably a fault 
on the west side of the coal-measures, in which the conglomerate is 

The whole formation in other countries is composed of oonglome- 

nf'* in thv lower part, red sandstone in tho middle, and soft red maris 

r part. In this locality, though we cannot sec tho lower, 

und the upper parta are well developed, and agree with the 

dMoription above. 

X. A. PUOC. — VOL. X. 3 91 



The red sandstone is yisible near the Botanic Garden, and in many 
places about the town of Belfast ; at Bonmurry quarries hare been 
worked in it for the milway bridges, which afford very good building 
stone. Good building flags are also got in it near Carrickfergus, and many 
other places. 

From Belfast the new red sandstone continues in the face of 
the hills, under the chalk, above Dunmurry and Lisbum, and along 
the valley of the Hirer Lagan to Moira. About Mugheramesk, in the 
nppcr part it is mostly soft, and reddish brown, alternating with 
slaty and gray calcareous marls: it has a similar appearance in the 
valley of the Forth, near Belfast, at Woodlmm Glen, near Carrickfer- 
gus, and at Chichester Castle, in Island Mngce. In all these plaoea 
those upper red marls bear veins of a delicately white iibroua gypsum. 
The new red sandstone continues northward, and is seen on the shore 
at Ballygolly Head, at Bally gilbert, at Cam lough, tiarron Point, and 
at Red Bay, where it ends, and turns inward in a western direction, 
round the base of Lurrig Mountain, to Cloghglass Qlen at station No. 23 
of the Chalk Table (see p. 269), where it ends. 

The thickness of the new red sandstone in Antrim is very various. 
If the section were mea*»ured from Cultra, where the base is probably 
not at the surface, to the white rock quarry (limestone), two mile* 
west of Belfast, it would probably exceed 3000 feet ; but the low 
westerly dip may not be persistent about the mouth of the Lagan, 
where the strata are covered up, and a disturbance there would de- 
range any calculation. Taking the section at Belfast, it is three miles 
from the quays to the Whiterock quarry, and this, with an average dip 
of 5°, would make the thickness 2700 feet in that section. At Duncme* 
near Carrickfergus, a trial was made for coal, and a shaft sunk 920 
feet through red strata and salt : from the bottom of this shaft a boring 
was continued 600 feet more, making a total of 1520 feet, without 
meeting coal. I shall say more of this place presently. 

Neither at Belfast, Carrickfergus, or Lame, nor anywhere I kziow 
on the east coast, till we come to Red Bay, is the bottom of this rock to 
be seen. At Knockan's cross-roads, at the northern base of Lurrig 
mountain, near Cushendall, where it lies on reddish and bluish porphyry, 
it is only 500 feet in thickness. Here the outcrop takes a south-west 
direction up the valley of the Bollyeemin River; and at three miles 
eonth-west of Cushendall it thins out rapidly to nothing, and we see 
no more of it westwards, although the overlying chalk continues; but 
in this course the chalk rests on mica slate. 

Salt. — About the year 1 850, the Marquis of Downshire got trials made 
in search of coal at Duncme, two miles north-west of Carrickfergua, 
by sinking through the new red sandstone there. It was probably 
thought the sandstone might not be thick, that they would soon get 
through it, come upon the coal-measures, which lie next b-^low it, uid 
there work a coal mine, as has often been the case in England. They 
failed to find coal, but they found salt. The first shaft sunk at Dim- 
^rae was at 280 feet above sea level. In 1 852, the details of the stntii 



through at that time (copied lately, 1858, from the official book) 

were :■ 

1. Clay and red gypseous marls, . 

2. Salt rock, ' . . . 
5. Clay, in thin beds, red and blue, 

4. Salt rock, . . , , 

5. Clayey marl, red and blue, 

6. Salt rock, very good. 



6 8 




772 8 


After thalf the old shaft was sunk below the bottom of the salt, 
atill in soaroh of coal, to the depth of 920 feet, and they bored from the 
bottom of the shaft downwards by a borehole 600 feet more, making a 
total of 1520 feet. At this depth they were 1240 feet below the level 
of the aea. 

The first shaft was abandoned and the present one sunk, where tho 
salt is raided, 43 perches foxther down the hill suuth-eust. It stands at 
3-10 feet tihoYii the Ordnance sea Icvch The bottom of the salt excavation 
is 550 feet below the surface, and therefore 310 feet below sea level. 
The works are going on successfully. The salt beds are reported to lie 
coaftvnnably between the accompanying beds here, and not in lenticular 
BiMKs, as is mostly the case. The rock salt is of a very superior de* 
acriptioD, yielding from 95 to 98 per cent, of the pure salt of commerce. 
Sooe of the beds are of a beautiful bluish colour, others ore brown, 
nsoe white, and some red. The sotl red and brown clays often lend 
Ihm tint to any lump they come in contact with. 

Tlicy raised, in 1857, 22,438 tons of rock salt; of this 4,877 tons of 
white salt were manufactured at tit4t»st, principally for curing purposes 
and for butter. The rest was exported to England, and various foreign 
ports by vessels requiring return cargoes. 

In workin;^ here they excavate galleries sixty feet wide, and leave 
pillars thirty feet wide between them. A gallery is excavated in three 

ca, each about fiUeen feet in height, the whole cleared away being 
fhua forty-five feet high, sixty feet wide, the length not yet known. 

A trial was made by the Salt Company, near the shore at Carrick- 
fsrrgus, sixty feet above the sea, apparently for the double advantage of 
bciug nearer to the railway station, and from being on a lower level, 
the probability of being nearer to the salt, so that there would be less 
expense in lifting it to the surface. Here a shaft was sunk 760 feet, 
when the work was overpowered by on influx of water. So far as 
they went there was no regular layer of salt found, but merely some 
thin strata, with a trace of salt Those thin beds occurred at about one- 
third of the way down. These particulars 1 have from Mr. Robert 
Smith, £ngineer to the Harbour Commissioners. Belfast, to whom, for 
much kindness in this matter, I am most thankful. 





t&ot vith, and adhering to, protniBions of greenBtone. The pari not 
hardened has been wubhed away. It would not probably be known here, 
being 60 liko the grocnstonc in aspect, only for the Ammonites and other 
lias foasUs which it contains.* 



The Groensand of Antrim, like the chalk, is thin, compared with 
the English equivalent. It is well known to the men who quarry 
the white limestone, for, when they go down to it, they stop, and go no 
deeper; they call it " mulatto." It is not used for economical purposM, 
except a litUe, as freestone for scouring furniture, by the country people, 
or sometimes as sand for mortar. In the stream at Collin Well quarr)*. 
it is about 35 feet in thickness, and if there be any lias here, it mu»t 
be only a few feet, for the red marls are visible a few feet below this 
rock. The clearest section is at the White rock quarry, two miles west 
of Belfast. 

There, at the base of the chalk is Qrecnsand, 1 feet thick. 
Hard brownish wliite sandstone in beds, . 10 feet. 
Greensand, 10 feet. 

Total, .... 30 

Below this everything is covered up with drift 

Woodbum river, two miles west of Carrickfergus, affords a good 
section, and is a good place lor getting the fossils. 

A t White Head there is a bunch of grecnsond strippcsl about 50 feet 
long, and six feet high clearly exposed. There is more below this, bat 
it is concealed by a talus of loose materials. It is visible here in four 
or five places, bat no good place occurs to measure the whole. Near 
Waterloo Houae, a mile north-east of Lame, a pretty good section of it 
is on the shore. At Glenarm it is not visible ; for where it enters the 
sea, the shore is in such a state, covered by knolls of ohalk that tumbled 
down irom the outrrop of that rock, that it is not visible ; nor is there 
sny other good section of it seen, that I know, for miles from this plooe 
to AuJtmorc river, two miles south* west of Cuaheudall, where it is only 
eight inches thick. 

The lias (except at Lame) is generally very insignificant in thick- 
ness, and the greensand still more so ; in fact they occupy so little 
horiiioutal space, that unless exaggerattnl, they would not appear upon 
the map at alL Their position ia known, of course, by the outcrop of 
the chalk, which accompanies them at the surface everywhere. 

* 8« Dr. RichardioD'i paper on tbbRock ia the "Tranuctioiu of the Royal 
Academy," vol.ix., p. 22 ; and the Dbcusaion between Sfr B. GnlSth and Ur. Bxyci^ 
ia 1B35. " Jounut ofihe Dubtin Geolosioal Society," vol.i., p. 166. 


Ghalk, ox Wans. LmisToyE. 

In examinui^ a cotrntry geologically, where there are varieties of 
ki it is a great advantage, na a help towards determining the rela- 
iioos of the different parts, to tind one hand or bed remarkable for 
some physical diffc'rence from those which act^ompony it, and follow that 
out through the whole district, so ftir oa it can be done. For this pur- 
poee, among the rocks of Antrim the Chalk affords au eligible index of 
this kind. There are two circumatancea connected with it favourahlo 
for this pQipose. The first is ita general outcrop, about midway from 
the bottom to the top of the steep escarpment which occurs along near 
the east coast of the county* all the way from Lisburn to Cushendnll, a 
distance of 40 miles : the second is its very white colour, which makes 
a atrong contrast with the black overhanging precipices of trap^ by 
which it can be recognised for several miles by laud or by aea within the 
range of vision. 

The chdk of Antrim, as a whole, is indurated, and much harder 
than the chalk of England. It is called in the country white lime- 
stone — a name even more familiar to me than chalk. 

tfy observation leads me to the conclusion that the chalk waa laid 
down upon an uneven bed, because, although we &nd it in many places 

of nearly equal thickness, and only a slight inclination from the hori- 

I^^HBtl, yet in other places it is very thin, which argues a shallower sea 
^^^^K>se places, and of course a higher sea bottom, while in other loca- 
^^^^Bthere is no chalk at all, showing either that those porta were over 
^I^HB at the time of the deposition of the mass, or that it was first do- 
f fSBbd over the whole area, and afterwards those bare parts elevated 
to tht mrfacc' of tlie ocean, or near it, and then denuded. 

Hero I speak only of the thick and thin parts of the chalk and 
where there is none. Those three cases occur at nearly the same level, 
at stations No. 6, 22, and 23, on the map (see PI. XXlI.)i and the fol- 
lowing liible. This table has been made for the purpose of explaining 
th* outcrop of the chalk more clearly. Other localities there are where 

Etbe chalk is 200 feet thick at sea level, as it is at elation ^o. 37. It is 
jpnly three feet thick at No. 26, which is 400 feet higher, and at No. 5, 
irber« it is 1 30 feet, at 680 feet above the sea. 
There appears to be no rule by which we can expect it to be thick 
0t thin, liigh or low in any locality. Subsequent dislocation has pro- 
^ahly acted upon it in such a way as to baffle any attempt at ^ptou- 
hting in this way. 

The surface of the carboniferous rocks in the bottom of the ocean, 
prrrionely to the deposition of iho new red sandstone, appears to have 
been uneven in the county of Antrim. Otherwise the accumulation of 
thia rock at Belfast^ which exceeds 2000 feet, as already stated, and 
%t Oaocrue and llod Hall, near Carrickfergus, where it has been 
bored to nearly an equal depth below the overlying chalk, would be so 
much greater than it is at Cushendall, whore the very hose of it is 
visible, and where, a mile or two west of this place, it thins out to 
nothing- The hollows having been filled up with the red sandy deposit, 
the upper surface has been brought more nearly to an even plane than 


tho lowor, and thus was prodaoed a more level bed for the chalk than 
there had heen for the new rod sandstone. The chalk, indeed, in ge- 
neral does affect a horizontal position^ both in the main body, and in 
localities where detached patches of it exist. 

The greatest tliiuknesa we know of the chalk of Antrim ia at White- 
park, near Ballintoy, where it ia visible about 210 feet thick over sea 
level ; but to show its thickness at many localities I have made the fol- 
lowing tabular form. In it I shall follow the rock through its nndola- 
tionSf as seen along near the coast, and compare it in its course with 
the level of the sea. In this table the heights of the upper surface of 
the chalky above the Ordnance sea level, are recorded at stations, which are 
marked upon the Map of Antrim, PI. XXTI., at every four or five miles 
asunder, as a quarry or a natural opening presented itself, I consider 
this form, and the numbers predxed in each case, useful for reference. 
Tho first column shows the number of the station; the second is its 
name ; the third is the height of the chalk at tho upper surface over 
sea level ; the fourth Is its thickness at each station so far as it can be 
either measured or estimated with facility : the fifth column is the 
height of the nearest hill or mountain, where the thickness of the over- 
lying trap may be found at any station ; the sixth ia the height of 
mountain above sea level; the seventh is the thickness of the trap 
in that mountain. At many of the stations the thickness of the chalk 
could not be made out with accuracy, on account of the base of the 
rock being covered up with a talus, or it^ not being quarried to the 
bottom :— . 

Table, nhoicinff the Heiffhts of the upper Surface of the Chalk abov0 Sm 
L«vel^ at c&rtain Locnlitie/i, together u?tlh its Thicknesi, wltere aita$»' 
ahU : aUo thtu Heights of the adjacent Moimtaintt and th^ Tkiebmi 
cfih« Jia$alt. 

County of Antrim, 



LocftUty of SutloD. 


Clan, \ mile S. £. of Moirt, 
BAlmer'i gUn, 2 milet N. E. ) 

of Moin, . . . 
Au«hn»hoiiKh, BmiloN.W 

f«f l^Hliurn, f 

Collin Well qu>m', 4 mileil 

8. W. of ItolfMt, . . . / 
White Rock quarry, 3 miles i 

W, of nrtfait, .... J 
BallygomsrtiD, 2 mllefK.W. \ 

br W. of BelCut, . . . ) 










Nstnpnf adjacent 


No hill aear, 

Speitce'a fort, 

While Mounuin, 


Blick Venatatn, ST., 






830 370 




LAcalitr ri SiatSon. 








14 : 



17 I 


BallyBintn, ^ mUes N. W. \ 

oTBelfkBt, .-...] 
CftTohitl, 4 mika N. of Bel- ) 

fait, i 

Kilroot, 2 miles N. of Car- ) 

rickftrgiu, ] 

Roi7'« Glen, S milae W. of i 

I«ne, J 

SeHagfa, 4 mUe« N. W. ofj 

Lerne, / 

Ballrgilbert, 4 miles S. E. i 

of Glensnxif ) 

Glenirm, north kicundaof the i 

little deerpsrk, on thora | 

E. of Glenann, . . . . ) 
Oortio, ^ mile N. W. ofi 

Carnloagb, ) 

SUte House, between Noe. \ 

14 and 16, ) 

Ganon Point, 6 miles N. E. 1 

of Glensrm, ) 

Tamlaght, 2 miles S.E. of\ 

Cushendall, ] 

Bftraghilly, 4 miles S. of 

Cusheodall, at east side of 


Same place, Iiigh up on wnt \ 

•ide, ] 

Kilmore, 2| miles S. oft 

Cttsbendflll, ) 

Lnrrig, I mile S. W. off 

Cushendall, j" 

Northern outcrop af the Chalk 
frttnt Ctahmdail tcesttcard 
to Beneroaghan. 

Lorrig Mountain, as just 1 

Btaied, .... 1 

Ailtnorc bndt;e ttn nid roi'l, \ 

2ini]ea S. W.of Cushpudall, ) 
Clogfaglass Glen, 3 miles 1 

S.W. of Cushendall, . . / 
GnitDJigroBPi ijuarrv, 3 miles i 

S.W. i>f Ctwli^iij^lall. . .) 
Tierebnllisgh, 3 miles W. of » 

Cushendall, f 

Edwiy, 4 miles W. of Cush- 1 

esdall, ] 


{ o o 














Squire^s Hill, 





„ I Ko hill near, 
Agnew's bill, 
No bill near. 

170 170 Little Deerpark, 


460 1 „ Scary hill, 

320 „ Nachore, 

320 100 Top of cliffs, 

300 1 „ Carneal, 

80 „ Skirt Lough, 

600 ! „ j Lurgethan, S., 
700 „ j Lurgethan, a end, 
940 80 I Lurgethan, N. end, 














Trostan Mountun, 
No hill near, 



i 7«4 







1804 604 
1154 214 

1154 I 214 

E.I. A. PEOC. — VOL. X. 













CuflZieiidiiJI:, * . , .j 

/fl ihe ime eoimtrjt weH of ih* 


Ballyknock, 4 miles S. oC 
Annoy, in n trial pit, . . 

Corkey, near Cbeck^ HbII^ G 
mile^ S. ofArfnoy, and 3 
milM N. of Clottgh millSj 
two piU, for ttiAl, . . . 

CardfecRsLie] quarriw, 3 
nuilea S. of Amoyt ■ 

Loacbill quurHJet, ^ mile S 
Armoy, .... * 

Ballenjf 1 mUe N- of Armoy 
and 6 miles S, W. of Bui 
Ijeude, ..... 

Tht Knocklfiyd Tahte Land. 


KnocKkrd, W, aide, 9 mllAt 
S. of iliUlycaiiCle, . 

Bally pHtricli^ b nules S. E. 
of Bally caatle, oa raad 
side lo Cnahendnl], * . 

CiLTTiLeA, 6 ruUefl EL of Bal- 
(yeosUe, ...... 

West Tnrr, 6 miliH E. of 
BaUycutldt ..... 

Larry Bane Head, perpcntli- 
ci^ar cliff, ..... 
Eallintoy, At tlie village, 
Tbe Priut'a ho]£, in the white 
rockfl} on tbe coast roAd 
aide, 2 mils £. of Port- 










No hill n**r, 


f Chalk at tba anr- 
\ facfi, no trup, 
I Chalk at the tur- 
r faoe, DO trrnp, 

r Chalk at the mr- 
\ UcOy no trap, 



,, I Carnlei, 

I, Without trap, 





FflBL . Fed. 
136S IT4 


At shoru. 

202 BAllintoy lull, 


r No remarkable hill ; i 
\ unequal Surface, | 

























_ „ 

Cmmif pfZmiomimrry. 



S. K. of 

Bin, 6«ilMS.S. 

«f Ml ■ III ■ iiliwt t«dy, . . 
r, 11 nlM H. B. oT 

, 1 

1 ii : Caibn, 10 ibOm N. £. Qi\ ! 
















SUIT* GsIBoa, 
top of tnp^ 


Sdcn MomUain, 

(' tail 





{ I DM^CTcnag^ 



1 1996 









immm Umgk Sm^ md Om i 
hmm tf SBem GWSm «A« , 
OktJk if fmmrrudm aewtrmi . 
fUttt: tke M gk t wmtwkkhii • 
J $immdam»omu«fikemttr€: — 

41 I OumMD, 3 milea N. of Ho- ) 

19 .GcrugiBr, 1} mUes N. oft 

HonejiDon^ . } ' 

90 . TBBlaght, 8 mite S.£. of j 
Hoocf mmre, . . . . / 
U I BaUrwhcdan, 1^ mils N. of j 

j StwartatovB, . . . , / < 
St I Monantain, 1 mile 8. E. of t ' 
' Stcwaitttown, . . . . / 

300 ' 

176 • 


185 i 

300 i 





The thickness of the basalt in the preceding table was determined in 
thit way : — ^Where the chalk lies level, take the height of the chalk 
fian t2^ hei^t of the sommit of the numntaiii, the remainder ia the 
tfaiekneoB of the basalt. Where the chalk dips inwards under the 
■iwwft"^" at a low angle, the angle of the dip, and the distance of the 
ne ai u st limestone quarry to the summit, were taken, and from thoae 
two items a third item was made out, that is the amoant pezpendicu- 


larly under the summit of tbe mountain that the phine of the dip was 
lower than a horizontal plane passing through tho same place ; this 
third item was added to the difference of height, made out by eub- 
tnicting tlie height of the chollc &om the height of the sammit, and 
the TCffult waa token as the thickness of the basalt. 

It ie not pretended that tho thickness of the baaalt at erery locality 
is strictly accurate. O^ving to the faults and downthrows we see to exist 
in the chalk in every direction, as well aa the occasional change where 
tho direction of the dip does not aim at the motintoin summit, there 
was neoesaarily some moditieaLion aa to the quantity of the angle. This 
latter oobo seldom happened, and it is hoped the thicknesses are pretty 

It will be obserred by inspection of this t«ble, and oomparing the 
Antrim outcrop on the cast side from the station No. 1 to No. 20, w^th 
tho Derry outcrop on the west from No. 39 to No. 47, that in tbe east- 
em outcrop the chalk is three or four times as thick ae it is on the 
west. The greatest thickness at station No. 5, the White rock, and No. 
13, Glenarra in Antrim, is 130 and 170 feet respectively, while tho 
greatest in Derry, at Keady, No. 4G, is 33 feet, and at Umbra, No. 48, 
is 60 feet. In fact it grows thinner rapidly us it proceeds to the weat — 
a physical defect, 1 am sorry to say, that afTocts our coal- mcaaurea in 
Ireland, ob compared with England, as well as our obalk. 

In the foregoing Table there is no room for some neoesaary details 
regarding the localitioa selected. I deem it therefore necoasary to 
make a few observations on the outcrop of the chalk ; and in doing so, 
to avoid returning again and again to the same place, I shall notti any 
peculiarity worthy of remark, regarding the rocka in contact with the 
ohalk above and below — that is the basalt, and the greensand, &» well 
as the clialk itself. I shall follow the order of the numbers in tbo 

1. ^t Clare, near Hoira, the thickness of tho chalk in the quarry is 
62 feet, and the overseer says there are 1 feet more under them to 
the mulatto or greensand, which they came to in another jiart of the 
quarry, making tho whole thickness 62 feet. There is no trap on the 
chalk here, and it may bo inferred from the dip, and the ground rising 
to the north towards the town, that there may be a further accumu- 
hition of the beds to the north, under tlie coat of drift whif^h is 20 feet 
thick. If this be so, the thickness of the chalk here is grcat^^r than 
what I have given in the Table, 

Paramoudras, nr supposed fossil sponges of large size — say from 20 
inches to 2 feet high, and about 15 inches in diameter — occur here rather 
plentifully. It has been said that tbcy are found in vertical rows, one 
over the other, in the quarry, but it is not eo. 1 saw two specimem 
together in this position, in tho perpendicular face of the quarry, whore 
thero WAS room for many ; but, as a general rule, they are dissemiiiatad 
without any regular order — often three or four yards aseunder. There 
are two or thrw trap dyk***? tn the quarry, and as usual the rhalk i« 
ttltcred in immediate contact with them — sometimes made ycIlowtJih, 







Iways hard. One runs in n nouth-caat direction 
to the excavation. It is on the west side 18 feet 
wide at Uie top, and 30 feet lower down it h only 3 feet. Another 
appears by its direction to cut this at right angles. It is 6 yards thick, 
and is a mixture of trap, dints, pieces of chalk, and red sandstone, all 
cemented into a very hard soUd maw, trap and flints pruduminatin^. 

I have just stated that there is no trap overlying the chalk at 
Moira, as it does in general; there arc about 18 square miles ol the 
county in this condition in the vicinity of Aloira, Lurgan, and Porta- 
down, outside the south end of the trap district. 

2. BflUynahu^, or Bolmer's Glen, is about two miles north*east of 
Xo. I. At this quarry about 50 ft-et in thickness of the limestone is 
TiaiUe, but it has not been quarried to the bottom, and it may be 20 feet 
more lower than the bottom of the present excavation, or 70 feet in all. 
e rock here dips west 3". A whin dyke, about 5 feet wide, runs acroas 
tlie entmnce of this quarry, and cuutinues in the same way through 
, which lies a few perches to the south of this one. This dyke 
ibeen noted of old for yielding fuller's earth, part of which was 
to Dublin for economic use. This iuUer's earth is decomposed 
tnp. Some of the whin dykes are of very hard trap — some so soft that 
they could be shoveJled away as easily as sand. Some of it Is like 
snuff in colour, and between the Augers the fuller's earth at Balmer's 
Glen is of this brown impalpable dust. The dyke in which it occurs is 
ridrd verticflUy into irregular lenticular masse?, red, j'ellow, brown, 
Ibck. sotl or hard. This dyke is soft at the sides, but in the middle 
l|M '* a heart as hard as any wheenstone.*' 
fit all places where the chalk is exposed, from the trap having been 
ved, the top of it is worn into holes, as if by the action of 
Those holes arc from 3 to 1:2 inches in diameter, and about 
half aa deep ; they arc often filled with rounded tlints, from three to four 
ioefaea in diameter, mostly of a red colour, but a few ore gray. There is 
a bed of red impalpable clay iraracdialely over the chalk, and between 
k and the lower bed of trap, which buries or encloses mosi of the flint 
pebbles The red clay bed seldom exceeds two feet thick, but it is 
variable. >'ear Bell'jist it is from one to two feet thick. CoL Portlock 
ys he found it 13 feet thick at Magilligan. 

The chalk has not been made cryHtalline at the top, where it 
derliee the trap, and is nearly in contact with it, as we see it where 
oomes in contact «ith whin dykes. The reason of this appears to be, 
Ifaat thongb the crap might have been emptied in a semifluid state, the 
bed of red clay just mentioned, when wet, or even if nearly dry. would 
protect the cJxalk from the eUcCt of tbe overlying red hot tnip, until it 
became cool, which the first single layer would soon do in the bottom 
of an ocean. In making caatingi* of iron, the red hot. metal does not 
niter the moist sand of the mould into which it is poured. 

The late Dr. Mac Donnelly of Ikdfust, was the first who noticed and 

to others that the top of the chalk was not altered where it camo 

,to oontact with the trap, ns he had observed it to be, in junction with 


whin dykea. In his prolcasiomil pursuits he travelled much in the 
counties of Antrim, Down, and Armagh. In every journey through 
the country he noted uU he saw of minerals, foasila, rocks, or plants, 
and an excellent observer ho waa. Every scientific stranger visiting 
Belfast was made freely welcome to the use of his notes and his 
knowledge, wbith he 9<^emfd to have a delight in communicating. He 
was intimate with Hamilton, and Richardson, lYiil, Allan, and 
Dubourdieu, each of whom added hia mite to the geolopoal knowled^ 
of that period. When Berger and Conybeare, and Buckland and 
Griffith came the way, he was always ready and willing to direct their 
stepH to where thrre was any fact in his vicinity worthy of being seen, 
and he knew all the localities of interest in the country. He thus, by 
bringing many inteiltcLs to beiu- upon those facts, did more good to the 
geology of the North of Ireland than any man of his day, though hi* 
own name does not figure in the scientitic literature of that time. He 
was one of the most amiable, liberal, and benevolent of men. Uii 
memorj- will be cherished during life by all who were acquainted with 

The chalk in Balmer's Glen, like that at Moira, is not covered over 
by trap, but about five chains to the west of it there must be a wide vent 
to send out such a heap as there is, 60 or 80 feet in thickness, over the 
chalk. The basalt here presents a perpendicular face, about five yards 
high ; it in very hard, and is broken for the roads, and an excellent road 
materia] it is, making a strong contrast to the basalt in other places, 
which is not good for roads. 

3. Aughnahough, four miles north-east of No. 2. or three miles 
north-west of Lisbum. At this place the chalk has been worked ex- 
tensively heretofore, but apparently at very great expense, and with very 
little judgment. The openings were made near the top, close under the 
basalt, and to tho west of the road from Lisbnrn to Glenavy vaat heapt 
of quarried trap were wheeled away, to get a little limestone. In one 
place 30 feet of basalt have been removed, and 10 or 1 2 feet of limestone 
got out from under it. If the quarry had been opened at the baae of 
tho chalk, which is there 70 or 80 feet thick, a vast deal of limestone 
could have been got, without removing any basaltic oover, for sootw of 
ye&TR, and all the excavation would be profitable aa limestone. No 
limestone is raised at this place now. Here a layer of ba^^lt lies orer 
the chalk, about 10 feet thick, and over this another layer of the same 
thickness. The layers are irregular. This basalt is of the kind called 
"Wack^;" it is very soft, and of a brownish-black colour; it decom- 
poses ou exposure to the weather, like some coal shales, which it very 
much resembles in a-spect, with the exception that it has no stratifi- 
cation. Over this soft stuff, which ranges in the face of tho hill, at 
both sides of the road, over the chalk, as jost stated, from 15 to 30 ftM)t 
in thickness, is a layer of hard ba^ialt, which is tumbled down fmui tho 
top of the quarry, and brokon for the roads — indeed it is carried down 
to the neighbourhood of Lisburn, two or three miles, for that purpose, 
and forms the finest road motul found anywhere. It in curious to 



flpecixkle why it is a good road metal lying on the chiillt in one quarry, 
and worthiees a» such lying on it in another, when we consider that the 
ruck at buUi places bos the samt' component ports ; but even here, as I 
have stated, without comparing two quarries tour miles asunder, a hard 
layer lies over, and in contact ^'ith a soft one, in the same quarry. 

In another quarry here, about a furlong north of the road, near a 
flrmnll houae at Aughnohough (Fig. 1 ), there are tivo whin dykos, cutting 
rough the chalk, which have left their mark ic a singular way. At 
e side of every dyke there ia a wall-like mw^ of altered chalk, standing 
apiigfat in the quarry, ^m 6 to 10 feet in height, and 18 inches to 
2 feet thick. The quarrymen did not remove these walls, as they 
consist of dolomite, and are not tit for lime. Some of it ia phos- 
phorescent when heatod. The ordinary chalk was excavated from 
between the dykes, and carried away, and, as ju»t stated, the wall-like 
muaes left standing. The black trap has been decompo6ed, and fell away 
from about them. The limestone qtiarrics here have nine or ten whin 
dykes risible ; but those five, in tha short space of a few yards, suggest 
the idea that the trap of Antrim came up through fissures, and there 
appears to be plenty of them for the purpose of eruption. They are 
niuallj from 5 to 10 feet thick. There is no greensand risible in 
any of these quarries. Its place is at the bottom of the limestone, 
which has never been worked through. Between the two quarries on 
north side of the road there is a downthrow to the north of about 

Whin Dyket uwl PtlUn of Dolomite id Chilk at Aughuhough. 

Ballycollin. The quarry here is called Collin Well Quarry, It 

ft pretty large supply of limestone to the countr}' over the 

noontaioft westward, towards Glenavy and Crumlin. The limestone 

Imto meftsure« 50 feet in thickness, but the bottom is not satisfactorily 

sees, and it has a dip west of 10^ so that it may be 60 or 70 feet. The 

^^rocsiaaiid is risible in the stream adjacent, and it measures there about 

^^Bfi feet thick. About nine-tenths of it here is calcareous matter. The 

^^ontact of the greensand with the underlying rock is not clear, but red 


Rondstone appears a few yards below it, in the bankfi of the stream, 
uud ulao in u new road cutting close to the plaoe. lu Collin Glen, one 
milo to the Dorth of thifl, the ohulk and the greensand arc expDfied in 
the river, above the bridge, and there is also a band of a few feet thick 
of liaA under the mulatto etone. 

Examples of the conversion of chalk into ^anular marble, by the 
contact of a whin dyke, may be seen at the southern boundary of Bally- 
murphy, threc-quurters of a mile south of the White Koek Quarry. 
No. 5, in a ravine, to which the late Dr. Mac Donnell gave the name of 
Allan'R Ravine, in honor of a friend of his, a mineralogist, Mr. Allan. 
of Edinburgh. The chalk is often altered as much as 8 or 10 fe«t 
irom the whin dyke, and it is nltered in ditfereut degrees In this one, 
at Allan's Ravine, it is first coarsely crj-stallinc next the trap, tht?n 
saccharine^ then more loose and sandy -looking, then bluish gray, and 
compact, and next common ehidk. The altered chalk is phosphorescent 
when heated. A mass of chalk inclosed in a whin dj'ke at Balmer's 
tilen, No. 2, is altered in a similar way. So it is in a remarkable degree 
in contact with the large columnar protrusion of trap, on the top of 
Ballygalley Head, on the shore opposite to Ko. 12. At Olcnarm there 
IB a singular com|>ound dyke, consisting of three branches, which cuts 
throng the chalk, and includes masses of it, which ore altered in a 
similar way to that above described. 

6. The White Kock quarry, opposite to Belfast, is three miles north- 
east of No. 4. The chalk here is 130 feet thick, and both the top and the 
bottom of it are well exposed. The dip is 6" west, and as the face of the 
rock slopes backward, an allowance for both slope and dip ia made in 
measuring the thickness. There is in this quarry a slip, or fault, with 
a downthrow of about 30 feet to the south. The greensand herr is 
visible ; the upper part green sandy rock, with the usual fossils abont 
10 feet, then a buff-coloured, ratherhard sandstone; 10 feet below, green 
sandy rock again, about 10 feet; in all, 30 feet visible ; but there may bo 
more risible under this, as the rock at the base is covered with rubbish 
fallen from above. The greensand again appears in an old excavation, 
about 12 chains north of this quarry. It is but a small pit, dug up aa 
" freestone," for scouring furniture by the country people. 

A mile to the south of the WTiite Rock quarry, in Ballymoney, in 
the flioe of a limestone quarry lately opened, there are four trap dykes in 
about 30 yards of the length. One of them has a branch or fork (see 
Fig. 2). To this fact, as well as to the five dykee mentioned at Augh- 
nahough quarry (Fig. 1). T shall have occasion to refer in the sequel 

6. Ballygomartin. There is nothing remarkable at this plaocL 1 
hnve put it an a locality into the table, chiefiy to determine the thick- 
ness of the trap in Bivis moimtain. 

The little table- land forming the summit of Divis mountain consistft 
of a beautiAil clinkBtono porphyry, of a reddish brown colour, containing 
elongated lamellar crystals of glassy felspar, and concretions of btnirii 
white chalcedony. The rock is ver^' sonorous. 


7. Bnllyaillon ia two miles north of N'o. 6. The chalk, in a range of 
lorries along the southern face of this mountain, stands nt about 730 
't high. This is the highest part of the outcrop in the line of country 
itween Moira and Olenarm. 

Wilin D^kea in Chalk at Batlj'muner. 

Hill is three miles north-east of "So. 7- Limestone is quarried 
here, for the use of the country westwards. It dips west 10°, 
PS 93 feet thick. The mulatto is under it here, but there ia 
f knoBping how thick. All the face of the hill, for a mile to 
Uw Mutfa of the quarry, is covered over with hillocks which have 
«i^pad down from their natural position, owing to the stratum of lias 
<u^ which lies beneath, and which grows rjuite soft, and yields, when 
it get* wet, by water percolating through the ground after heavy ruins. 
The lop of *Squire's Hill, and of Cave Hill, near BeU'ost, are both com- 
poied of grayrttonc. 

Carntall is four miles north of No. 8. The chalk is 280 feet lower 
than that at Ballyaillan, No. 7. This is the low pass, over which the 
raj] way from Belfast is laid t* the western pans of the county. There is 
no certainty as to the true position of the chalk hereabouts. The face 
of iht steep ground has many slips. The whole surface of the slope im 
oorered with dthria, and the thickness of eholk or grecnaand oannot be 
noMfored, and only a rough guess made at it, too rough to be recorded. 
Here I may note that a patch of ohalk occurs at Templepatrick, 
towards the middle of the trap country, between Belfast and Antrim. 
It ii about a mile long in an east and west direction, and half a mile 
wide from north to south. It is seen iu the gardens of the village, 
ioiniediately west of the houseft. At this place it is of a dork gray 
oolour, instead of the usual milk white ; it is very heavy, and will not 
bam into lime. It is altered, perhaps, into a dolomitic rock. Good 
B. X. A. raoc. — vol.. x. • 2 r 



limestone in found below the road in Upton demesne ; it was quarried in 
several openings and burned extensively there about twenty-five years 
ago, but no lime is burned there now. In the churchyard fragment* of 
it arc quite usual in digging tho graves, and the labourers say that it is 
under the soil in nil the fields about the church. 

It is a ([uestiou whether this chalk was ever covered with trap, like 
the surrounding country, and afterwards denuded- As it occurs near 
the lowest part of the valley, it is not likely that denudation would have 
acted to such an extent as to sweep away hundreds of feet in thickness 
of the trap, and leave the chalk exposed here. The probability is, that 
this spot escaped being covered by the overflow of trap which covered 
the rest of the chalk. 

No. 9. Kilroot. near St. Catherine's, is two miles north of Carrick- 
fergus, and six miios north-east by east from No. 8. At this place the 
character of the chalk country changes. From Aoghnahougb, No. 3, 
to this, the vicinity of the outcrop of the chalk along the mountain brow 
is steep or precipitous, hut from this northward, although the escarp- 
roenta of high land still continue from St Catherine's in a tolerahjy 
straight general line, by Rory's Glen and Sallagh Braes, yet the chalk 
here, instead of appearing high up in the brow of the mountain, runs 
out from the base of the high land, and extends over the country east- 
ward, declining gradually to the sea shore. About Lame Lough are 
eruptions of basalt, which rise into pretty high hills, showing the 
outcrop of the chalk near their base*. There is no section of the rocks 
at St. Catherine's or Redbrow ; White Head is the nearest place to it 
that affords one. Here there is solid chalk visible at the top. 40 feet; 
a sloping talus covered with fragments which rolled down from abov«, 
about 30 feet; steps at the bottom, not quarried, 30 feet; total, aboot 
100 feet thick. There is n benoh of grcen.iand under it, stripped about 
fiO feet Inng, and 6 feet high, well exposed. It appears in four or fivs 
places, yet no good place occurs to measure the whole. The beda of 
chalk dip south-west 10". Rt^Hting on the chalk hero is a magnificent 
fn(;ade of rolumnar trap, the r.olurans 50 feet high, and curving. Tt 
this I shall allude again. 

To the north of CarrickftTgus, towards Larno, the chalk baud is 
mnch broken up. The western, or main outcrop, from Lough Mourne 
northwards, by Xihvnughter and Sallagh Braes, maintains its high 
level at about, 550 feet. There are in the vicinity of Lame Lough four 
other outcrops, two to the cast and two to the west of that lough. 
They all affect a southern direction, being nearly parallel to the shoret 
of the lough, and to one another. 

The first of these outcrops shows itself on the cost coast of 
Island Magne, at Black Head, near the Oobbins, and at Portmuck. 
The second is on the east shore of Lanie I>ough. The third on the 
west shore of the lough. The fourth runs in rather a tortuous coum 
from Bellahill by Ballycarry, and joins the third at Bullylig. TheM 
outcrops are all, of course, on the same band of chalk as just vtated. 
Between the first and second the whole of the chalk is covered by 




trap in Island Magee, as it is for the most part in the rest of An- 
trim. Between the second and third lies Lurae Lough. What the 
rock may bo under the bottom of this lough there is no means of 
knowing; the lias appears on both sides oloug the shore, with the chalk 
over it. Between the third and fourth lines trap appears, as in all the 
peat of the eountry. 

In the vicinity of Lame the whole of the chalk band declines north* 

ward, from4S0 feet at BcUahill to the shores of Che lougb. About the 

town they aecm to join; and half a mile farther north, the band dips 

into the sea, under the Blackcave tunnt^l, at au angle of about 2U"- It 

^^K»on rises up a^in, in the towulands of Dmius uud Oroagh, and ocou- 

^H^ed the flat country towards Bullj'^olley Ut'udt where a protrusion of 

^Kolumnar trap throws up the beds on their ed^es. It 80on again, how- 

I^Brer, resumes its level position, and spreads over the country inland to 

^^Bory's Glen, Sallugh Braea, and BallygilberL 

10. Rory'sGlen is seven milesuurth- west from stalionKo. 9. Thislo- 
oality is like Redbrow in some inspects. The liraestoue here dips west 

J 30* south, at an angle of 5". Kiiwalter demesne is nearly all on lime- 
I^Mtone ; and it abounds so in this part of the country, that a mim might 
'^^rolk the whole way trom this to the sea, near Ballygalley Head, on this 
rock. It stands hero at 680 feet above sea, and declines gradually in 
four miles to the shore. There is no sign that this field of limestone 
ever wholly covered with trap, like the countrj' west of this sta- 
; yet there are some trap dykes, and some largo protrusions inter- 
through the low lands. 
The thickness of the limestone at Rory's Glen cannot be ascertained, 
tbe bottom has not been reached. Waterloo House, four miles off, 
a mile north of Larne, on tho shore, is the nearest place where it 
be measured, and there it turned out to bo lOl feet ; but this is not 
ite certain, as tlte bottom of it, joining tlie grecusand, was concealed, 
only gucflsod at. At the Ballylig quarry, on the west edge of 
le Longh, it measures 105 feet. 

In speaking of the limestone near Belfast, reference was constantly 
mode to its outcrop, but here it has no outcrop. It dips westward under 
the basaltic moimtain called Agncw's Hill; and from this place, as al- 
ready stated, it slopes or dips gradually to the sea shore, showing an 
■inti«li"»l line along the base of the inountaiDS. 

11. •Saliagh is three milea north of Kory'e Glen. The townland con- 
taioK 723 acres, and has an extraordinary ap[rearance, inasmuch as it it 
bounded on the south and west by a semicircular range of basaltic pre- 
cipices, 6U0 feet hi;;h above the low and ttatiish part of the land at its 
biiae, the whole forming one of the finest amphitheatres of natural land- 
scape. The diameter of the semicircle is about a mile and a half, from 
Dallytober to Knockdhu. This range of precipices is called Saliagh 

^nG^ The limestone is not quarried here to any extent, but is known 

tho land. It stooda between 500 and 600 feet high above the sea, 

id from this place occupies the country continuously to tiic shore, both 

trth and south of Ballygalley Head — a distance of two miles—- declin- 


iDg gradually eastwurd to son level, in the same way as it doee from 
Rory'a Glen. 

ilcro I pause a while, and retoru to eiiaimne a matter I hare not yet 
touched upou. 

An evident difforonce tokos place between the present condition of 
the chalk to the south and to the north of Kilroot, No. y. To the soutii 
it has a steep and sudden oulcrop, under a sU^ep bank oftrup, with the 
surface of the inferior soft rod marls sloping rapidly to the east ; to the 
north, although the steep bank of trap continues, the character of an 
outcrop is lost ; for the chalk spreads over the country for two or thi>ee 
miles wide, and forms the surface rock in many places to the sea Ahore. 
What is the cause of this outcrop of the chalk iu a part of its coune, 
and not in another? The most natural solution of the outcrops and 
what is first suggested by viewing it from the vicinity- of Belfast, where 
it can be seen from a distance, would be to suppose a fault along ths 
line, crooked as it i;<, and a downthrow to the east, in which the surface 
would occupy all the low ground between the base of the steep slope 
and the shore. But this is not the case : if it were, the low ground 
would be oil trap, the same as the mountuins ; it is, on the contrary, 
composed of red sandstone, and t^ie other rocks that usually underlie 
the chalk. We must look for the solution in some other way. 

At Balmer^s Glen, No. 2 in the Table, the chalk stands at an eleva- 
tion of 230 feet. At Kilroot, No. 9, it is 490 feet. Between thew two 
stations the outcrop rises into the form of aflat arch, h(>ing tram 600 to 
700 feet high iu the middle, opposite to Belfast. The elevation of this 
part of the ehulk may be in some way connected with the steep escarp- 
ment and the present outorop. 

The thickness of the chalk at the White Kock quarry would show that 
the original outcrop, whicli might be expected to be thin^ wa^ not on 
this line. It most probably extended a mile or two farther e/u^tward, 
and had a zone of bare chalk along the eastern margin of this breadth, 
such as there u al Moira and at HullygoUey. 

I have shown that the outcrop neur Belfast is not occa&ioned by a 
downthrow to the east. There is no other alternative to aocoant for it 
but the action of denudation. 

* The whin dykes, which seem more munerous along the outcrop of 
the chalk than elsewhere, appear to have on important infiuonce in 
keeping it up to the elevation it had attained at the time of the protru- 
sion of the trap. I have shown that there ore five of thope whin dykes in 
one quarry at Anghnahongh (Fig. I); they ootur from three to six 
yards asunder. There ore four or five mon^ in a <{uurr>- at Bollymoney 
(Fig. 2), between stations Noo. 4 and 6. If they ore thus seen so nn- 
merous in quarries, where they have been exposed, it may well be sap- 
posed that they exist along the edge of the trap, the whole wsy, in 
equal or nearl}' equal numbers. In fact, those flssores appear quite 
sufficient to afford space for the cniption of all the trap of the moun- 
tains j but the venta by which the trap was erupted were not confined 





to those small fissures alone. I shall describe one of another kind. 
the observations at staiion No. 14. 

When the basalt was erupted and cooled, and those fissures all left 
fall of solid trap, as whin dykes, the moimtain partt* were elevated, and 
at the margin of the tmp dit^trict continued steep and hi^h, ti'om those 
numerous dykes, which, having hardened, bi-oamo aa so many wedges 
alonfc the line, increased the volume of the rock, and served to keep this 
line more elevated than the other localities where those dykes are not. 
They also ^rved, very probably, ua strengthening ribs, when cold, 
along the outcrop of the chalk, to otfer greater n^tance to the denud- 
ing power, ur keep the outcrop to a higher level. 

12. BaUygilbert is nearly three miJes north of Sollagh Braes. The 
limestone at this place is 630 i'eet hij^h ; and it covers the slope from 
wliere it appears down to the shore, something more than half a mile. 
WbereTer the limestone spreads out, and occupies the country in this 
wsy, its thickness cannot be measured. 

19. Qlenarm is three and a half miles from Bidlygilbert, Ko. 12. 
Where the limestone was measured here is at thp nonhom boundary of 
Little Deerpark, on the shore, 184 yards west of the little quay. This 
is ab«)ut half a mile east of the town. Here the limestone is 170 feet 
thick, and its base appears to be at high water mark at this spot. 
From this westward it dips into the water, so that at tlie large quaiTy, 
new the town, about half the mass of the chalk is under sea level. 
Ttooi Ballygilbert to Glonarm the limestone band begins again to aa- 
*am« the character of an outcrop, and maintains this character by Gar- 
roQ Point and Cushendall, in all its windings to the north and west 
fron Glenarm. 

Through the Little Dcerpark, the steep face of the mountain, for a 
<|Ble or more in length, exhibits a multitude of masses of chalk rock, 
'that slipped down from the outcrop even to the very shore. This steep 
slope may be about half a mile wide. Lias clay shows itseli' in many 
pLvMM, and it is owing to this that the slips take place; for this clay, 
IImq^ a bed of solid rock, becomes quite soft when water gets access 
to it through fissures in the overlying rock. When this soft founda- 
tion gives way under tbe ehalk, it is the cause of more fissures, more 
water, and more slips afterwards. 

At the quarr}'' at Glenurm, and on the shore, the chalk is visible. 
At the mouth of the river it sinks under the level of the water 
altogether, and for miles up the river there is none in the face of the 
MUt side of the valley, where it might naturally be expected, as this is 
the case in most of the glens. At Parisbagh, on the west side in the 
•lope of the hill, half a mile off, the chalk stands at about 350 feet high, 
ftnd continues on tlie north-west side of the valley for some miles up. 
This difference of level shows that there is a fault in the line of the 
river, or rather in the bottom of the valley running to the south-west, 
sind that to the east of this fault the land has sunk, and buried the 
limestone in the fault. The limestone at Bollygilhcrt on the south. 
'where it stands at 520 feet high, has a fall from this place to Olenarm 


river on the north, equal to this amount in three and a-half miles, a 
further proof that the limestone h«B sunk ut Crlenarui. The amount of 
the downthrow on the east side of tilenarm vulley is at least 3o0 feel. 

Proceeding northward, in the next valley, there appears to he a 
Bimilar fault to that last mentioned, and runniug in a parallel direction, 
that ia south-west, hut the liinostone in this valley is not buried in the 
fault aft at Glcnarm. In the townland of Gortcarry, on the north-west 
side, the limestone stands at about 450 feet; in the townland of Bay, on 
the south-east, it is about 109 feet, so that there ia at this fault a 
downthrow to the south-east of 350 feet also, the same as at Glenarm. 

Travelling fnnn Glenarm to Caralough, the limestone, which crops 
out near thu roud, is cut through by a great mass of trap, which 
emerges frotn the sea, and no doubt once came from the depths below. 
The mass continues from this place to the south-west, and forms the 
basaltic mountain of Munies, which separates the valley of Glen.tnu 
from that of Camlough. The place occupied hy this boaolt beiwe'en 
the two chalks is 235 yards in width along the road. It was the great 
rent through which the mountain was erupted. Its west edge ia at 
the one milestone ; a furlong out to sea opposite to it is the Black 
Rock, a basaltic hummock 2U feet high and 60 diameter, apparently 
part of a continuation of the same mass to the north-east into the sea. 
I would coll particular attention to this fact, bccauae it shows that a 
whole mountain mass htis been protruded from one fissure. Many such 
fissures there may bo, no doubt, in the interior of the country. I have 
not, however, seen any like this near Belfast, where the whin dykes 
appear to prevail as vents. 

14. Gortin, half a mile west of Carnlough village, is four miles 
north-west of Glenarm, No. 13, The limcslone from Bally gilbert, No, 
12, up to this and forward, is a true outcrop, and the sUps whioh I 
have shown to exist at Glenarm and Carnlough valleys indicate that 
there are others in this region. There is probably one or more parcel 
to the coast here, a short distance out at sea, hy which the chalk is 
thrown down and buried in the sea, nt a mile, or perhaps a furlong out 
The soundings along cluse to the shoi-e, on charts, show a depth of 10 
to 20 fathoms. 

15. Slate House is inti-oduced hero merely for the purpose of 
getting the thickuess of the trap on Nachore Mountain. 

16. Garron Point is four milca north of Gortin. No. 14. Here 
there are several large masses of both limestone and basaltic rock which 
have slipped down from the adjacent precipices to the shore. The 
vicinity of this place abounds with the wildest forms of rocky socnory, 
steep precipices, deep dells, and towering pointed crags. The outcrop 
of the limoutouo continues declining regularly Irom No. 14 to No. 15, 

ifteen by the Table. The greensand here is about 10 feet thick.* 


TUs point in thi: country a()p«an to have ^ot iu oame from the m 

by ; thf>y thnuf^ht that a nmsc of white limr«tone in the Ikccof Um dtffW 
k whilp horw. TUia picture wuuld liav<* l>c«n called (jcar-rta— bMCt Outvb 




17. Taralaght U three milea west of Garron Point, No. IS, and 
■long thoee three mileft the limestone continues lowering in the face of 
the cliff from 320 to 200, or 120 feet. An observer at Cu^hendull. looking 
•outhward. has a fine view of the moiuitain face, and the outcrop of 
the white limestone midwuy up, the top of it declining gradually from 
QftiToa Point to Glenariif, and in ita course showa an irregular outline 
above, occasioned by the numerous faults along the line, where some 
blocks of the mountain face stand higher than adjacent bltxiks, and 
•omo lower; this is known by the white chalk zone, which can be 
traced by the eye along the uurth face of the mountain, from Garron 
Point to Glenariff. It is occasioned by slips or faults, which are 
anmerous in a north and south direction, pervading the mountain 
a&MBes, OB well as east and west, which are local, along the shore. The 
road in parts has often stink below its level on those slipping parts, and 
requires attendance constantly, to keep the hollows filled and the road 
paasable. The greensand here may be about 8 feet thick, of which 
the lower three are conglomeritic, but it gets thinner as it proceeds 
wwtward, so that at Baraghilly, No. 18, it is about 6 feet, and the lias 
aboQt 3 fbet 

18. Baraghilly Bridge, in Glenariff, is about two and a-half miles 
ith-WfBt of Greenaghan. No. 16. The limestone on the east bank of 

river at thia place disappears under the surface, which is 80 feet 
re seal level. On the west bank opposite, a few yards from the 
dge, it stands at 150 feet This shows a fault at the bridge, by 
the chalk is thrown down to the east 

her west, in the same little townbind, the outcrop of the lime- 
in hi^h up in the steep face of the mountain. It stands at 600 
showing that there is either another fault between this and the 
tioned hummock of limestone, or that the said hummock has 
down from this latter place. Whether there is one or two 
lei faults, the Umeptone has a downthrow from this place to the 
dge of more than 520 feet. The line of fault runs along the valley 
th-west, probably nenr the line of the river. 

It is remarkable that the three faults in the three glens, at GJenarm, 
Camloagh^ and here at Glenariff, have the downthrow all to the 
th-east These facta may be connected with some subterranean 
reroent. by which the country to the north-west, the mica slate, was 
Tat«d, or the basaltic country to the south-east depressed. 

19. Kilmore is rather more than a mile north-west of Baraghilly. 
The limestone here crops oat in the mountain side high up. at about 
700 foet. From this it continues rising with a very gradual slope to 
"'o. 20, Lurrig. 

20. Lurrig signifies the end. It is so called in the country, or 
ilsrgethan on the map. It is two and a-half miles north of Kilmore, 

ftnd one mile south-west of Cushendall. The limestone here is the 
Ikighest in the whole coarse of its eastern outcrop, from the south at 
^oin. stsinding at 940 feet It is about 80 feet thick at this ploco. 
^h« greensand under it is diminished to one foot 



21. Altmore Upper ia one mile gouth-west of Li 
In the Boutht-rn boundary of this little townJand, 
old road, the limestone ia aoen. It may be estimated hero at 60 
feet thick, showing a rapid diminution of tliicknesa from what it ie at 
Lurrig. A few perches »uuth of this, in u Hraall stream at a watrrfilU 
in which a section is exposed, showing the bottom layer of the chalky 
with the greensand and red sandstone underlying. This lower layer U 
8 feet thick, and i« composed of a mixture of chalk. frag:ments of flintai 
and sinuU pebbles of white quartz. The mniutto stone, or greeosand,' 
is only 8 inches thick, and it lies on new red sandstoney for there is do 
lias. That rock is absent hereabouts. 

22. CloghglasAf or Rallyeemin Glen, is a mile sonth-west of 
Altmore. Here the limestone in the river is but 2U feet thick. Tb« 
bottom bed consists of 6 feet of oonglomcrate. of Htnt«, chalky and small 
white fjuartzy pebbles, resting on nine inches thick of greensand, which^ 
like Altmore, overlies red sandstone. 

A little below the chalk here, in the river bed, there are l 
patches of mica slate prrping up through the sandstone, which app 
to have been cut quite through by the water. The lower patch 
brown grit in contact with the mioa slate. In the upper the mica 
slate is surrounded by a very coarse conglomerate, composed of lai 
pieces of mica slate, in a matrix of red sand, which is the lowest par^ 
the very base of the new red sandstone here. About this place is to 
found the greatest variety of rocks in a small space to be met with any 
where in the county. There arc mica slate, brown Silurian grit, u 
red sandstone, greensand, chalk, and trap, all witliin the distance oft- 
few perches. 

23. Gortnagross ia a mile north of Cloughglass, No. 22. 

24. Tievebulliagh is a mile north-west of Grortnagross, No. 23. 

25. Eehcry, about a mile north-west of Tiovebulfiagh, No. 24. 

These three localities are very much alike : they are in a wild, de- 
solate, heathy region. In each of them the chalk rests on mica aUte, 
there being no new red sandstone nor lias to the west of BaUyieemia 
Olen, and the grecnaand quite inconsiderable — less than a foot. In 
those places the limestone is from 20 to 30 feet thick. The quarries 
are on high ridges or bluffs, emanating from Trostnn Mountain on the 
south, and separated by valleys. At the bluff points, between th^' 
streams, the limestone crops out ; and it is in those points the quarries 
have been made, being most accessible to tho low country, where the 
Ume is used. The outcrop is continuous, but it forms a zigzag lisM, 
projecting round tho bluifs, and retiring up the valleys, so that the liaa 
of the outcrop in tho three localities resembles the letter W. In tbs 
▼alleys the limestone is but rarely seen, being covered over with bog 
and heath. There is no tillage so high up. Oora would not ripen 
here, tho locality being more than 1000 feet above sea level. Tho 
height and thickneea of the limestone at each place are given in the 

36. Bon Croaghau is more than four miles north-woat of laborxy. 



ifo. 23. Tbia is the highest position in the county La which chalk 
oocara, the quarry being 1254 feet above sea level. 

27. Btdl};kjiock is four miles south -south -west of Ben Croaghan, 
Ho. 26. This is in the low ground at the western base of the moun- 
hiiu. No litnefttone has been quarried here ; but a trial was made for 
i(, at the bottom of the basalt, and about the excavation are found 
pieces uf dint dug out of it. It was evidently not worth working, 
being too thin. No rock being visible in the wide flat valley adjacent, 
the nature of the underlying rock, whether red sandstone or mica 
tlate, cannot be determined. 

28. Corkey is throe milos souLh of Ballyknock, No. 27, and about 
half a mile north-east of Checker Hall. Here are two pretty large ex- 
cavations made in search of limestone. The basalt rises in the moun- 
tain to the east of the locality. A remarkably green vegetation is seen 
roond the old pits, and scattered fragments of ilintd. Tradition says 
the layer of lime and flints here may be about three feet thick. Like 

yknuck, it was evidently not worth working. From the size of 
pit«, the bed appears to have been followed inwards from the out- 
p 20 feet. This is the most southern place in this valley where any 
{TQce of limestone has been found. 

29. CarnTccashel is about five miles north of Corkey, and two miles 
th of Annoy. It is on the west side of the valley of the River 

and the limestone here lies nearly level, but is covered by trap 
west edde, which accumulates a little in that direction. The 
ne of the quarries here is very impure : about half the mass 
to be composed of fliuts, which are left in large heaps, as rub- 
faulty in the quarry. 

30. Limetiill is leas than a mile south from Annoy. Lime is quar- 
exteneively hena, and is much purer than that at Canivecashel, 


SI, Balleny is a mile north of Artnoy, and about five miles south- 
of Ballycastle, and 270 feet above sea level. There is a depth of 
32 foci of the limestone visible here : what is below the present bottom 
^ thequurry is unknown — perhaps 20 or 40 feet more. A large area of 
about eight acres has been excavated. To the west and north of this 
pLaec is ail bog, and so flat at this same level, \^ithout any hill or huui- 
mock of other rockf for a mile or more, that it affords a strong pre- 
luoBption that all the fiat bog has limestone under it, the same as at 
BaHnny If there be good grounds for this view, there may be 600 or 
^^00 acres of limestone under that bog, covered over only with some 
^^vift gravel, and the bog on top. The townlands adjacent, which oc- 
^^pnpy a part of the Qat bog, and likely to contain limestone, are — Bal- 
^^■my, north and east end ; Ballykenver, north eno ; Bunshanaclonoyf 
^^Mst side ; Monanclogh, west side ; Magheramore, west side ; Lower 
I' ICoyarget, aouth end ; Mazes, east border. 

32. Knorklayd. This mountain lies from one to four miles south 
of Ballycastle. The limestone zone in it appears to lie level; and ita 

I. A, PROC. VOL. X. 2 a 


outcrop is seeti about halfway up, and forms a circular ring or bell 
round the mountain of about a luile and u-half in diameter. The 
largest opening in the limestone now at work is on the west side, in 
the townlund of Capo CaatlCf and there it i» about 70 feet thick, and 
appears about the same in ail the old quarries round the south face. 
The limestone lien here on mica islute, and ia covered by bafialt. The 
lower beds of any of the numerous cxcavationH arc not exposed ; and it 
ia not, therefore, known whether there is greeosand or new red aftod- 
atone under it, or not. Ko aigu of either appears at the Cape CoMle 
quarry . They have not worked it yet to the bottom, as iht^y appear 
to prefer making two or more stages, thero being less dutiger to the 
quarrymen in that way than by throwing down large blocks of lime- 
stone or hdsttlt from the top of tho quarry. 

33. Ballypatrick Hill lies east of Knocklayd, and is distjini from it 
five miles. The limestone in this hill stands^ at 750 feet high. It& 
outcrop is in the form of an ellipsis, one und u-bulf milee long, in a 
north-west direction, by one mile wide. This district is about half 
way between CushenduU and BallycaHtle, and tho road passes through 
the eastern border of the limestone. It ia quarried here, but the thi<^* 
neaa cannot bo nscertjiined, oa it has been worked here only 8 or 10 feet 
deep &om the surface. 

34. Curulou Mountain. The limestone quarries on the west Bide of 
this mountain, in the townlund of ballyvennoght, are nearly two milea 
east of Ballypatrick. The rock stands here at 880 feet high. The o\-«l 
cap of basalt which covera the limestono is about two miles long from 
north to south, and a mile wide. The three districts, Noa. 32, 33, mul 
34, are rery similar; each has an outcrop, forming a ringof chalk, round 
its cap of basalt. Tho limcfitone at each of those stations rests on aiic« 
elate, and in Knocklayd, Ballypatrick, and Camanmore, it standu 
respectively at 870, 7.50, and 880 foot above sen level. Those littlo 
districts are, moreover, separated from each other by deep valleys, 
running north and south iu the mica slate. 

35. West Torr. The chalk hero sUnda at 900 feet high. It it 
nearly two miles long in a north-west direction, and half a mile wide. 
It joins, and is part of the same slieet as that under Camlea, but it is 
not covered by trap. Tho Houth end of it rests on mica slate, and in 
that locality there is no new red sandstone under it. The north end 
rests on the coal-measures of Murlogh Bay, and in that place thoro is 
a band of new red sandstone over those cool menAoree, interreniiis 
between them and tho clialk. 

Where the line uf tho chalk commences, on the east of the greeo- 
stone of Fair Head, that is, at its north end, a layer ofgrcenaand aboot 
three feet thick lies under it, containing (juuriry ptbbltfi*. This ter- 
minates to the south, where the coid-uit'asurev end. A bed of wackv 
occurs near the top of tho chalk, 5 or ti foct thick, apparently oon- 
funnable with its beds, but, no doubt, has been protruded in a 
horizontal dike. 


With West Torr may be pat a detached piece of white limestone, 
which Ueft to the east of CarnlE^a, presenting nearly the same character. 
It ruan nearly parallel to the shore, opposite Lou^haa Bay, betweea 
Torr Head and Kuaabay Head. It is two miles long, half u mile wide 
at the north end, and the soinhern half of the length is aboat a farlong 
wide. Like West Torr, No, 35, it ia not covered with ba.salt, but in 
both the pasture is kind, green, iind close, and the soil good for tillage, 
thus presenting a remarkable contrast to the herbage and soil of ther 
great table land from Knooklayd eastward to the sea, which is covered 
wi^ bog and heath. This limestone district is from 500 to 600 feot 
high, and this circ.umf^tance points to the probability that the whole is 
a downthrow, from Camlea, of the chalk and its supporting mica slat*. 
The line of thin downthrow may be in the bed of a stream which runs 
north-east towarrls Torr Head for a mile- From the upper end of this 
mile it tarns south-cast hy the valley of BtilHuloughaa, and continues 
to the townUnd of Toroorr, near Ruuabay Head. Oa the cast of this 
district, new red sandstone appears under the chalk, as in Murlogh 
Bay. There is none visible on the west, this fact further suggesting the 
probability of the existence of a fault on the west side, along near the 
«d^of the chalk, in which fault the new red sandstone lies buried. 

36. Larrybane Head (from Loir Ban, the white mare). I select 
locality as worthy of note, because the perpendicular sea clifl' here 

white limestone from the top to the bottom. Some yards inland fn)m 
afaore there is an Ordnance Survey height of 168 feet, and as the 
aro quite level here, this may be taken as the least thickness of the 
»no, for there is some of it under water. 
I should not pass this locality without making reference to Kenbane 
two miles east of this station, because ut tbi;^ place, more decidedly 
on any other point on the coast, the relations between the trap 
obalk can be observed. A Urge piece of chalk, as it lay in ita bed, 
mtly in & plastic state, has been separated from the rest of the 
bfilow it, and doubled up into the form of a high arch, leaning to 
(MM aide (the west). The bedding in this moss is known at a distance 
jbff the lines of flints in relief which appear on the face of it. It appears 
thed up at one abutment, if 1 may so call the end of the arch, and 
luch shattered at the other, many of the fragments being enclosed in 
surrounding basaltic matter, which appears to have insinuated 
Itaelf into every orevioe that was open to receive it. These mjwses of 
imbedded chalk have nil been altered more or loss where they are in 
contact with the trap (ioe Fig, 3). 

37. liallintoy village is near this place, No. 36. The limestone is 
tdcr the street, which there mcasurea 202 feet abore sea level. 
llhough the fields are covered with soil, and therefore the rock not 
lible, there is every reason to suppose that the beds are level under it, 
im Larrybane Head to this, and if so, the chalk is above 200 feot thiok 
tho village of Ballintoy. 

At the top of the cliff at Whitepark, a mile west of Ballintoy, two 
itimates were made of the thickness of it, the one made ut the east 


bounds of Magheraboy gave 200 feet; that near the weet bouuda of 
Clegnagli 21U feut. On the whole, die thickness of the limestone «t 
BaUintoy may be counted 210 fevt, aud tbia is the thickest part of it 
that it known in Ulatur. 

Trap and Challt at Kenbane Head. 

38. The Priest's Hole is immediately at the coast road side at the 

white rocks, two miles ea.«t of Portrush. Looking over the road fence 
at this place, the traveller sees the shore below, and the white cliffis 
through a narrow, deep hole, only a few feet in diameter. The road 
appears to be 100 feet over the sea, and there is about 50 feet morr 
of limestone above the road, to the bottom of the basalt, in all 150 1'eet; 
but the base of the limestone is not seen on the shore. It may be 200 
feet thick here, as it is at BaUintoy. I have thut* followed the easlem 
escarpment of the chalk all the way from Ualmer's Glen, near Moini, 
to Cushcndall, which runs nearly parallel to the shore for 40 miles, and 
continued the observations on the north coaat to Portrush, about 30 
miles more. But there are two circumstances yet to be noticed that 
bear upon the inward dip, or baain ahape of the chalk formation. The 
first of these is, that besides the immediate dip at the outcrop, in the 
vicinity of Belfast, which is westward all the way from station No. 3, 
at Aughnahough, to No. 8, Cave Hill, there exists a further corrobo- 
ration of this view. An approximation to the amount of this dip may 
be made from the following facts : — 

At Templepatrick there is a pretty extensive field of the chalk bftre, 
without the usual covering of trap, and it stands at 180 feot above sea 
level. The eastern outcrop of it at Cave Hill is 750 feet high ; the 
diiference between these heights gives a fall westward trum the outcrop 
at Cave Hill to Templepatrick of 570 feet in 6 milea, which is 95 feet 
in a mile, or nearly one degree. 

It i£ a curiouB coincidence that the same rate of inclination may be 
had by taking other data — that i9. from the top ofDivis Mountain totlie 
deepest pnrt of the bottom of Lough Nengh, gives 95 feet in a mile. 
But, notwithstanding thift, there is reason to believe that the chalk at 
Templepatrick has been a little oitheaved irom the bed surrounding it. 


For. taking the slope of the surfuce irom Dtris to Lough Ntagh» I)iWs 
is 1 567 feet high ; Lough Xengh is 48 fet't above sea level ; the distuDL-e 
between them on the Divis aud Slieve Golliou Reotion is 1 1 miles, 7 
furlongs; and those data turn out 128 feet fall in a mile; thin is 
supposing that the thickness of the trap at the shore of Lough Ncagh is 
the same at at the top of Divia, namely, 900 feet. This gives an angle 
of about one degree and one-third. This most probably is about the 
average dip on the east side of the great basin, of which Lough Ncagh 
and the Bann are in the bottom. From the Derr}* outcrop eastward 
the average dip is about the same. 

»The second of the circumstances alluded to lies in the line of 
Oountry between the stations No. 20, at Lurrig, and No. 26, at Ben 
Croagban. in the Tabic, oloug the southern border of the mica slate. 
fbese stations are upon some of the most elevated positions occupied by 
the chalk in Antrim, as may be seen b}' reference to the Table ,- and from 
the outcrop, or aline passing through those stations^ it will be seen that 
the chalk lies upon a bed sloping to the south-west. 

At Lurrig. on the east, No. 20, the chalk stands at 940 feet high ; 
Cloghgla^s Glen, No. 22, at 730 ; thus giving a fall of 210 feet in 
south-west direction, in two railt-s, or 105 feet in a mile. 

\i Ben CroQghan, No. 26. on the west, the position uf the clialk is 

354 fi*el high. At Corkey, No. 28, it is 400 feet ; here is a fall of 854 

t, in Q direction 15^ west of south, in tive and a half miles, or 155 

t in a mile. Both these ca^s show that the bottom plane of the 

bae a south-west average dip of about one degree und a half, ad- 

iaiag the mica slate, and corroborate the view that the chalk forma- 

in the north-east of Antrim dips towards Lough Nuagh in basin 

pe, as it does in other places. 

I have shown in the Table, No. 2, the height of the chalk at seve- 
T»I stations on its outcrop, both in Antrim and Derry. From this out- 
crop it dips inwards towards the Bann in both counties ; but, besides 
is, there is a general dip of the outcrop in itself on both sides to the 
ih, putting the chalk zone into the form of a trough or scoop, high 
the south at Divis and Slieve Gallion, aud low on the north coast. 
ct on the north coast it does not dive into the ocean. There are un- 
ations and faults in it along the shore, the anticlinolsof which affect 
Dortb and south direction; but, as a whole, upon that coast the ge- 
dip is south, at a low angle, all the way from Uagilligan, in 
rry, by Portrush, Ballintoy, and Ballycaatle, to Hurlogh Bay, and 
showing thut it dips inwards in an irregular basin shape towards Lough 
Keagh, on at least three sides of tlie great basaltic area. 

ThbUgh the chalk assumes a basin shape, as just shown, in the ba- 
Mltic area, as a whole-, yet there are irregularities in it, especially 
towards the margin, in which it deviates from this form. These irre- 
^laritics appear mostly to have been produced by faults. Those 
laults on the north shore show change of level of the zone, by dis- 
atiou, where parts arc separated, and thrown up or down from ad- 
ning parts. At Whitepork, near Ballintoy, the whole body of the 


limeRtone is over the level of thu rob, at its upper aurfacp, 800 feet ; at 
Bengore Head it is probably undor it, at about 150 to 200 fcot, making 
here a difference of betweuu 400 and 500 feet in tho (?arfaco of the 
chalk At Port Braddon, where the two ro<;ks join vertically, is pro- 
bably the seat of this dislocation. 1 must defer the explanation of this 
to a fature opportunity. 

The chalk in Knocklayd Mountain stands at 870 feet high ; at Bol- 
leny, one mile north of Armoy, it stands at 270 feet, making a dif- 
ference of 600 feet in height : they are about a mile asunder. The 
band id nearly level at both places, showing that there must be a fault 
between them, which runs from Ballycastle by the western base of 
Knocklayd, and fto on nouthwards. I shall further describe this fotxlt 

Again, at Slieve Gallion, in Derry, the chalk fltands at 1/SOO feet 
above sea level, while between Magherafelt and Coagh it varies frWB 
170 to 312, or it is 250 feet average, making a difference of 1230 feet 
between the band near the top of Slieve Gallion and the e<iuivalOTit of 
the same band in the low plateau at the eastern base of that mountain, 
between it and Lough Ncagli. The fault in this case must be al the 
eastern base of Slievo Gallion, which ia about three miles east from the 
patch of chalk near its summit. 

In the cases of Knocklayd and Slicve Oallion there are acme sogge*- 
tiona of a speculative character connected with them, worthy of a few 

When we find chalk in the middle of Knocklayd 870 feet high, 
and similar chalk on the north shore at the level of the ocean, the beds 
of both lying level, whether should we say the Knocklayd chalk haa 
been elevated from its original position, or the chalk of the shore d^ 
pressed? Either case would produce a disruption of the chalk, a dif- 
ference of level, and the same effect. 

There are 1640 square miles of trap in Antrim and Derry, all in 
connexion, with chalk under it. It stretches from Ballintoy to Stew- 
artstown, in a straight line, at nearly the same level, a dintanoe of fifty 
miles. The Knocklayd platform of mica slato is 110 sftuare m)U'«. 
Standing still, or being elevated, whatever movement affected it pro- 
bably affected it a.1 a unit, all at one time together. It appfars more 
rational to suppose that the small area — 110 square mile.-^ — was ele- 
vated, than that the large one — 1540 square miles — was dopremod. 
"We talk every day of the elevation of mountains, and say the Alps 
were elevated, or the Moume Mountains. I believe the trap, at the 
usual general low level, was still ; and that the Knocklayd platforiD of 
mica slate was put in motion, and was elevated in one raaas together, 
parts of it undergoing slight modifications of level afterwards, from 
cracking and settling don'n. 

Again, on Slicve Oallion, in Derry, the patch of ohaUc, covered with 
trap, similar to that at Knocklayd, stands at 1500 feet above sea levd; 
the low ground between Coogh and Magherafelt, composed of nimilar 
formation, forming a plateau between Slieve Gallion and Loxigh Neagb. 





varies from 170 to 312, or say it is 260 feet average. This makes a 
differenoe of 1250 feet that the Slieve Gallion chalk waa elevated above 
that in the Mngherafelt plateau. 

From the i'AAt Bide, this patch, about half a square mile, appeartt 
decidedly to have beea elevated; yet the uiiipect from the norlh-wost 
aide cannot be for^fottcn — that is, the very regular elevation of the 
chalk in Derry from the sea at Magilligan along the western escarp- 
ment by Keudy, Donald's Uill, Beabradogh, and Craig nu shoke, to 
Slieve GalHon, ascending regularly aU the way from sea level to the 
highest chalk in the two counties. From the western couutry this band 
dotis not apiM*ar in an unnuturul pomtion, but looks like the southern 
continuation of the ascending zone. This seems still the more natural, 
that the Sperrin Mountains of mica slate branch off westward at the 
same high level, south of Dungivea. 

That the Slievo Gallion mountain, however, on which this pateh of 
chalk rests, has been itself elevated from a lower level, most probably 
that of the Magherafelt plateau, as just stated, is shown by tlie follow- 
ing argument.s : — It is situated between the valley of ballinascreen, 
which is low ground, on the north, and the low ground about Cooks- 
town, on the south. It forms the eastern and highest part of a ridge, 
composed of granite, greenstone, and metamorphio rocks, which ridge 
trends away south-weat from this point, by Beleevnamore, Creggancon- 
roc, Bnd Termonmaguirk, to near Omagh. This ridge, so formed, of 
eryBtnlline and metamoq)hic rocks, beiug quite distinct from the mica 
^aUte of the Sperrin Mountains, appears to hove undergone a movement 
iUcIft and to have been protruded, thus accounting for the elevation 
Stifivti Gallion, with its patch of chalk upon its back, independently 
iti proximity to the Sperrin or any other mountains. In each of 
Me cases described the chalk is covered by the trap of the couutry. 
'boso differencea of level proclaim tliat the movementa which produced 
lem took place subsequently to the deposition of the chalk and the 
ktion of the trap. 


*Fhit porphyry of Cushcndall occupies a comparatively small district. 
It appears to have been connected in some way with the elcvatiou of 
Lurgethnn Mountain ; and, if so, it is newer than the new red sand- 
ptooe, with which it in in (contact at Bellisk, and the chalk, and perhaps 
newer tlian the trap itself that caps that mountain ; for it will be seen 
in the Table that the chalk in the north end of the mountain stands at 
About 040 feet high, while the same sono in Glenariff is under 100 
feet at the east side of the river at Bamahilly bridge. 

The little district surrounds the village of Cushcndall. It is bounded 
on the cast by the sea, and occupies the shore for half a mile, hetwecn 
the mouth of Cushendall River and the Coast Guard station at Bellisk. 
On the north and wept the boundary forms a curve, convex lo the north- 
west, beginning at the mouth of the River Ball, passes 100 yards north 
f>fthe Bchoolhouse, through the villages of Carnahttgh and Tally, and 


ends near the croitf-road of Knookans south, at the lime kilos. The 
soutbcTQ boundary pasHus a few yards south of the village of Knockanv. 
a little to the south of Muuut Edwards Houses and so on to the Coual 
Guard station at Beliisk. It joins the Devonian brownstone at the 
mouth of tlio river, and occupies the coast for half a mile southward, to 
a little boat harbour, without rocks, a few yards wide, and 150 yards 
north ot the Coast Guard station at BcUisk, to which I have just 

The whole area is ncariy in the shape of a triangle. It occupies 
about three quarters of a square mile-^ and forms one continuous mass. 
Geologically it ia bounded by the brown Silurian grit on the north and 
west sides, and on the south by new red sandstone. It appears to 
hare been protruded between those two rocks. It bus many changes in 
its appearauce. lu colour it is composed of red, brown, and grey, 
pa3sing into one another. On the shore it contains pebbles, and puts 
on the appearance of a coarse conglomerate — both pebbles and matrix 
being, however, crystalline. In a quarry immediately south of the 
town it assumes a dark bluish colour, and is crystalline : sometimes it 
reaembles greenstone. Pieces of jasper have been got in it near the 

The conglomeritic appearance of the porphyry, with its pebbles of 
brown quartz, and the conglomcmte of the new red sandstone, near 
the Coast Guard station, have a striking resemblance to each other at 
the fi-rst glance, but there is no -passage from one into the other. The 
very lowest beds of the new red sandstone, though full of lai^ frag- 
ments of the porphyry, have fine red sandy layers between them. The 
porphyry has no fine sand, nor any such layers. The new red aand- 
stone contains rounded pieces of mica slate, up to six or nine inches in 
diameter. The jwrphrry haa none of this roclc. 

The porphyry, which disappears on the shore at BeUisk* rises gra- 
dually, but with rather a hummocky surface, to about 400 feet above 
the sea at Knockan's fort, near the south-weat angle, where it is qutp 
ried for the roads. 

Ualf a mile north-west of Cushendall is Tiveard, a small hill, hut 
steep and high for its breadth of base. It is a protru.sion of crystalline 
groenatone. It is detached &om the porphyry district of Cushendall, 

iSandy Brae Porphyry. — About iive miles north-east of the town of 
Antrim this porphyry occurs: it forms a roundish district, of abooit 
three miles from north to south, and four miles from east to west, or 
about ten square miles. It is composed of six moderately -sized hills, 
with smaller ones between them. The heights ol' those hills on tho 
Ordnance Maps are — 


1. Tardree, three miles south-east of Kclls village, . • 798 

2. Bamish, or Sandy itrae, four miles tast of Keils, . 766 
•}. BoUyguwan, four miles eastwiird from Kells, . . 633 
4. Brown Bod, four miles south-east of Kells, . 860 
d. Cameamy, the highest, three miles bouth-east of Kells, 1043 

Corbv Kttowe, two miles south-east of Kells, . . 598 



I porf 

Thoae hills stand npon rather a high base, but arc all themselves 
mparatiTcly low. They exhibit each a roundish outline — a character 
vod from the ready decompoaitiou of the porphyry of which they 
mre composed, and stand in strong contrast with the surface of the 
country which surrounds them, in which frequently appears the rocky 
character of a basaltic country. 

In reviewing a country like this, where there are two ignooua rocks 
of different kinds of large extent — a very light-coloured porphyiy, and 
A very dork-coloured trap, which appear not to be contemporaneous — it 
becomes a matter of interest to determine which of the two is the 
alder rock. That they arc not contemporaneous appears from the 
following comparisons: — I. The porphyry is of a very light colour, 
Dcariy ^hile; the trap is of a very dark colour, nearly black ; 2. The 
porphyry is highly crystalline and has a large portion of felspar crystals 
with some smoke quartz, either aa crystals or nodules ; the trap is usually 
pact and has no quarts crystals ; 3. The porphyry occurs in solid 
oantitin masses. In the two great quarries at Tardrce, where stones 
%^rc got for the long bridge over the Lagan at Belfast, there is a height 
of face of 00 or 60 feet of it exposed. It has a great uniformity of 
ooloor and composition, and has no layers ; the trap in all the sections 
near Belfast is entirely composed of layers usually differing in character — 
•omc bard, eome soft; these layers are ollen indeed irregular in their 
Uuckneas, and often tlun out to lenticular for uis, but still they arc layers. 
In the examination of the district, I had hoped somewhere on the 
exterior boundary of the porphyry to sec one or more junctions In which 
could see veins of the black trap thrown into the white porphyr)-, or 
of the porphyry penetrating the Hurrounding trap, and by this 
determine which is the older rock, but I did not see any clear 
tory junction of the two rocks in contact, nor is there a ^igu of 
junction round the porphyrj' district so far as I could discover. 
OOaied the boundary of the black and the white rockn several times, 
,W the surface rock or excavations made in it frequently, but the 
joaetions are obscured by drift or by a considerable depth of the decom- 
poced sand of one or other of them — sometimes in broad green valleys, 
•omclimcs in shoulders of hills or sides of ridges, but nowhere a direct 
junction of the black rocks ; and, therefore, I cannot say from junctions 
which is the older and which the newer. 

The tops of the porphyry hills of Camcflry and Browndod arc much 
higher points than any of the adjacent trap hiUs westward or southward, 
which decline away in elevation towards the Kiver Main, at Randals- 
wn, or the shores of Lough Ncagb. On the other hand, ColUntop and 
iher basaltic lulls on the east, are liigher than Browndod or the adja- 
t porphyry about Loon Bum. This apptars to me as if at that side 
'the trap of Collin were elevated by the porphyry. On the whole, my 
▼iewfl lean to the opinion that the porphyrj* is newer than the trap, and 
came up through it, the two being now greatly worn down by atmo- 
gpheric action and probable denudation. 

ft. t. A. PKOC— TOL. X. 3 K 




The porphyry at the east side of Browndod in an old excaTation on 
the road side, has a reddish brown basis, contaioing embedded in it smalj 
concretiouH of smuke quarts, with earthy oud g]uj>Hycr}'stula of reddish 
felspar and olivine. At the Turdreo qnarries the felspar is white ; to 
the east of this the rock is much weathered at the surface, its decompo- 
aitioQ giving rise to u sandy soil, &om which the district on the nortb- 
eaal is called Sandy Braes. 

At Bamish, ha!f-a-mile to the east of the great Tardree quarry, the 
porphyry in one of the pits is constituted of horizontal layers of diffe- 
rent colours from three inches to three feet in thickncsa. There are 
layers of red, layers of gray, and layers of white int-tTstratified, if I 
may so call it, in a crystalline rock with each other. The whole of the 
decomposing rock in the pit is in a condition easily reducible to sand. 
This sand is used by the country' gentlemen for the walks in their pleasure 
grounds. By a little CAie in the pit, the red sand can b« put in a heap, 
the white in a heap, and the gray in a heap, and thus a gentleman may 
havered walks, gray walks, or white walks, according to his taste ; and 
this is not unusual for »ome miles from this place. 

On seeing thitt pit the idea suggested itself that it is possible those 
layers of different colours may once have been some of the red and gray 
elates so usual in the old graywacke rocks, altered from the dull argilla- 
ceous stony aspect of the clay elate to a highly crystalline state, now 
easily decomposed into sand without altoring much the colour. The level 
layers and the varieties of colour would both lead to this conclusion- 

Dubourdieu, in his Statistical Sui-vey of the county of Antrinu says 
that " Pitchstone porphyry and pearlstone porphyrj' occur in ports of 
this district. Two large masses of each variety may be seen a few yards 
below the bridge across the Loon Burn on the road from Connor to 
Doogh. In the pitchstone porphjTy the sound part in the intenor i« 
bluish black and has a shining and vitreous lustre ; the surface weathers 
yellowish green of different shades, according to the advance of decay ; 
common opal occurs in it, cither in plates or small reins. In tho pearl* 
stone porphyry the colour is smoke gray, or bluish, with a pearly lustro; 
it is formed of very thin concentric coats." 

I went to Loon Burn, but was much disappointed : I saw no such 
large masses as Mr. Dubourdieu described — nothing that 1 wouIdcttllA 
dyke. There is in a sandpit 20 yards below the road, and 30 yards south 
of the stream, a black string two inches thick, which might in depth 
become thicker. It has, indeed, that appearance, but the rock on both 
aides of it is in a decomposing state — in ^ct coarse brown sand pasaing 
into the harder black rock, that it is no easy matter to say what was the 
original thickness. I may, I think, saicly say there is no such dyke 
visible there now; either the dyke has been decomposed and grass or 
Airze grown over the place, or the original description was greaXtf 

AU the porphyry about Loon Bum shows an unusually cooTBe condi- 
tion of crystallization. In a decomposing state it can bo raised in Modp 
the particles of which are as large as peas. 







At BdllyDloghan^amiloanda-half north-westof Broughahane, thcro 
in k protniaioa of whitish fine-grained rock, whiuh is quarried and cut 
for window sOU and other economic uses in the country. A quarry is 
optJDod in it at the National ISchooIliousc, and worked to the extent 
of hiilf an acre. The rock in this quarry is of a whitish colour and 
Tory tine grain, and in this respect is totally unlike the rock of the 
Curnearny district just spoken of, which is in a high state of crj-stalliza- 
tion. It hoaa vertical cleavage, by which it splits into fla^ from two 
to four or sis inches in thickness, and is ea-^ily worked with punch or 
chiseL The mass in its course is generally decomposed into sand, 
ooarBC or fine, and seldom in the condition of solid hard rock at the 
mirfi»oe. It appears to be a great dyke or protrusion running from the 
quarry at Ballycloghan to Lismacrogher on the north-west, a distance 
of atn^ut three miles. The low fiattish land in which it is supposed to 
oc^ur, nnder the bog and drift, Is from one-eighth to a quarter of a mile 
wide. On both sides of this low space the black trap appears in higher 
hummocks of rock. In this space, as the i»olid rock is rarely seen at the 
surfiice, the line of tlio protrusion is traced by means of the subsoil, 
which appears in many places to be the rock decomposed into a whitish 
sand or grareL 

Analysis cannot probably do much to determine what kind of rock 
this may be. I have shown some specimens of it to an able chemical 
friend, who, on examining it with a lens, said it is composed of the 
d^hrts of granite well ground down and deposited in water. It has a 
Wge amount of quartz in the state of very fine sand, mixed with felspar 
redoiccd to clay, and a little mica. The quartz is sometimes in fragments 
one^righth of un inch in diameter; one tiuch fragment appearing in about 
every two inches of the rock. There appears indeed to be alternating 
vtripes of different Bhades of light gray and yellowish white colour, 
like •edtmentary lines, so thin as to have about ten or fifteen to the 
inch, and those lines coincide exactly with the vertical cleavage lines — 
if cleavage lines they be — to which I have alluded. 

Tliis idea of its being a sedimentary rock presents a great difficulty 
in the case of a band of rock three miles long, and one-eighth to a 
quarter of a mile wide, surrounded by trap on every side, and thereby 
suggesting the idea that it came up through that trap from the depths 
below. It might have been deposited in water in level beds in the old 
times, then covered up with the other deposits up to the chaUc and trap 
of the country; but how were the layers of this mass changed from a 
horizontal to a vertical position ? Without working out this question 
to my own satisfaction, I must leave it to more able geologists to crack 
this nut. It is too hard for me. 

All geologist* now believe that trap is a rock of volcanic origin. 
The nuMs of which it is composed was melted in the depths of the earth 
by subterranean heat, and in that condition it broke or was forced up 
through the overlaying formationa, was poured out, and spread over what- 
ever foundation of other rocks happened to be in the way, as tl>e lava 


of a volcuno (lo€« at present. In this way it covered over the chalk of 
Antrim, and the trap ib itself now tho surface rock in nine-tenths of 
the county. 

lu the county of Antrim, which is nearly all covered over with 
trap at the Rurfa(^o, and which is somctimos arranged in layers, some- 
timoB in lenticular mosses, ftomctimea in large amorphous ma£So«i the 
layers assume a level position. They appear to be guided in the firnt 
instance by the lie of chalk on which they rcsl; which may be said to 
he level. 

Fig. 4. 

AltemAting Layers of Tnip and Ochrr, resting on Cbolk, at Guron Poinl. 

Fig. 4, 18 a diagram of the sectional view at Garron Point on 
coQfit, 36 miles north of Belfast. The dark coloured layers rcprc^eal 
ftolid hard trap; the lighter hiyers are of boW red ochre, altemntin) 
with the hard beds. Studying the well-exposed sectian in that filar 
Icatb to the concluFion that Uic whole trappean mass, which foi-ms ft| 
precipice of about 500 feet high, as it restts un the wliite lixneslone, 
indurated chalk there, lias bw-n produced from a submarine vola 
in whjuli the ejected matter consisti'd of melted trap mixed with ludw 
The hard beds are fonnetl from the melted rock, thrown up in a 
rnnic fi<u4ure or funnrl. and 8]irnid out in the bottom of the sea; 
red cofl tK'dfi, formed out ot ihe ashes, disseminated in the wnt«r« 
making a red sea, and dcpositi-d in calm water, ii£ a red, soft bed 
ochre, each bed of trap reprcseuting an eruption. 


There must thus have been a Bnccuasion of such eruptions until the 
t<M3U or sixteen hard beds, with the alternating soft ones, were ac- 
cumulated, which form the mural rliff above the road at Gairon Point, 
which is one of the many picturesque features on the Antrim coast. 

Those layere appear to hare been laid down in the bottom of the 
sea or ocean; and the whole of that bottom afterwards raised np to- 
gether, by suhterranean power, to the position in which we now see 

where the top of the mass is 760 feet above the level of the same 
:ean in which it was deposited. 

PI. XXIV. represent* Bcngoro Head, on the north coast of An- 
trim, oear the Giant*s Causeway. It shows layers of amorphous and 
tulumuar trap, as well as a few of red oclire, altematiug; with them, 
which are visible in that headland, and which dire into the water to 
the east of it at Portmoon. The view at this place, with its alternat- 
ing black and red layere, is analogous to that at Garron Point ; but at 
Bcnporc Head there arc two great layers of columnar trap, of which 
there is none at the former place. 

The measurements of the layers at Bengore head are as follow, and 
may be interesting. They are from a paper by Dr. Richardson, in 
" Phil. Trans./' 1808; the numbers correspond to those on PL XIIV. : — 

Three thick layers of black, tabular, amorphous basalt, \ 
occasionally containing zeolite, . ■ .J 

Several layers of black tabular basalt, divided by thin 
seams of ochre, 

Bole or red ochre, ...... 

Columnar basalt, the stratum which, at its west end 

forms the Causeway whure it dips into the sea. 
Irregularly priamatic basalt, with red ochre and brec- 

ciated trap ; in this bed the wacke and wood coal 

or lignite of Port Noffcr, occur, 
Columnar buBalt, the upper range of pillars at Ben 

gore, rather coarsely articulated. . 

From the top of Bengore head, going eastward, 
other layer? crop out, as follow : — 
Coarsely columnar basalt, .... 

Intermediate between bole and basalt, 
Columnar basalt begins near Berryaduna Isles, east 

of Bengore Head, ..... 

Basalt irregularly prismatic, by Dunseveritk, 
Red ochre, or bole, . . _ 

Baaalti irregularly prismatic, 


I give tbeae views to ahow that those hard layers of black rock, 
'alternating with soft layers of red rock here, are suggestive of the 













Formation of strata, snch aa we see in all the sedimentary roekM, and ft 
remarkable analogy may be observed between tliem. In the Old B«d 
Sandstone, in the carboniferooa system for instance^ the group i* com- 
posoil of beds of hard, red, gritty rock, two or four feet thick, alternat- 
ing with buds of soft, red, clayey shale, showing that in this, a sodi- 
meutary group, hard, quurtzose beds, and soft, argillaceous beds succeed 
each other, like the hard basalt and the soft ochre beds of Anlrira. 

The older rocks of the primary and transition systems preeent a 
similar arrangement. Hard, gritty beds are found alternating with 
soft, fine, alaty beds, each kind often varying in colour, as grey, green, 
brown or red; and in thickness, from a few inches to 20, 50, or 100 
feet, or more. 

The fusibility of igneous rocks generally exceeds that of other 
rocks, for the alkaline, earthy, and fcrraginous bases which they con- 
tain make easily fusible salts, with the large quantity of silica, which 
would be otherwise so refractory on ingredient. 

The layers of trap, rts we see them at Garron Point, Fig. 4, and 
many other good sections, ore diversified : some are hard, some soft; 
they are mostly gray or blackish, with a few red. In aspect they aro 
unlike individually ; yet, on the whole, thoy have a general resem- 
blance, and any single layer would be known to belong to the famfly. 
They are persistent, and often one layer can be seen in the face 
of tiiG cliff for a hundred feet, or from that to a thousand feet or 
more, without much variation of thickness. At this locality the layer* 
are from two to six fevt thick, and resemble the beds in a regular 
quarry ; but this local regularity does not extend, by any means, over 
large areas. 

As I shall have occasion to make frequent reference to the geography 
of the north coast of Antrim, in the foQowing observations I think it 
desirable to give a statement in tabular form, showing the names of the 
bays and headlands from the Busbfoot to Ballycastle, with the heights 
of those headlands above sea level : — 

Natttfig and Heights of the Principal Headlands on the North CooJit of 
Antrim, and of the Bat/»or Ports between them. — Sw PI. XXV. 

n;uAj>2Axn8 ahd bats. 

Pe«t higfa. 

1. Runkerry Fomt, west of Portcoon, 

Porteoon Care. 

2. Point, cost of same, 143 


3. Weirds Snoot, opposite Great Stookaun, . . 283 

Port Oanniv. 

4. Caaaewaj, top of cliff, 307 

Port Nofir, 

6, Roreran Valley Head, ... 327 





Port Meottan. Feet high. 

6. GliimneT' Topa, summit, 380 

I^ort na Spania. 

7. Ben an onran, 392 

Port na CaUian. 

8. Headland, 373 

Port na Tober. 

9. Flaiskin Head, 395 

Port Piaiskin. 

10. Benbane, \ ( 332 

11. Headland, [ Fort na Train, ... 345 

12. Bengore Head, ) 367 


19. Contham Head, 259 

Port Moon. 

14. At Island, top of Cliff, 117 

16. BonseTenck-on-the-Sfaore, 142 

16. Templestragb, 87 

Whitiparh Bay. 

17. Bailintoy, Flagstaff, 139 

£ohee$hane Bay. 

18. Larry Bane Head, 168 

Larry Bane Bay. 

19. Carrickarede, 290 


20. Kenbane Head, 220 

Ballycmtle Bay. 

21. Croaghateemore, two miles east of Ballycastle, . 433 

22. Fair Head, four miles east of Ballycastle, . 636 

The word trap, in the sense in which I use it, includes a great num- 
ber of rocks of analogous chemical composition, containing the same 
bases and silica, and only slightly differing in their relative propor- 
tions. The same rock, too, may exhibit great diversity in aggregation, 
being soft, hard, compact, crystalline, vesicular, without much variation 
in composition. Geologists have been more or less successful in provid- 
ing names for all these varieties. 

In the following observations, however, I deem it advisable to 
avoid a voluminous, and perhaps embarrassing nomenclature, got from 

books, from museums, or even frura mountains, and to adopt one so 
simple as will be barely sufficient to show such physical diffcrtnc^'^ ila 
are easily pcrucptiblc to the oyc, either in hardnesa, ^ain, or colour, in 
traversing the country. 

FiK. h. 

Curred Balaaltic Columns, about 60 feet high, nwting on Chalk, al Wbi(o Hmd, 
near Carrickfergus. 

In taking a glance over the basaltic country of Deiry and Antrim, 
it might bo thought that the trap, or basalt, is all composed of odo 
great eruption of melted matter, poured out at once over th« whild 
limeBtono, or chalk, oe it then existed; but this notion does not st^iuiLj 
the test of rcAsoning. In well-exposed sections, it is seen all in lerell 
layers, and it is much more in accordance with what we see in natuiv* 
to suppose that each layer was a distinct eruption, for it geuenUlji 
makes a distinct variety of rock. Neither does it appear that any onoi 
kind was poured out at one time over the whole area. At AugUn»-i 
hough (Fig. 1, p. 276) soft blackish wack^ (6, 6, 6,} rests ou the vhit 
limestone, and therefore appears to have been tiie tit?t rock sproad oat 
in that place. At Cave Bill* it is nearly similar. At Wliitchcnd, near J 
Corrickfergas, the oholk is covered by hard, columnar trap (Fig. 5),J 
exhibiting some of the most magniiicent curving columns in ihtj 
ronntry, 60 feet in height, with soft, level hiyera covering them nlj 
top. At Fair Head, it is greenstone, and rests both ou chalk and on 
coal-measures, at Murlogh Bay, Yi. XXVI. At Bongore Head, tabular | 
trap (PI. XXIV.) is the lowest rock visible; but there may be othtir] 
varieties, for the underlying rock is below the sea level. In fact, tiuTe 
iff DO r^ular sucoesaion of the basaltic layers, either high up in the 
mass or low down immediately on the chalk. 



Aji^n. at Aaghnahou^h (Fig. 1 ) the successioo of the layers is not like 
tat ai White He-aU ( Fig. 5) ; nor like that at Garron Point, (Fig. 4) ; 
like that at Fnir Head, in Murlogh Buy (PI. XXVI.) ; nor like that 
Head, noar the Causeway ( PL XX.IV. ). The section in all 
itics are widely ditlerent; and even the layers of tmp in 
the same section— say at Garron Point, or at Bongore Head — are not 
alike. There are alternate hard and soft byers ; sometimes a layer of 
bole or ochre ; bometimes hard^ block trap ; Kometimes 6oft. A layer 
is often Been in form of a lenticular mass, and thins out to nothing; 
then ifl succeeded horizontally by another; and this is the case, 
especially where they are thick. The trap of Antrim, therefore, accord- 
ing to the view I take of it, does not con-iiRt of one great flow, but of 
many different flows, coming from different sources. Since, then, there 
is no regular euooeesion from the chalk upwards, the few kinds I 

E- select as descriptive roeka I will arrange and doscribo in alpha- 
cal order. I shall divide the trap rocks into eight kinds, which 
include the most extensive, and thu most easily recognized ; and 
all point out a few localities whore each kind is well developed, 
any other matter I know in each locality that may be of interest 
le geologist, 
rhe varieties arc : — 
__ J 

1 . Amorphous trap. 

2. Brecciated trap. 

3. Columnar trap. 

4. t'ouca^ionnry trap. 

5. Greenstone- 

6. Oehre, or bole. 

7. Tabular trap. 

8. Wacke. 

1. Amorphou* Trap. — This is the hard kind, which crowns many of 
bighcet hilU. It appears to be the upper layer, being next the 

4nribce of the land in most plooea ; but it ia oUo common in the middle 
Isyvn of a section. Its layers are of indefinite thickness, being some- 
es 5 feet; sometimes 50 feet thick; and it occurs in irregular, 
ticular masses mostly. It is frequently quarried on the road sides, 
r the use of the roads ; and an excellent material it is. The features 
of all those hard tr^[M — the amorphous, the brec(!iated, the columjior, 
,e poncrctionATy, and the tabular, art* easily recognized on the great 
e, in the hills ; but when brokon into srafdl fragmenta, such as are 
wed on roads, they cannot be wcU distisguished from each other in 
hand specimens. In PI. XXIV., the beds Nos. 1, 2, 3, uro charaotcristio 
of this kind. 

2. Brecciated Trap. — ^This kind occurs in layers of from 10 to 50 
feet in thickness on the north coast. It is not common in the interior 
of the country. It ia plentiful in the vicinity of the Giant's Causeway. 

e high precipice to the east of the little road that leads from the 
tel down to the Causeway is composed of it. There are many largo, 
roundish masses of it on tho shore, at the water's edge, about tho 
Causeway itself, which tumbled down from the adjacent cliff; and the 
fragmentary appc4irance they present is very characteristic of this kind, 
is a layer mostly composed of this rock, between the two princi- 

I, A. PIOC. — VOL. x- 2 9 

of t 



pal layers of coliininar trap at Ploiskinf and along the north coast, two 
miles long and 60 feel thick, extending from the Causeway to Port 
Moon. This layer, however, is not brocciatod throughout ; there are 
some small lenlicuJnr layers of red ochre in it, and also layers of block 
tabular trap in parts of it, full o{ cavities and air-holes ; but the brec- 
ciated character is prevalent The lignite bed, six feet thick, got close 
to the Causeway, occurs in it. 

3. Columnftr Trap is that kind which occurs in columns. The 
columns seem, in every case, to assume the position of being at right 
angles, a» near as may be, to the two surfaces between which the melted 
moRs was injected ; for it appears to me that layers of colnmnar trap, 
whether in a vertical position, sloping or horizontal, have bcon always 
injected into tissurcH made in larger solid umfl&es. 

At Bcngorc Head, Point Plaiskin, and the Causeway (see PL 
XXIV.), columnar trap shows itself in two grand layers ; the upper 
one, No. 1 0, standing in rather coarse pillars, 60 feet high, like a vast 
colonnade ; next is the layer of brecciated trap, 60 feet thick, No. 9, just 
described; and below this is the lower range of columns. No. 8, about 
40 feet high. This latter is much more perfect in its articulation than 
the upper layer. The Giant's Causeway is at the west end of it, and 
forma a part of it. 

Fig. 6. 


Coocrvtionsry Trap, or " Ooioa" Ba»alt on the Roadside, near the CaiMew«y. 

4. ConfreiiouAry Trap is that kind which appeara in round balls, 
and decomposes in concentric layers, which ahcd off like the coat* of an 
onion. Those bolls occur from three inches or less in diameter to thrrc 
feet ; they arc sometimes ten feet or more. ITiey are very hard when 
quarried fresh, but in time, by ex]>06ure, shed off layers by degrees, till 
the ball is reduced to nothing. The sketch (Fig. 6), taken at the road- 
side leading from the hotel down to the Caupewny, shows the oppearnnc© 
of a mafls of this kind, and givoH an idea of how it decompo«ics. It in 
common through the country. The finest 1 know of this kind is on tlie 



B)iorc under high water mark, half-u-mile fiouth-ea4t of Ouldoff House, 
in Donegal. This kind is sometiines called onion boflult. 

5. OtHnMone is a granular rook, composed principally of two sub- 
stances — felspar and hornblt^nda The felspar is impt-rfectly crystJillized 
and is more abund:mt in this rock than in basalt. Greenstone is rather 
a scarce rock in Antrim. It occurs at Fair Head in a great overflow, 
which covers that promontory. ThiH overrtow appears in enormous 
vertical prismatic masses, often quadrilateral, which arc destitute of the 
regular articulatiou and neatness of form which diutiuguibh the busalLiu 
pillars of the Causeway. A single rude column is seen standing at 
the Oray Man's Path. It appears to be formed of a bundle of 
smaller ones which decompose into similar masses of unequal siises. The 
greatest height of the precipice is 317 feet, and nearly perpendicular. 
The concretions of this greenstone are distinct imd large. It also con- 
tains augitc. 

Slievemish, or Sleamish, is composed entirely of greenstone. It is 
•even miles east of Ballymena ; it is 1437 feet high ; the sides are steep, 
Kod it form<i a gigantic landmark in the country, and can be seen for 
many miles to tJho north* west, and south of Lough Neagh. It is longer 
in a north and south ilireciion ttian from east to west. The greenstone 
this mountain is finu-gmincd, and the crrstallizadou more perfect than 
al. The felspar is of u brownish red colour. 

The hill ofTieveara, half a mile west of Cuehendall, is an eruption 
of greenstone. It is in form of a truncated cone, very steep at the sides, 
and roundish on the top. The greenstone is highly (.Tystalline. the 
crystals large. :uul tlie rook rather porona, so that it admits water, &ud 
euily falls away by decomposition. 

Etd Ochre or BoUtt. — This is a soft rock. It occurs on the north coast 
f Antrim in layers from three inches to two or three feet in thickness, 
ween the tabular mnsscs of trap about Bengore Head and the Cauw- 
y (Pis. XXIV. and XXV.). Some uf the i-ed layers are from 10 to 1 5 
thick or more. Ou the north-cast face of Troston mountain, 
e miles south west of Cushendall, a layer is 30 feet thick and 
alf a mile long or more. Many layers of it are iuterNtratified with 
le black layers of hard and soft trap at Garron Point (Fig. 4). 
bout 10 chains south of tlie Bull's Eye Waterfall, near Olenarm, 
lere is a perpendicular cliff of it on the river side about 40 feet 
igh. &omo of the layers in this clilf are hard, some red, and 
mo a lilac colour, so soft and soapy that they could be easily cut 
ith a knife like a piece of soft chalk ; the layers are from two 
four feet thick, and in some are imbedded clear quartz crjstals the 
of t^niins of partridge shot, with double pyramids complete. 

Tahuiar Trap. — This rock is well developed at Bengore Head, on 
north coast (PI XXiV., beds Nos. 1, 2, 3). It is ther« spread out 
in blaek layers, nearly horizontoL from 5 to 15 feet in thickness, and 
from a furlong to u mile in length. The black layers (Nos. 4, £, 6) are 
ecparated from each other by thiuuer layers of red ochre, from three 
inches in thickness to three foet^ sometimes much more. This bole or 


ochre ie of a red colour, sometimes of a brilliant ecarlvt, which inak«« « 
Btriking contrast with the black layon as they alternate in the face of 
the precipice. 

Wacki ^Lyoll emya '* this i& a soft and earthy variety of trap, haring 

an argiUaooous aspect ; it resembles indurated clay, and, wheii scratched, 
exhibits a shining Rtrcok.'' I have Been epecimensof rock called wacke, 
named by a German mineralogist, not at all answering to thi^ description. 
NevcrtheleBs, the description appears to me to be a good one, and appli- 
cable to a great qaaniity of rock in Antrim. It has very much the 
agpcct of certain thick-bedded black sbolea, contuiniDg round balla, which 
occur in coal- measures in Limerick and Kerrj*, but is uf couise:, aa com- 
pared to those of Limerick shales, deficient in the accompanying fltmtificd 
beds. Like those shales, the wacke decomposes when exposed to the 
weather. It appears to have been the tirst trap formed in Antrim, as it 
lies in many places the first layer over the chalk. This is the case at 
Aughoahough, at No. 3 in the Table, and a great port of the way from 
that to Cave Uill ; at Dundrossan, a mile north of Fortmuok in Island 
Mogec. At Dunluce Castle it is mixed with harder layers, and the same 
condition of it is Ttsible in the cHUb at Garrou Point (Fig. 4). In short 
there is no kind of trap so general. 

Fair Head (PL XXVL) and Bengore Head (Pi. XXIV.) are ths 
two most prominent features on the northern part of the coast of An- ' 
trim ; and, for reasons which I shall adduce, it appears to me that there 
was a volcanic vent, or crater on the great scale, in the vicinity of each 
of those headlands. Probably there were more than two, but thoae 
two localitiee exhibit features which cannot be ascribed to any other 

At the east side of Fair Head, the greenstone is seen at fttnrlogh 
Bay, resting on chalk, and on coal-measures at its twuthem bouudaxy, 
on the flank of Camanmore Mountain. It is quite thin; but proceed- 
ing northward it gets thicker, until at lost it is terminated at the point 
of Fair Head (PI. XXVI.) by a perpendicular precipice, 317 ioet high. 
all one kind of greenstone, without horizontal joints. From the base of 
this precipice there is a talus, sloping down to the spa, principally coo- 
posed of huge blocks of greenstone which fell from the fiico of the pre- 
cipice. These blocks are of monstrous size, and ore BC4itten*d wildly 
about. Immediately about Fair Head this mass of greenstone rvftu on 
coal-measures. From the northern end of the trap, which is the highvia 
(696 feet), the surface slopes inwards to the south. This slope indi- 
cates that the source from which the flow camu, in a fluid state, Iny to 
the north, and that the vent by which it was emptied lay in that direo- 
tioQ ; also that there was in ^ct a mouotain of it to the nortli of Fair 
Head, of which the present headland is but a small remnant. Tlic prr- 
cipitons character of the shore about Fair Head, and along the north 
coast, through the colliery from this to Ballycastle, gives the idea of a 
great bruken-down volcanic crater — accompanied, perhaps, by a fault. 
'J'hc Hhorc from Fair Head to Bully caatle id the soutli side of such fault ; 
the north aide is gone down, and sunk under the ocean. 



Mhe ] 

in the 


The greattxt depth of the olumnel betwcon Itathlia and Antrini is 
53 fathoms « 31 8 feet; thoheightof Fair Head, 634 feet: the»(', iidded 
together, moke 962 foot — the probable downthrow to the north of the 
above fault 

The greecfltone of this place (Fair Head) is very coarse in the 
grain, reiy heavy, and very hard, and is attrncted by a magnet. Indet'd, 
ao oniumiil is the eifeet of it on the magnetic needle, that a e^nioll com- 
poflB, placed on the rock at the top of the cliff, at several points within 
a ffpece of ten feet, showed the needle soraelimes pointing to the north — 
aonelimes it settles at the south, or the east, or we»t. 

There is one passage down from the top to the bottom of the clitT, in 
the Grey Man's Path, which is an incitHon in the face of the preeipico, 
occasioned by the dittintegmtion of the trap In a whin dyke. Tliea' in a 
■lope in this tii^sure, which, though steep, is convenient enough to 
descend by. Hut 1>elow what a scene ! The slope &om the bottom of 
e precipice, as I have just stated, is covered by huge fragments of 
oarish columns, of every size, which fell down from the clifl\ and 
a wonderful talus, sloping down to the sea at an angle of 40* to 
90*. A regiment of soldiers might go underground at the same time, 
in the openings between those immense blocks, many of them twelve 
long, by five or six in breadth and dt'pth. I measured one, 
hicb weighs nearly 2000 tons, and many others are equal, or 
arly so. 

The groonstono of this headland appears to have flowed over the 
Mftl-llMamurea, the chalk, and any rock that lay in its way. Whether 
greenstone came up in a fissure, or whether it flowed from a crater 
to the north, cannot be told. I believe in the crater, for reasons 
shall state presently. 
At Beui^ore Head something similar seems to have taken place. 
u height of this headland is 367 feet above the ocean level, but the 
are all on a lower ]«vel here. The chalk, which about Murlugh 
y stands at 7U0 to 800 feet above the sea, is at Bengore Head uiidtr 
level — it is not known how much. The chalk, however, 
I3i east of Bengore Head at Port Braddan, and west of it at the Bush- 
foot, pfC'ps up over the water. The whole volume of the luyera of 
trap about Bengore Head, looking Fouthwai'd, from the sea, form a 
great flat arch (PI. XXV. ). Taking the lower columnar layer, which 
is well marked, as an index to point out this arch, it emerges from the 
at the Causeway, which forms a part of it, and ri^es gradually in the 
fyucc of the cliff eastward to 189 feet at Bengore Head. It falls east- 
ord regularly again to Portmoon, where it sinks into the ocean. The 
distance from the Causeway, where it emergen from the water, to Purt- 
snoon, where it sinks under it again, is two miles, at sea loveL 

These figures give the dimensions of the arch, and the layers above 
and below at this locality are parallel to this and to each other. 1 shall 
cntCT more fiiUy iolo the detail of those layers presently. 

If the general appearance of Fail Head — with its steep precipices, 
and broken, bold outline — suggests the idea tliat it lies in the vicinity 


of an old crater, the appeaianccs about Bcngore Head convey the 
idea in a still more sinking numner. Looking from the sea at the lasd^ 
it is like the ruins of the internal part oi' one side of a crater. The se- 
veral successive layers oruptixl, and spread out, one over another, are 
there, clear and visible, and leave no doubt of the existence of a former 
volcano. Couaidering, tlien, that the crater of an ancient volcano esiata 
in the present ocean — say a quarter of a mile north of Fair Head, and a 
similar crater a quarter of a mile north of Bengore Head — consideriDg 
also the abrupt, precipitous character of the northern coant, from Fair 
Head, through the coal-measurea al BollycasUe, by the headlands about 
Bengore Head, and on to MagUUgan, in Derry — the conclusion is ine- 
vitable that a fault exists along, near tlie north coast, probably tbrou^ 
the ccntix's of the two craters, from Fair Head by Bcugure Head and 
Kagilligan, into Lougb Foylc. All the rock to the north of this lin« 
has gone down, or the dry land to the south of it has been heaved up. 

At Bengore Head, the highest part of the land in the immediate vici- 
nity i8 at the top of the clilfs on the coast From ihat the surface, 
which is the top of the upper columnar layer of trap, alopea back soulh- 
wai'da for some furlongs, as it does at Fair Head. All the layers have 
a southern dip, and the stratitied rocka on this part of the coast, thati» 
the coal-mcasureEt, the lias, and the chalk, where they appear above ths 
level of the water, have all u southern dip also, at a low angle^ gcue- 
raily from 5° to 10". Those latter rocks do not appear to be much dis- 
turbed since they were first deposited; the beds or the layers do not 
appear anywhere upset on their edges, as they do in the older rocks. 
The trap layers especially are near to the angle at which they were ori- 
ginally spread out. and the rise to the north seaward along the coast 
uppoars to confirm the idea that there was higlier land to the north than 
we now see at the time of the eruptions which comjiose the present 
layers of the shore, and that the upper layers of liqiud lava flowed frcon 
their sources to the south in this locality. 

This section at Bengore Hfad, however, is not typical of sections in 
the county generally. The section (Fig. 4) at Uarron Pointy whiuh is 
also well exposed, consists of a much greater number of layers, and 
those much thinner, the thickest of them seldom exceeding eight or ten 
feet, and more generally from three to six feet. There are no columnar 
layers, and no thick layers of tabular trap; there are a few of red or 
brownish-red ochre, the rest arc nil hanl and soit dark-coloured layers, 
often alternating. Indre<l it may be raid of the trap sections of Antrim 
that there are no two of them alike at five miles distance. 

The httflalt ends at Port Braddan, in a vertical fault, where it joinfl 
Uie chalk of W'hitepark and Hallintoy ; this part of the coasl further 
showing that the chalk at Whitepark has been heaved up. or the rocks 
about Bengore H(^d relatively let down. 

The section at Bengore Head suggests a few ideas fur speculation 
rcganling the succewion of the layers. It appears to me thai the Uiyt^ 
of tabular trap ihat now lie immediately upon the chalk were the lin-l 
that wer« erupted and deposited in each locality, and, in a general way. 




next above the first was the second that was formed, and so on ; 
but the layers of columnar trap appear to me to be an exception to tbia 
role : they appear to have been the last that were produced in the suc- 
cwwinn at Bcogore Head. 

We find that vertical trap dykes consist often of a series of columns 
of fouTf five, six, or seven sides, exactly similar in form to those at 
Bengore Head, but not similar in position. The Bengore Head co- 
lamns all affect a vertical position ; those in the dykes are hori* 
zontaL In both cases the axis of the column is at right angles 
to the aides or surfaces between wliich the melted matter of the 
trap was injected; and this law appears to be general in all oases 
of injected trap, whether the fi&surea which received it were ver- 
tioalp horizontal, or Bloping. Cases are often met with of trap dykes 
where part of the dyke is vertical and a port turns into a hori- 
xoQtal position. In this case, as well as in the others, the columnar 
•tracture is changed in position, according to the change in direc- 
tion of the dyke, and the axes of the columns are still at right an- 
gles to the cooling surfaces of hard rock that existed when the fissure 
was formed, and the melted matter poured into it. 

All the varieties of trap, the most dense heavy black basalt, 
and the most porous white lava; the hard rough trachyte and the 
soil red bole ore composed for the most part of the same elementary sub- 
atacces. Since this is the cose, they must have been produced under 
d^erent conditions. Some of the nows were erupted in deep water 
in the bottom of an ocean, some poured out in the atmosphere, and some 
into fissures in cold hard rucks, which werc^ split up or dislocated by 
sobtciraneous expansive power, those fi.ssurcR affording a facility for 
the melted lava to penetrate them, and there harden into rock as hard 
as that which encloses it 

It appears to me that iho trap rocks of Antrim have been produced 
under the following conditions : — The black vesicular tabular trap which 
it is believed lies next over the chalk on the north coast, about Bengore 
Head, was empted in a deep ocean, and spread out in liquid masses over 
the rocky bottom of that ocean, generating steam which produced the 
celbt in the mass. The water cooled it quickly without giving time for 
crystallization ; hence its dull rt^ugh fracture. In this manner I suppose 
^tiie black beds Nob. 1, 2, 3, on the section [PI. XXIV.) were produced, 
HKiiich amount to about 60 feet over the water. 

^^B I believe the ochre or red bole was vulcanic ashes thrown up in the 
^^Krnption, and disseminated in the water, making literally a red sea. 
^^nVhen the energ}* of the firtt burst of volcanic action was partly spent, 
t iSbttntUBe a time of rest, and in a calm, port of the red sediment was 
■ ^ffpositedi making a layer of ochre. Over thi.s again was erupted and 
spread out another layer of the fused matter of the black rock ; then in 
a second calm, another deposit of red ashes as before. In tliis manner 
was produced the alternations of black rock and red oohrc layers, as we 
see them about Bengore Ilead (PL XXIV.), numbered on the section 4, 
5, 6. Nu. 7 is a bed of red ochre 22 feet thick, produced in the some 


way, with probably a longer period of calm and a greater Aocumolation 
of the red sediment. The next layer I suppose was No. 9, then Noa. 1 1. 
12, 1,4, and 16, uU thick layers of irregular trap, some of it mixed bole 
and basalt, some brt'cciated, some coai'sely columnar, uiid some insu- 
larly prieFmatic. 

I have already said that in columnnr masBCs, in all poaitiona, the axes 
of the columns are at right angles to the cooling surfaces. The Uyen 
I have been just describing fall in as having been erupted one ftfter 
another very naturally tabular tn\p, bole or ochre, and mixed trap». 
The columnar layers cannot bo accounted for by being thrown up in cold 
water; in that case they would be like the labukr trap Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Nor does it appear how they could bo produced in air; they would bo 
porous or vosicahir Uvas ; they would not in either of those conditions 
crystallize with the columnar structure. It appears to me that tbey 
were produced us whin dykes are supposed to have been produced ; that 
is, by red hot fluid trap being poured into crevices and fissures opeseA 
in the rocks by the agency of gas or steam, generated by subterraoMa 

At Fair Head, the great mass of greenstone is not articulated in 
columns like the Causeway layer, and we therefore must attribute 
the manner of its production to some other process. From ita being 320 
feet thick at the north edge (see PL XXVL), and about 10 to 20 teA 
at the south, this difference being in a mile of length, it appears to hatv 
been most probably one great tlow, and covered the ground round about in 
circular form at the time. This thinning oat to the south would indi- 
cate that the vent from which it was erupted was situated to the north, 
OS already stated. This How might have been in air; it might have 
been in a deep sea ; there is only a small part of the circle remaining 
now. All the eastern hali^ and all the northern part, togethor with the 
crater and its adjuncts, appear to have sunk into the occ&n since. I hare 
already given a deecription of this mass of grecfnstone, of its nature and 

Under the greenstone at Fair Head, there is a columnar layer in the 
coal-measures with columns 50 feet long and about 30 inches in diameter, 
well articulated like those at hongorc Head, but thicker. Thia great 
layer lies parallel to the boddingof the coal-measures. It is risible on. 
the east dide of Fair Head, a little to the south of the Gray Man's Patli. 
There is also a second columnar layer under the last-mcntionod, ftod 
parallel to it, three feet thick, with columns about six inches diamoter, 
but imperfectly articulated. I BUpi>os(? these two layers to have Ikscq 
produced in the same manner and at the same time as the columnar 
layers at Bengore Head. 

Columnar Trap at Whit$ Head (see Fig. 5, p. 300). — The columnB here 
rest directly on the chalk, and the top of that rock in this locality arnmmen 
a basin shape, into which the trap was injected. From the bottom of 
this hollow the columns curve upward, their vertical joints being «« 
usual at right angles to the curved lurfiicc of the base on which the^ 
stand : the curved columns are from three to four feet in diameter &t 



their ba»e«, bat grow i^aduallj smaller upwards, to about htJf that 
thioknea at the top; two columns below often merge iuio ooe at about 
sis feet down from the top, and sometimes three nt the bojio join into 
one above, but that one is thicker than where it separates into two or 
three lower down. The columns are about 50 teet in height, and form 
one of the finoat as well as the moat singular of the columnar fat^ades of 

If the view I take of the formation of colunmar rangea of trap be 
correct, this '50 feet layer lying directly on the chalk must have been 
the last moss of trap erupted at White Head, and injected from its source 
into this position. Under other circumstances, I should say that the 
nuisB lying on the chalk would have been the first. 

The Giant's Causeway has got a name of wide-spread celebrity. It 
\B a low and rather irregular platform of basaltic rock nmning out north- 
ward into the sea from the bottom of a high cli^. It resembles a quay 
or a road, a few feet higher on the east side than on the west. At low 
water it is about 210 yards long &om the passage cut through it at 
the south to the north end, where its dips into the sea. It is about oO 
yards wide at the south end, and from 5 to 10 at the point. It is 
composed of a single layer of basalt about 40 feet thick, reposing nearly 
in a horizontal position ; this layer is composed of a number of upright 
coiamns ntanding on end, and so closely packed together that the blade 
of a knife could be scarce!)' put between any two of them. It forms a 
|>oIygonal pavement on the top. reminding one of the cell.s of a honey- 
comb, or of the wood parementa now pretty well kno^i'n in large towns ; 
it is even enough on the surface to walk upon. The columns are I'rom 
H to 18 inches in diameter; every one is a prit^m, mustly of six sides 
as it stands on end, but the sides are not equal. Some of the columns 
have five sides, and a few four ; some also have seven sides or eight, and 
the guides show one with nine, but there arc ten times as many with 
six sides as there are of all the other put together. 

No two sides of a column are equal ; the six sides of any one column 
mre respectively tHjual to the adjacent sides of the surrounding columns. 
Whether those sides bo long or short, they all meet exactly ut the 
UDg\e9, where there are no interstices or opens of any kind. A. 
ningle column is usually bounded by six planes, each a regular pa- 
rullelogrum, from bottom to top, the whole like one long stone, with 
six angles. Besides the vertical joints which separate the columns, 
there are cross joints also in every column. Those cross joints are 
acddom visible when the column is in gitu; but when it is quarried* the 
rtone breaks across at every joint. These joints are not regular planes. 
There is a convex and a concave surface in each, which fit with great 
exactoees. The convex surface is usually uppermost on every piece, 
but not always. On account of the convex and concave surfaces in a 
joint, there is always a space where the stnue on the concave side is 
prolonged, and reaches two or three inches over the convex joint at the 
angle, making there a sharp point. These points are called spurs. They 
inoetly break off in the qnarryiog. 

B. I. A. PBOC. — VOL. X. 2 T 


Fig. 7, called the Ladj^s Chair, is from a photographic sketch, 
looking eaatward up the elope from the west Bide of the Causeway. It 
shows the articulations of the joints, both vertical and horizontal; 
some of the latter convex and some concave. The points called spur* 
referred to in the last paragraph, are seen broken off in several of the 
blocks. Half on inch from the base, near the left hand comer, some 
water is seen in a black spot of oval form, resting in the hollow of one 
of the columns. Visitors can walk over this slope with facility. 

Fig. 7- 

BalMltio Columntf, at tLo Giant's CausowKy, c^ed " The Lady's Chur." 

At the south end of the Causeway is a whin dyko, about 10 feet wide, 
which cuts through the Causeway itself. This dyko has had the effect of 
elevating the columns which come in contact with it on the west side, 
80 that the present position of the columnii shows the sloping outwards, 
at an angle of about 1 1 0°. The guides call this group the Giant's Artil- 
lery, or the Giant's Cannon. It is worthy of remark, that the columns 
are as complete as any others about the Causeway, and that they must 
have been hardened and crystalliiied before the intrusion of the melted 
matter of tho dyke. 

The eastern fa<;ade of the Causeway is called the Giant's Loom, and 
tho longest column in the loom is 34 feet. Some of them have 38 
joints visible. The base of tho layer at the loom is not visible at low 
water. As it rise?, however, in the cliff to the east, it is seen in its 
continuation to rest on red ochre. 

In the Giant's Organ, a noble facade, which is situated at the esst 
side of Port Noffcr, the bay next east of the Causeway, the longest 
column is 42 feet : but the rod ochro on which it lies it not visibLo 






at tliis apot, so that the layer may bo a few feci thicker, and the 
oolumns a few feet longer. Where the layer is well developed, in the 
face of the cliff at Plaiskin. and at Bengore Head, it is not accosaible 
for mea»urcmont by line and rulo to ordinor}* visitors, nor even in 
fiiTonrable circiunstances for trigonometrical zneaaurement, from the 
perpetual agitation of the ocean on this coast. 

Basaltic columns occur in many other places in Antrim besides the 
Causeway; but they are chiefly confined to a zone, a mile or two 
wide along the north coast, between Ballycastle and Portruah. They 
are to be found farther inland, but the surface is, for the most part, co- 
vered with tillage or bog, and they are not visible. The ranges of 
[pillarB are found at various heights in the hills, above the level of the 
■ca. The following Table shows the localities of the chief groups of 
them, and the heights at which they ocour in each place above sea 
level : — 

Basaltic Pillart in rariou4 LoealittM, Heipfat 

above Lerel. 

1 . Islandmore Upper and Crossreagh ; two ranges, one 

over the other, nearly half a mile long* running north 

and south, 3^ miles north-cast of Colcrainc, . 350 

2. CraigahulUar, 4^ miles north-east of Coleraine, . . 250 

3. Cloyfn, 3 miles north-east of Coleraine, ... — 

4. Toberdoman, or Dunmull, 5 miles north-cast of CJole- 

raine, 434 

4. Ballyhome and Urbalreagh, 6 miles nort-east of Gule- 

rainc, 436 

6. Ballytobcr, 7 miles north-east of Coleraine, . . 245 

7. Boneyclossagh. ^ mile east of Bunluce, . . 319 
A. Bushmills, in the river banks at the town, . . 60 
9, Camkirk, 2 miles north-east of Bushmills, . . 270 

10. Tonduff, one mile south of Bengore Head, and 3 miles 
north-cast of Bushmills, 300 

11. Croaghmore* 5 miles east of Bushmills, and I mile 
south of Whitepark, 682 

12. Knockfwghey, half a mile east of Ballintoy, . , 578 

13. Glenstaghey, 1 mile east of Ballintoy^ . . . 4S0 

14. Craiganee, 1 mile south-east of Ballintoy, . . 560 
16. Ballycastle, near the harbour, rudely columnar trap, 

cofiimns three to six feet diameter, .... sea. 

16. BaUvgally Head, 4 miles north of Lame, . . sea. 

17. Block Ht-ad, 6 miles north-east of Carrickfergus, . 210 

18. White Head, 4 miles north-east of Carrickfergus, . 80 
19 Shane's Castle, on the north shore of Lough Noagh, . 60 
20. Month of Olenavy River, 13 miles west of Belfast, 

near tiie shore of Lough >^eagh, , . , , 60 

I Bhall give a few more illustrations of basaltic columns, in different 
conditions. Fig. 8 is a view of a dyke of columnar trap, in brccciatod 


trap, at Boneyclassagh, half a mile eaat of Buuluce Castle, on the south 
side of the road. Tfao columns are quarried, to be broken for the roads, 
being more easily got. The brcociated trap is softer and tougher, aad 
is not so good as a road material, and is more difficult to quarry. The 
columns are about 6 feet long and 6 to 8 inches diameter. The whole 
columnar mass is like the upper arms of a fork; and though a junction 
iras not exposed when I was there (August, ld58\ I believe they join a 
few feet down. The right branch of the fork is composed of two 
separate dykes ; the left only one. The columnar trap here appears to 
have been projected into the breccia, and to terminate in a rough, 
lenticular form. There is no ochre adjoining it, which would afford a 
facility for opening a crevice, when the rock wn« agitated. Thrre 
must have been a violent rupture in the tough breccia. I suppose the 
two arms of this dyke to join below in the form of the letter Y. 

Whin Dyke is brcccUtcd Trap, ai Bon«yclu«iigh, dmt Dunluce. 

There is a peculiarly-shaped mass of trap at Ardihannon, on 
east side of the Little road that leads from the hotel down to the Qiant^ 
Causeway. The whole matw is intruded into the great layer of brec- 
cia near the top of the cliff at the Causeway. The mass affects the 
columnar form ; but it is not columnar ; it is more in the form of solid 
flag-like sheets, from six lo twelve inches thick. The joints are 8mix>th 
but uneven and irregular. At the right-band side, looking up, it ap- 
pears to be columnar. Towards the middle, the masses are bent, so 
that the two endti form au angle at the bend. This is the mdest of tho 
masses, with any pretensions to articulation, which I have seen on the 
north coast, This trap, like all the other columnar trap, is very 6ne- 
grained, so as to give a conchoidul fracture, similarly to that in tho 
columns at the Causeway. The place ban the appearance of an attempt 
having bpAD mode by adventurous labourers to quarry some of tho 





but thifi could not go far. There are 40 feet of brecciat«d trap» 
tag % Teiy eteep precipice over it, so that, if quarried to any extout, 
it should be excavated in the maimer of a mine. The height of this 
masfl 13 from eight to ten feet 

There is another example of rudely columnar trap at Ardihannon 
aim. on the east side of tlie by road leading from the hotel down to the 
Giant's Causeway. The columns are about two feet diameter, and 14 
lo 1 6 feet long. It ia in the same layer of brccciated trap as the last 
ev.-ribedt but lower down in the face of the clitfes This dyke appears 
also to hare been quarried for building to some extent. The lace of the 
mau may be 40 or 60 feet long; and it thins out at the ends, so that 
the whule is of a rudely lenticular form. No side of a column is a 
pkoe, and no solid angle is on a straight line through. The columns 
are therefore irregular, and indicate perhaps a wane of time in cooling 
to produce the regular articulation of the Causeway columns. In all 
the rarictice of trap, it appears that the thin masses, which are Ftip- 
poaed to hare cooled the most rapidly, are the finest in the grain. The 
greenstone dykes of Donegal show this fact well. A very thin dyke is 
■Imoflt as fine-grained as coarse black glass. Dykes of pitehatone ure 
often of this kind. D}-kes 30 or 60 feet thick are very coarse-grained, 
and often show the white crystals (a component of the rock) like grains 
of oata ia the black mass of the hornblende. 



^HT Fig. 9 is a sketch of a basaltic range of columns at Craigahulliar, 
^tialf a mile east of Bally willin church. This is one of the most beauti- 
' ful colonnades that can be seen. It is under a maea of tabular basalt, 
extent is 190 feet, presenting its fa^ado towards the north-north- 
rest. The pillars arc from 16 to 18 feet high; and the joints of 
which they are composed about a foot and a half. Most of ibem are 

ColumnAT Bualt ooderlying tba Ubular Bualt at Cr«ig»huiUar. 

some were~TTi?Briaoe(l and m»< 

2. At Thi-Figh ("the side point), ll 
down to the sea; it is covered with| 
exhibits two osaemblagee of square 
Head. The lower part of this group i| 
dimensions; the upper ones those that' 

3. Rue na Scarce, in the towuland oJ 
projecting joint of land, with a real causi 
to the Giant's Causeway itself; the pif 
pavement is nearly horizontal. 

4. At Doon Point the rock is said 
B4^n a painting mode of curved column^ 
unique character. It was painted by 
fith's lectures, and was many years in tl 

6. Near Ushet Haven, on the south-e| 
mor na hoosid, there is a very elegant 
in a north-cast direction, mounting over 
are five and six-sided ; the largest arc tec 
inches in diameter. 

2)i9loeationi on the N 

The northern coast of Antrim is m 
peculiar facility of tracing the extent o 
divided by means of the white chalk abul 
black basalt at the junctions, which can ! 
the trap, which is columnar, ia easily s 
which IB not, and in this way every bl< 
tinguished. These blocks arc mostly i 
vertical joints or cracks : whether these ; 
the time of the upheaval of the land or no 
on the shore for the most part affects a lei 
are pushed up higher than others. To si 
give approximate measurements of the a 
trap as they appear on the shore, and th< 


Ifitei. Forlc*. 

SLTcspfronlhiiifaioeGmdetotfaeBiuhfoot, .30 

aL Chalk, CMtitf tike Bmiiibot, .03 

Tfatt dialk nam hke a flat segment, and dips 
vndsr flie tnqp esat and west 

4. Tnp from Blaeknwk to Fbrt Bradan, . ..47 

Tina tn^ hiclndca the Giant's Canseway, and 
prem a Tiew of all the colmnnar layers about Ben- 
goce Head, ▼hieh form a great arch, as already 

6. Chalk from Port Bradan to Port Campley, 1 7| 

mie western jnnction of this chalk with the 
tnp is a Tertical lanlt. On the east the chaUc 
dips nnder the tr^i. In this dirision the chalk 
of WhiteparkisalleleTatod in the form of a great 
areh; its base line in the middle is about 100 
feet OTer sea lerel, but the lias and inferior 
rocks nnder it are mostly covered with sand. 

6. Tr^ from Port Oampley to Boheeehane Bay, 3| 

This trap is a protruded mass. It has chalk 
on the west, soath, and east of it, and reaches 
oidy a abort way inland. 

7. Chalk from Boheeshane Bay to near Carrickarede, . 1 

The junctions with this chalk are complicated. 

8. Trsp from near Carrickarede to the Giant's Glen, 5| 

9. Chidk from the Giant's Glen to Portmore, ..04 

This chalk has trap on top, and it dips both 
east and west nnder it. 

10. Trap from Portmore to Doney Gregor, ..14 

A triangle of chalk is included in this diTiston. 
About the middle of it, at Kenbane Head, there 
are one or two large masses of chalk caught 
up in the trap and separated from the parent 
rock ; one of these is described at page 287. 

11. Trap from Boney Gr^or to Ballycastle, on the 

top of the cliff, 17 

Bather more than half way in this division the 
chalk rises from the water ^ forming a white flat 
segment, which ascends in the middle to half the 
h^ght of the difll The base line of this arch 
is about three fbrlongs. 

At Ballycastle is the line of separation between the great field of 
tnp rocks, at the surface on the west, and the coal-measures along the 
shore to the east. This change appears to have been produced by one 
of those faults on the great scales which I have been just describing. 
The line of this fault is nearly north and south. It is in the stream 
at Ballycastle, which comes down from Cape Castle, along the west side 
of Knocklayd mountain. This stream seems to be the seat of it In 
the fault there is a downthrow to the west of the coal-measnres, chalk, 


trap, and all, of about 800 feet, there being that difference of eletiiiioii 
between the bed of chalk on the west brow of Knocklayd and at the 
quarries at Baliycostle. Southwards from Cape OaflLlo etream, this line 
paaaea a little to the east of Armoy Church, and on towards Clogh ntill». 
The east side of the line of the valley seems here for some miles to indi- 
cate its position, as chalk and trap occur on the west side at Balleny, 
Limehili, Corkey, &c., &c.. 

Of the Ages of Igneous Rocks. — Sir Richard Griffith says in the 
"Dublin CreologicnlJoumal," vol i, p. 155: *' It has been long known 
that granite, sicnite, and traps arc of different ages." On cloee exa- 
mination of the great trap district of Antrim, he thinks that that district 
has been the theatre of eight distinct epochs, and he gives the resolt of 
his obserrations in on ascending order, as follows : — 

1. Granite. 

2. Sienite. 

6. Cushendall porphyry. 

7- Intruded mountain masaes 

of trap. 
8. Trap dykoa. 

3. Lower tabular trap. 

4. Sandy Brae porphyry. 
6. Upper tabular trap. 

The succession of somo of these is very clear, and cannot be mistakcD. 
On such of them as are obsrure he appears to me to hare come in some 
cases to very doubtful conclusions, and in &ome to positively erroneuus 

To begin with the granite, the rock which Sir Richard colls by that 
name, occurs on the shore at Costlepark, half a mile north-east of 
Cushendun. He says,* " It is of a brownish red colour, containing 
large crystals of gln-^sy frlspar." Again, " Its general structure is por- 
phyritie, and occasionally the crystals of bro^vnish red ft4spar are large 
and beautiful. At ArdsiUach, a mile north-west of the some place, there 
is a moss of it about 50 feet thick, incnided between, and parallel with, 
the beds of mica slate, as a subordinate rock. If this reddish rock oc- 
casionally assumes the character of a porphyry, it cannot be called a true 
granite. In fhct it very closely reaemblos ihe felspar trap of the veins on 
the coast between Cushendun and Hurlogh Bay, in colour, and every- 
thing except the mica. I believe them to be all the same rock which has 
been protruded through the mica slate on this coast, and which, wlico it 
occurs in larger masses than usual, has mica developed as well as Urge 
crystals of glassy felspar. If these views be correct, it is newer than 
the chalk, for thu red fcUpor trap reins penetrate that rock at Tor 
Escort, near ilurlogh Bay. The pebbles of red granite got in the new 
rod sandstone conglomerate ut Red Bay, and brought forward as proof 
of its age, may have haij another source. True granite of a very red 
colour occurs for several square miles about Hathfrilnnd, in the coanty 
of Down. 

He places the Sandy Brao porphyry between the lower and upper 
tabolor traps, and the equivalent of the red ochre, on the coast at Ben- 



Dublin Qeobgical Jovnut," vol. I, p,U4- 



gore llead. Xovr, the red ochre beds at Bengore Head have many 
hundred feet in thickness of various kinds of traps over them — amor- 
phouiS colunmar, brecciated. The Haudy Brae porphyry haa uo rook 
over it at all, nor does it appear that it waa ever wlioUy covered over 
with tht tnip of the country aiuce its protrusion ; on the contrary, on 
examining the country round its rourgiii, it appears much more likely 
that it was protruded immediately after the basalt, and is probably of 
the same or the next ago to Sleamiflh mountain, six miles northward 
firom it, which is newer than all the traps except the dykes. 

Uakiag the Cusbendoll jwrphyry more recent than the tabular trap 
seema erroneous, because the now red sandstone oa the shore, at the 
ooaat-gnard stAtion, at Ballisk, near Cushendall, contains in the con- 
glomerate of On base abundance of pebbles and stones of the adjacent 
Cosheudall porphyry — a proof that the porphyry is older. As the new 
rod sandstone of Hed Bay is older than the lius^ the chulk, the tabular 
trap and all, it follows that theCuahendaU porphyry must be older than 
the tabular trap, which is itself newer than the chalk, and rests on it. 

The sienite of Antrim appears to be put into too old a class in the 
Bntiquity of the igneous rooks. Three veins of reddish-brown sienitc 
are seen in the Ooodland cliff, near Alurlogh Buy, and ascend to the top 
of that rock, and penetrate the overlaying chalk at West Tor. This, 1 
consider the same rock, as the so-called granite. It is probably contem- 
poraneouft with all the dykes of sieuite which penetrate the mica slate 
along the shore from Cushcndun to Murlogh Bay. There does not appear 
to bo any good rcoj^on for putting this sienite, which is newer than the 
chalk, into an older claas than theCuahendall porphyry, which waa cer- 
tainly anterior to it. 

This Antrim sienite appears to me to be in colour, grain, and com- 
position, identical with numerous dykes of red felspar trap, wtiieh occur 
in the country botwocn Loch Kathrino and Loch Lomond, in 8oot- 

The subject of whin dykes demands a few observations. LyeU, in 
hia "Principles of Geology,'* vol i., p. 364, describes a flssuro on the 
flank of Etna, between the plains of St. Leo and a mile from the summit, 
ftt the commencement uf the great eruption of 1669. The cleft was twelve 
miles long, and six feet bruad, and was open to the surface. The fissure 
gave out a vivid light, IVom which he, with great probability, concludes 
that it wos filled to n certain height with incandescent bva. After the 
formation of this, five other fissures wore produced, and emitted sounds 
heard at a distance of forty miles. 

Our whin dykes appear to be generally like the fissares above de- 
scribed — they are mostly vertical, but they are sometimes found sloping, 
and tometimes horizontal — having been injected between the level beds 
of eedimcntary rock& Instances of this kind occur at the Scrabo sand- 

m. I. i. PBOC. — VOL. X. 2 c 


stone quarries, near Belfast, and at the Carlingford limeBtonii quarries; 
they are sometimes composed of a mass of trap of one kind. Tite trap in 
every dyke is uiodiQed lu gruin, according to the time occupiud in cooling. 
Narrow dykes are the finest grained ; they are oiten composed of pitch- 
stone, or of rock closely allitd to it. The cooling itself was also probably 
modified by the temperature of the rock into which the melted trap was 
injeeted. Dykes fsometimee show a material differcuce between their 
middle parts and their sides, both in composition and colour, Tha 
change, too, is not gradual, but in steps, each step being like a separate 
wall, and remarkably persisteut in itH >\'idth. Some dykes ore composed 
of three, or four, or five sueh divisions. Those walls appear each t4> 
have been a separute projection, and one to hare been oooled and 
hardened before a second was injected, the whole forming a compound 
dyke. After the first fissure was made, filled, and hardened, new sub- 
terranean force was generated below, and new fluid matter madi; ready 
to be protruded. The side of an old fissure was again more easily pene- 
trated than a new one opened, perhaps through some miles in thickneee 
of rock. 

Dr. Hichardson has drawn up a caroAil account of fourteen whin 
dykes on the north coast of Antrim, between Porlrush and Port Coon, 
which is printed in Dubourdieu's Statistical Survey of the county Antrim, 
p. 68, Appendix. Whoever follows Dr. Hichardson con add but little to 
his clear and accurate descriptions. He found one dyke at the Giant's 
Causeway twenty feet thick ; one at Port na Bi)auia, twelve feel. At 
the west end of the white rocks, near Portru^h, he saw one un inch and 
a-half wide; another only half an inch. All the dykes on the coast arts 
between these extremes of thickness, and the usual range is from three 
1o twelve feet. Vertical whin dykfs, which are the usual kind hero 
are mostly composed of horizontal prisms or columns. ThcM; prisms 
are sometimes three or four tect in diameter; and the thick prisma 
are again subdivided into smaller ones of three or four inches in diameter, 
or one inch, or half sn inch. 

In the " Transactions of the Geological Society of London,*' toI. 
iiL, Dr. iJerger gives some features of the whin dykes in the Ballycasilc 
collieries, which 1 have partly described in the account of the coal- 
measures, p.24C. Thow.' arechicHy — 1, the Saltpans dyke is 8 yards wide; 
2, the north star dyke is 8 yards widej it hue often been tut through 
in working the collieries ; it does not shift the cool, but has rcduc4?d it 
to cinders for 9 feet on each side; 3, Carrickmorc dyke rises 30 feel 
over water; it is about 12 fett wide, but irregulnr. 'ITie rocks in con- 
tact with it are black shale on one side, and white sandstone on the 
other, showing a downthrow of the slrato. These rocks are tillered at 
the contact — the black shale into fiiuty slate, and thu sandstone changed 
from red to while. At 16 yards from the dyke the alteration ceases. 
"Within the collier}' the coal is altered to cinders, and was only tised for 
burning lime. There arc other unimportant thinner whin dykea hen% 
and some slips, wliich throw the strata up or down. These ahiAs are 
described in the account of the coal-measures. 



On the fihore, a little to the west of the pier at Ballyoastle, a sin- 
g^ilar Tcin occnra in the chalk, which there forms the lower portion 
of a cliff, capped with basalt. The ba.*Milt immediately over the chalk 
Approaches to the character of wacke. The vein in question is cal- 
eareoufl, bat includes imbedded bnlLs of wacke, to the predence of which 
the difTcrcnce of its characters from those of the chalk that it trarersea 
may, perhaps^ be attributed. The limestone forming the vein is com- 
pact, breaking flpontoaeously into parallelopipcds, the greater side of 
which is perpendicular to the direction of the vein. The width of this 
vein or dyke is 17 feet. It contains about nine-tenths of calcareous 
matter, with some clay, and specks of bright mica. 

There are a few whin dykes in the coal-measures at Murlogh Bay ; 
two at the upper end of Cloughliws glen, Station No. 22. A large pro- 
trusion of columnar trap at Baligalloy Head, three miles north of 
Lame, which tilts up the beds of chalk on the south side of it to a ver- 
tical position. Another large dyke, or perhaps a continuation of the 
Ballygolley protrusion, occurs at Ballygawn, two miles further N.W. 
This dyke is GO yards wide, cuts through the chalk, and alters it for 60 
fuet on each side, bo that when struck with a hammer it falb into 

Carrickfergus castle stands on a large trap dyke. There are about 
•eventeen dykes between Carrickferg^us and Belfast, on the western 
shore of the Lough ; eight at Cultra on the south shore ; four or six at 
Cavi-.hilL, and Ballysillan ; five or six more at Allan's ravine and 
Ballymoney (Fig. 2) ; eight at A\ighnahough (Station No. 3. Fig. I); 
and half a dozen at Balmer's glen and Moira, already noticed at those 
stationa. I consider that describing these several dykes more in detail 
would bo tedious, and would lead to no useful result. 

Whin dykes, and the rocks they traverse, have not undergone any 
modem disturbance beyond superficial abrasion, but they remain in the 
•amc situation as at the remote period at which they were furmed. 

Fig. 10 is a sectional sketch, to represent the position of the 
rocks nt Portrush, and at the Skerries Islands near it. These rocks, 
•bout the year 1790, were the theme of much controversy between the 
geological parties of that time. Fossils were found in a hard, black, 
fine-grained rock here, which very much resembled some varieties of 
imp ; and from this it was said the trap contained fossils by one party; 
this was OS stoutly denied by the otlicr. 

The masses H rf, arc grocnstone dykcw, which are parallel to the 
bedding of the lias, and most probably are emanations from the Port- 
rush moss, which by force from below were projected into the beds of 
the lins, and came to the Burfuoe ut d d^ immediately under a a, 
beds of soft lias day, which are usually fall of the foAsils of that rock. 

The lias clay at a a, where it is in contact with the green- 
itone, instead of being a soil bluish-gray clayey rock, as it occurs 
in ordinary cases, is converted into a very hard, black, close-grained 
icious rock, wholly different in lithological character from the ordi- 
BHpect it asBumes. This change is supposed to have been effected 


by the gmat heat of the im;aiide«cent greenstone in oontaot with it 
The foflails, however, retain their forms, and can be recognised in the 
altered hard rock. 

Fig. 10. 

Section iboning Ihe protnuion of Grwrncfm* into bedi of IJiMB it 

SkcrriM, ncnr Portrush, 

a, tbo crysulllnc greeoitone which underllea it. 

6f represent* the liu with Ha cUjv, ihales, and limetlonai, which occur in 
the ta«y esit of Fortrusb. 

Bj this explanation it can be understood how the foesils found in 
the altered lias were considered to be found in trap. Thousands of am- 
mouitea may be seen in this black flinty rock immediately eant of the 
greenstone protrusion of Portrush, where a tbin layer of altered lias 
clay reposes on it at high-water murk. Besides the fossils, those 
Skerries protrusions show how a horizontnl dyke, or one nearly so, 
may be thrown out &otu a melted mass of greenstoDC iuto other strata. 

Li^m'tf, or Wood Coal. 

In Dobourdieu'e Statistical Survey of the County of Antrim lio 
gives, at page 87, a letter from Kev. Bolwrt Trail, on wwnd coal. This 
subject is one that should not be passed over in the geology of Antrim ; 
and as my own experience in matters of detail of this kind is not ex- 
tensive, I shall quote Mr. Trail's letter, which appears to mo to bo all 
an inquiring mind could desire. He lived upon tlic spot, he quarried 
the uoul, and burned it, and he was able to describe the details regard- 
ing it. He says — •* In most places where I have observed this aub- 
atance, columns of basalt are placed over it. In my own quarry oa 
tlM glebe it is to be found underneath twenty feet of solid rock in a 
oomprossed state, or flattened appearance; the outward edges, howcvw, 
hare preserved, in many instances, a degree of roundness, and I havie 



heard of some pieces being got perfectly rouod, as in their origioal 
nhupe. The bark and knota are quite distinct, and you may reckon 
the ringB of itfi annual growth. I have even seen the rooLa of the troea, 
*nd diiitinctly traced the ramifications, where they were not covered 
with basalt, and could readily perceive that they had been laid down 
by some force pressing against them, precisely like trees blown down 
by a fttorm. Those roots were vifiiblo on the west side, and the trees 
inu.<^t have fallen with their heads towards the east. I can also relate, 
with tolerable certainty, that lUl this substance has been fir trees; 
there may be some of a different apwies ; because, where the weight boa 
been greater, the substance becomeB harder, and more nearly resem- 
bling coal, and of course not to be so accurately distinguished. It 
will not answer for the forge, as it will neither bear the bellows nor 
Ftirhng. In this country it is known by the name of wooden coal, and 
when other fuel cannot be had, it proves a useful subslitute. For 
en entire winter I used it; the smell is unpleasant, nearly resembling 
that which arir^es from the burning of a rotten stick. It is also used in 
burning lime, but from the quantity of ashes which mix with the lime, 
it makes bad mortAr, though good manure. It was first brought into 
notice by Mr. Alexander Stewart, about sixty years ago (1750), who 
had been informed that the appearance of it indicated good coal be- 
neath. Some search ha^nng been made at a place called Kiltymorris, 
near the centre of the county, in consequence of the appearance of this 
wooden coal, was so fur unsuccessful that no other kind was found. 
I hove to add that it was first discovered in the face of the hill ubove 
Jlallintoy, and from its having been found useful, attempts were sue- 
c<'ssrully mode to find it elsewhere ; but I have not heard of any being 
found to the east of Ballintoy town. On the west side, however, par- 
ticularly in the townland of Limincogh, it is got in great abundance. 
Unfortunately, both there and in Kallintoy the pits happened to take 
fire, and the latter place continued burning for several years. Yarioui 
•tictzipte were made to extinguish it, but all proved fruitless; and 
finally it was smothered by the falling in of the superincumbent mass. 
This fossil wood i^ generally found in veins; where these arc of the 
least thickness, the appearance of the wood is most distinct. These 
Veins are from two invhes to four or five feet thick, and universally 
run from east to west.'' 

Mr. Dubordieu continues : — ** On the eastern shore of Lough Neagh 
it has also been met with, near Portmore^ in Urge masses. It is there 
known by the name of block wood.'* Two beds, each five feet thick, 
and a third stratum, nine feet thick, at the depth of eighty yards, and 
cigliteen inches more, were penetrated in the fourth stratum ; but, not 
laving Buffioient length of rods, it was given up. Also between Bal- 
iderry and Cnimlin, on the same shore, Mr. French was at a great 
expcmae on the first stratum, which was thirty inches thick at the end 
of the level or drive. 

A vety curious circumstance has lately been observed at Bengore 
respecting this fossil wood. A considerable stratum is found 


between two rows of pillnrs. It is in a place very difficult of occeaa, 
bat tbe fact, I believe, ia so. What an oxhaustless source of speonU- 
tion and conjecture does thi^ furnish to geologists. 

Lignite is got in the cliff over the Giant's Canflcway, in the mixed 
or brecciated layer, between the two columnar layers at that place. 
The guidei) show its position. It Is from six to eight feet thick. It ia 
accompanied by wackt^ in thin beds, which alternate with it 

Doctor Scouler has done good Bervice on this part of my pnbject in 
the south-west part of the county, in the vicinity of Lough Neagh. Ho 
tirst quotes Grom a work by Barton^* entitled ** Lectures on the Natural 
History of Lough Noagh, 1757 " :— 

*' At a place called Ahaness, which is nearly opposite Ram's Island, 
and not fur from Glenavy Watorfoot, the silicified wood is found in a 
bed of lignite, which ia covered by a stratum of clay. At this locality 
there is a bank on the shores of the lake twelve feet high, and ninety 
feet distant from the water. Under the following section was obtained 
by digging : — " The upper stratum is a bed of red clay, three feet deep ; 
the second, a bed of blue clay, four feet deep ; the tlurd was a stmtum 
of black wood, four fe4;t in thickness, which reposes on another stratum 
of clay. This stratum of wood is of one uniform mass, and capable of 
being cut with a spade. Sometimes the wood will not easily break- 
In that case it re<]uires the aid of some other tool to Boporate it from 
le mass, and may, if properly done, afford a block of two, three, or 
IT hundred pounds, which, being carefully examined, is found to 
msist more or less of stone." To Barton, therefore, the merit is due 
of being the first to ascertain the relation of the silicified wood to the 

At Ahaness, Dr. Scotilcr himBclf employed a man in digging till he 
obtained specimens of both kinds of wood. The lignite, he sayta 
(p. 236), '* consists of portions of stems and branches of trees, but nofl 
roots were observed ; but, from the circumstance that many of the 
specimens still retain their bark, it is probable that they have soffcrcd 
no lengthened transportation. The wood splits readily in the direction 
of its fibres ; while in the transverse direction it is broken, so as to 
display a smooth surface, as if it had been cut by some instrument. J 
This is probably the result of some concretionary arrangement, whicllH 
has taken place subsequently to the deposition of the wood, and which " 
appears more perfectly in the older and more altered coals of the car- 
boniferous epoch. This lignite is also sometimes studded over with 
little crusts of calcareous matter, which have also penetrated the sub- , 
stance of the wood, forming small veins. This change is probablyS 
posterior to the fiillcifying process, and ia perhaps at present iu pro*| 

".Like the analogous deposit at Vemer's Bridge, the depth and 
extent of the ligniferoas bed has not been ascertained, but must be 

Journal of tlic Geological Bocwty df Dublin," vol. i., p. 205. 


rery grea(. Donald Stutirt, who exuniinud this port of the country, 
under the direction of llie Hoyal Diihlin Society, states that a fruilluds 
Kurch for coal was made in this (juarter, at rortmore. Tlu-y bort'd 
through two bi'dfi of coal, or wlial iii called black woud, twouty-fivo feet 
thick each, and a third stmtuni, nine feet thick^ and eighty yards 
deep. They bored eighteen iuch«6 deep, into a fourth stratum, having 
no more rods to go deeiKT,'' 

If we travel along the shores of Lough Neugh, from Cranfield, on 
the north, to the pariah of Seago, in Armagh, on the south, wo observe 
the ftilicilied wood at the mouth of the Glenavy river; thence, three 
milea inland, at the village of Olenavy. We also £ud it in the Crumlin 
River, at an tquul diutuncc from the lake ; also, at Lung ford Lodge; 
and again, in rolled pieces at the mouth of the Main river, near 
Shane's Castle. 

It may be necessary to give some account of tliose fusbil woods, 
I and to ascertain the class of vc^etiiblos to which tliey belong. It has 
k^^^n already stated that they are found in two vatictieti of position ; in 
^^Kc first they ai'e associated with the lignites, undt-r beds of clay; in 
^^Ke s<.*coud they appear neoier the surface, in accumulation of traiis- 
^^Kort<>d matter. In the tirst position they are of a dark colour, and 
^^hnrccly distinguishable by the eye from the ordinary lignite. When 
^^^ore minutely examined, they are found in some case» to consist of a 
' uniform mixture of carbonaceous and silicioua matter; and when in 
this «lat<! are very opt to be neglected, as it is ditHcult to detect their 
woody texture ; in other eas«s, even the layers of growth can be easily 
observed. Very frequently layei*B of woody matter still exist amid the 
ftilicious substance, and, in that case, the two can be easily separated. 
All the specimens eplit readily, in t)ie direction of the fibres of the 
wood. They are frequently covered on the surface with minute but 
distinct crystals of quartz, which also penetrate their tibsures. More 
rarely, a thin coating of chalcedony has been observed. From these 
circumstances it appears improbable that they could ever have been 
transported; for exposure to the weather whitens them, by removing 
the carbonaceous matter ; and, as they are usually angular, and have 
portions of wood adhering to them, or are studded over with crystals, 
they cannot have been exposed to attrition. 

Wheu found in the siqHrfieial alluvium, if long exposed, they are 

Kually of a looser texture, from the loss of woody matters. Their 
lour, from the some circumstance, is white, and heitce the notion 
at they were specimens of petrified holly. Nothing is more common 
than to find specimens which are black internally and white at the 
surface ; and any black specimen may be whitened by burning. It is 
in this state tliat most of the npeeimens arc found, either when casually 
taming up the soil, or in the courses of streams. 

The specimens vary in size ; sometimes weighing nearly a ton, as 
the splendid specimen preserved at Langford Lodge. They arc also 
y abundant in some places. I have seen a great number of fine 
ximens in a garden in the Tillage of Glenavy. 

■N*^^ — 




Alhite is found in diatiiict oiyatals, imbedded in greenstone par 
phjry at Bullycastle. 

Analcime is common in the cavitios of the trap and basaltic rock«, 
aa at the Oianl'a Causuway ; in Btnoil transparent crystals; at Dunlaoc 
Castle ; O'Hara's Itocks, near Port Stewart, where it is plentilUl, lining 
fissures, and forming nodules in nmygdaloid. It in studded with pyra- 
midal crystals of yellow Calcite at (jtlenorra ; at Doon Point, in Ilathlia 
Isle, iu tine whit^ truneluccut crystals with IIe*ot*fpe (see aUo, under 
FarQelitf and Gmdinitc). Plenti^ at Layd, at Tiokmoorevon, and at 
Deer Park, Glenann. 

Antrimolite is found at Ballintoy, snowy white, investing pyrami- 
dal crystals of yellow, Galcite or disposed on ChabasitCy in the cavities of 
amygdaloid; sometimes studded with rhombs of brown Caicitf. It is 
found at Bengore Head, and also at the Causeway, in a similar rock 
(see also Annffonife,) 

Apatite occurs, yellowish white, in doubly-terminated six-cided 
prisms, in a basaltic dyke near Kilroot. * 

ApophijUite occurs at Ballintoy in soft wacke, in four-sided pyramids, 
sometimes truncated, of a yellowish white or greenish colour, disposed 
on Stilhite ; at Portrush. in small, perfectly transparent crystals of the 
primary form, with MmoU^ in cavities of the augitic rock ; also in \mrg« 
crystals, white or slightly translucent, near Portrush ; at Agnew'a 
Hill, fire miles west of Lame, iu forms similar to those met witk at 
Portrush ; also at Island Alagoc. 

ArragoniU occurs at Ballintoy, associated with AntrimoUU^ of a fine 
oil green colour, radiated ; occasionally at Portrush, and at the Giant** 

Augite oc<;ura in large distinct crystals of block and grccnish-black 
colour, in the cavities of the black augitic rock at Portrush, coated by 
and associated with 2I$*oUt also at Fair Head ; at Agnew's-hiU, near 
Lnrne; at Tor Head, Cuihendun (see also Olivine). 

BretettsriU is found coating earitiea in amygdaloidal rocks at Uie 
Giant's Causeway. 

Caleitt iu found at Ballintoy, with AntrimoUte^ and at the Giant's 
Causeway, of a rich honey-yellow, or orange colour, highly translucent, 
sometimes locally called sugar-candy; at Tickmacrevan, in large crys- 
talline masses, in chalk, often replacing and taking the form of the 
Hints; at Portstewart, iu aggregated rhombohedral crystals, with a po* 
oulior oily lustre (ace also under A nalcime^ Chabimtv, NatroHtt). Through- 
out the trap districts of Ireland, veins of CalciU, generally of a yellow 
colour, ore common. 

Chtibasite. — This mineral occurs at the Causeway, along with Siil- 
hite, in tine white translucent crystals, and in amygdaloid at Ballintoy, 
(see also Antrimolitt, ModaliU). The best specimens from Portrush ara 
of considerable size and transparent; near the Boll, in Rathlin Island, 
with crystah! of Calc-tpar : at Island Magee. near Lame, of a light-n«d 

colour; also in bluish white transparent crystals, in tho caTities of a 
forrnginous amygdaloid, at Sallagh Braes, near Lame; in amygdaloid, 
nt PortsU?wart. 

CMceeUmtf is found on the coast near Ballycastle ; at Knouklayd 
and on the shores of Lough Neagh (aee also under Chlorophttite), 

Chioraphteit^ is found in thin crusts in CMcedony in Antrim; am 
in smiill botryoidal groups in vesicular trap at Downhill. 

VhrywliU occurs ia small crystals in the crystulUne traps of tho 
Causeway; they are occasionally observed all along the buooiiic range. 

Cordi^iU ia found in the Inland of Rathlin. 

Dolomite, — At Ballygawn, tluee miles north-west of Ballygally 
Head, below Lame, iii Antrim. Here it appears to bo altered chalk 
It in in contact with a large whin dyke. 

Doranitt \& found in basalt two miles west of Carrickfergus. 

EpidoU is got in veins at Fair Head, with quartz, fluor, and pink 
felspar. It is granular, and forms veins in the homblendic rock at 
Tie veragh- hill, near Cuahendall. 

Far6eUU occurs in greenstone at Portrush; at Agnew'a Hill, west 
of Ijime ; at the north-west of Kathlin Island, in distinct globules, 
and in mamillary coatings, associated with transparent Anaicitnt, and 
M«9oliU, at Black Cave, near Lame (see MtaoU). 

Ftispar, — FaiifliUt a greenish to a darkish-green rock, containing 
diflseminated spherules, white or greenish- white, having the nature of 
felspar, is found in this county, RhtfacoUte, common in tracbytic por- 
phjry in distinct crystals, is also found. 

Omtlmite occurs at Portrush in large and nearly opaaue cryetak, of a 
greenish- white colour ; but is not common tlierc. At the Little Deerpark, 
Olenarm, in greenstone, in very -distinct and perlVct crystals, white 
•nd transparent. At Island Magee, where it is very common, in tho 
osvities of the trap rocks, the crystals are commonly small, but measure 
oocaiionally half an inch across. In colour, they range &om straw- 
yellow to deep flesh-red, and vary from opaque to transparent. They 
are often associated with small pinkish crystals of FhUlipsitet and 
^th M$aoij/p0 and Analcimt, At Larue Olen and Black Head, near 
Larae, io large cryiitals, of a pole flesh-colour, and nearly transparent. 

Oretn tarth is found in the trap and amygdoloidol rocks of Antrim. 
It 18 common, lining Uie cai-ilies in amygdaloid. 

Gyp»uM is found at Kilroot, near Carrickfergas, in large transparent 
ftnd aggregated crystals, over the salt bed at that place. Fibrous 
Oyptum, or Satm Spar, occure in the volley of tho Forth, near Belfiist. 

JlarmiUopu is found in basalt at the Giant'a Causeway. 

Harringtonite^ or amorphous MesoliU^ is found in veins half an inch 
thick, in fine-grained greenstone, at Portrush and at ihe Skerries ; 
at Island Magee; at Agnew's Hill, Ave miles west of Lame. 

fftmattU, red, compact, flbrous and botryoidal, occurs in Boi^^ at 
Ballintoy ; similarly at Bathlin Island. 

JJeulandUe occurs at Portrush, in cavities in greenstone, and in trap \ 
at the Giant's Causeway, well crj-stallized ; at Ballintoy, with StiUtitt; 

k. PBOC. — VOL. X. 2 X 




in nnall crystals of an olire brown, remarkable for their lustre, in por- 
phyry, at Sandy Braee. 

Iludrophnne, of a brownish-white colour, occurs in amygdaloid, near 
the Giant's Causeway ; and at Croasreagh, parish of Ballywillin. 

Jtt9p»r, in the porphyry, on the shore near CushendalL 

Zaumom'U is found at Lame; at Portnish rarely; at Ballintoy, 
with Htilbiie, 

Levynfi occurs at Little Beerpark, Glenornif in small distinct 
translucent crystals ; in trap, with Mesotyp* ; at Island Magee, of a 
yellowish-white, or pale flesh-colour. 

Litfnite (sec p. 320 d Sfq.), Also in Rathlin Island. 

Ltthomar^e, of greenish-white colour, highly indurated, is found in 
mosses in the trap rocks at Dunluce; also at Port Brodden ; at Ballin- 
toy ; and at Sallagh Braes, near Lame. 

Magneiiie, or Magnetic iron ore, is found in amygdaloid at Island 
Magee, and the Isle of Muck, near it. 

Mvsole — Farotlite (set* u\m AftophylliU^ Augtte), 

Metclite is found in fine aoicular crystals at the Giant's Causeway 
(see also under Farbelite). 

M«9oiyp€ (see under Analehne, GmeJiniie, L^vyne.) 

Micaceous Iron Ore is got at Island Magee in crystals and tables, dia- 
seminatcd through, and forming irregular strings or veins in claystone. 

Natrolite occurs at Camcastle ; at the Little Deerpark, with Ct^ 
ft* f « in trap, and in delicate silky crystals in amygdaloidal claystone; 
occasionally at the Causeway ; at Ardihannon Cove ; at Portrush ; at 
Little Deerpark, snow-white, sometimefl brownish -white; at Island 
Magee, near Lame, in fine crystals, and radiating masses ; at the Cara 
Hill, Belf/i*'t fibrous and compact, of a pale-red colour in trap. 

Ocinhedral Iron Ore is got at Isle of Muck, of a fine black colour; 
on exposure becoming coated with peroxide of iron, frequently with a 
tempered steel tarnish. It is got in small, but perfect octahedrone; 
also in rhombic dodecahedrons. 

Obnidtan is found at Sandy Braes. It occurs of velvet-blsck colour, 
in the vesicular cavities of fine-grained greenstone at the Causeway, 
but is rare; also occasionally at CraigahuUiar, near Portrush. 

Olirine. — Got in basalt and trap near the Giant's Causeway, of an 
olive-green colour and brownish, disseminated, and in small crystalline 
masses; with Augite, at Fairhead, in small grains; in trap, at Ballintoy ; 
at Agnew's Hill, partially decomposed, and poasesoing a semi-metallio 
lustre ; at White House, near Belfast, of a fine cherry-red colour, and 
translucent, and in large crystalline concretions in the trap of Island 

Onyx occurs at the Causeway, in amydgdaloid ; on RAthlin Island, 
striped white and yellowish-brown. 

Opal is found at the Causeway; in Bathlin Island; at OrtMsraaigh, 
near Coloraine ; at Sandy Braes it is abundant in the pitehstone por- 
phyrj', generally opaque and white ; also, yellow, or reddiBh-yeUow, 
and highly translucent. 


Piickttont oocun At Sandy Brues, aocompanittd by i*«tkrUumt. 

PkiilipnlB occors in greyish white translucent crystals at the 
Causeway in small flesh-red rryetals, with Gmelmite, coating the 
cavities of reddish-coloured earthy amygdaloid at Island Ma^ee (see 
OwuiimU). The PMUiptitt bote always forma the coating next the 

Rk^dttUU is found associated with Chahoiite and calaic carbonate, in 
the cavities of amygdaloid, at Ballintoy, undat the Caascway. 

Qitarig is got in Knocklayd Mountain, near Ballycu-^tle ; at Divis, 
sear Belfast, in colourless crystals. At Dungiren was found a largo 
crystal, now in the poseession of Mr. Ogilby, weighing nearly ninety 

So^ 8<tJt is found at Duncnie, near Carriokfergns (see p. 262). 

Soporiitj or Soaptfon*. — A soft Yariety which hardens on exposure, 
ocears in the amygdaloid rocks of Antnm, generally in nodules of a 
grey, yellow, or brown colour. 

Spe^ar Iron ia got in the Isle of Magec, near Lame. 

Stiliile occurs with Chahasiie in g«odr$ at the Causeway ; at Ballin- 
, cream-coloured in sheaf-like aggregations, occasionally Unoly ory»> 
cd with IlenlandiU ; at Portrush, aggregated white and globular; 
Bengorc Head, in small white crystdU, with ApophyUiU ; at Bruce's 
Oastle, Rathlin Island, in drusy cavities in greenstoue ; at Dunluoe 
CBstio. (Boo also under ApophyiUi«t Chabatiic, UeulandiUt and Lau- 

StUphate of Alumina ocean as an effloresoenco in the lias shales at 

TWr is found near tho Causeway ; near Dunluco Castle it ia dendritic, 
opal while, and pale green. 

Tho»i»9nite, got occasionally near the Giant's Causeway ; at Island 
Itagf^; nt the Ball, in Katbliu I&land, on trnusjmrent Analcimc. 

' occurs near Portrush, in thin beams and earthy in the 
flasu: greenstone on CafciU. 

U'oliattvntU of Thomson. Small tnf^ of this mineral hare been 
found at Portrush, nocomjjanying Siiihite in greenstone. 

XXXI. — OvTHX lerscjuBKO Catvbx at Locob NACLOxnurr, Paaish or 
Roaox, CoiTHTT OF Fkhmavags. By W. F. WAxcyAV, Esq. 

[BcAd lUy 26, 186S.] 

X^K lonely and picturesque "tarn" marked upon the Ordnance map* 
lugh Nacloyduff — the "Lake of the Dark C»vcm or Digging" — 
in the midst of a desolate, heath-clad highland, whioh extends 
over a coociderable portion of northern Fermanagh. In its immediate 
Bfiighbourhood, and for some miles around, there in no trace of cultira- 
tiOD, ancient or modem. All that meets the eye U heather, rock, and 
bog, interfpersed with irregular patches of rank graK«, mos». or ruahoo. 


If we measure by the soale ol' the Ordnance maps, the lako will be 

found to stand (" as the crovr flies**) four miles and a quarter to th« 
west and north of the police station of Boboc, and three and a half 
miles in a Bouth-westerly direction from the ''Lettered Cave" of 
Kuockmorc. There is no rood or path by which it can be approached 
nearer than four miles. The Inke, which is about one acre in extent, 
is boxmded upon its northern side by a nigged cbff of ycUowiah sand- 
stone, rising to a height of perhaps thirty feet above the level of the 

Within the face of this rock are several caverns, two of them, in 
part at least, the work of human hands. The largest measures six feet 
in height, by about the Bamo in breadth at the openings and its deptli 
is ten feet The sides and roof are extremely rough, except in certain 
places, where some little care appears to have been used for the pur- 
pose of preparing the surface of the rock for the reception of a aeries of 
** Bcoringa" and otlior dcvicca, any notice of which, as far as T am aware, 
has not hitherto been presented to the learned in antiquities. 

It may be here remarked that the chief cavern is connected with a 
second and smaller one, lying upou its western side, by an aperture in 
the partition of the rock» by which, but for this opening, the two cham- 
bers would be completely divided. Of the lesser cavern I have now 
little to say. It b small, rude, and uninscribcd, but large enough, and 
Bufflciently dry, to have been used as a sleeping apartment by the pri- 
mitive occupiers of the rock. The larger cavern, from which the neigh- 
bouring lake appears to have derived its name, owes its chief inteneet 
to the occurrence upon its sides of a number of " scoringa," figures, or 
designs in characters perfectly similar or strictly analogous to the mys- 
terious scribings upon rocks which have been noticed in localities 
widely apart, aud to which the attention of antiquaries has of late been 
particularly directed. Many men of ancient or modem times, confined 
by necessity to a listless existence in an inhospitable region, might very 
naturally have beguiled their hours by carving with a stone or metallic 
instrument such tigurcs as their fancy prompted upon the nearest object 
which happened to present a surface more or less smooth. Scorings or 
designs, mude under such circumstances, would be in charact^ la 
various as the skill or humours of their authors. Now, when in many 
districts of the country, and some of them widely apart, we find upon 
the sides of caves and rocks, and within the indosnro of pagan sepul- 
chral tumuli, a certain well-defined class of engravings, often arranged 
in groups, and, with few exceptions, presenting what may be styled a 
&mily typo, we can hardly imagine them to be the result of capriee. 

The period wherein it was ustial amongst antiquaries to collect and 
consider the nature of our rock carvings is so recent, that probably a 
vory small portion of exii^ting remains of that cIukh has been examine<L 
When a thorough search shall have been made, and the result recorded, 
when at least the mass of otir rock " scribings" shall have been pnb- 
lished and compared one with another, group with group, and with 
similar work found upon monumenls of Britain and of primitive Conti- 





nental l^urope ; then, and only then, can ve hope that a light may bo 
cast upon their significance. 

The striking similarity of many of the carvings at Lough Nacloyduff 
I to not a few of the already published tomb or rock engravings will be ap- 
parent even to a casual obserrcr (see PI. XXVII.), We have here fifteen 
L^f theprimitivecrosses as found in the iindoubtedly pagan monuments of 
^^Slit*Tc-na-Cailligbe and Dowth, Upon tlie rock at Kycficld, in the county 
^Htf Cavan, and in the cave of Knockmore. Surely no investigator who 
^^pempares these carvings one with another will fail to recognize their 
^^IPoDderfid similarity of style ! Some may be more rudely desigDed than 
others, and less well executed; but there is, after uU, litUc variety, 
except in the elaboration of a few examples, and in diftVrence of size. 
I It U difficult to believe that mere fancy could have originated and dif- 
I fused this peculiar style of rock cugruviug. 

I Together with the crosses at Lough Nacloyduff, we find some figur- 

ings which arc, I believe, new to archtcologists and others, and two star* 
like Acorings which, as for as 1 recollect, are not elsewhere represented, 
«'xc<?ptin one instance, viz., in the great sepulchml monument atDowth. 
The original tigures to which I refer ore two in number, and occur 
beneath and to the right of the largest cross or kite-shaped design, 
shown in the accompanying rubbings (1*1. JvXVlI.). The upper one, 
which has every appearance of having been executed with great care 
nnd deliberation, might naturally represent a chairor throne; the lower 
one a plough. A small primitive cross, which occurs upon the left-hand 
aide of the cave, would appear to bo accompanied by oghamic writing, 
of which 1 may observe that the fifth stroke from the left, and the upper 
portion of the third from the right, arc doubtful. The white line in the 
rubbing of this inscription (oppcars black in the engraving) is caused by 
a natural crack in the rock. 

Of the exact form of the arrangement (in groups) and of the size of 
L^ihe various designs in Lough Nacloyduff cave, the rubbings will give a 
^^kettc-r idea than can any written description. In every case of rubbing 
^^■be papex was laid as far as the surface would admit horizontally upon 
^Bhe face of the rock. 

^ Probably owing to the rcmotencBa of its situation from the track of 
'•excursionists," the cave prenenta little evidence of outrage — one only 
modem "scribing," " 1777," disfiguring the walls. 

It may perhaps not be out of place here to stat« that the " Dark 
Cave," once perhaps the home of a family whose *' young barbarians" 
domb the adjacent rocks, and snared trout in the neighbouring loch, is 
' now literally a den of wild nnimals, foxes, and badgers. The bones and 
hide* of hares and the tattered plumage of grouse attest the aacccaeful 
raidings of the red dog of the Irish. 


XXXII. — Oif 90XB Reckkt Excavations at Howth. By thcBev. J. F: 
[Remd Jt»e8, 1S68.] 

No. L 

In the month of April, 1865, the foundatioDB for the new Prot 
church of Ifowth were excavated. An immense quantitr of haman 
bones, some also of the horec, &c., were turned up. 80 numerous wen? 
the human remains, that in every barrowful of earth was at Kaat one 
skuU. During the progress of those works, being on the look-out foi 
objcct« of Antiquarian interest, I selected two f^kulls now presented tO' 
the lloyal Irish Academy. On the Idth of April, a curious ring wai 
turned up. It is made of a substance resembling jet ; itfl diameU^ ii 
2J inches. It seems to have been hand-made, and is not perfectly cir- 
oolar. What itu use was is doubtful, unless it belonged to some very 
rude and ancient horse furniture. Tliia church replaces one built in 
1816: before that time a dog kennel was kept here. "VThen thfl 
foundations were then opened, from 2 feet to 18 inches of tlic upper 
soil was removed; bones, old coins, sword blades, &c., were turned up. 
The excavation of 1866 reached about two feet deeper still, from which 
the remains described were turned up. The constant tradition of th« 
oldest inhabitants points to this place, and the field between it and tha 
town, as the site of the various battles of which Howth was the theatre 
in ages long passed away. Ivora Bridge, called also the Ivy Bridge, was 
nearer to the town of Howth ; it spanned a brook called '' the Bloody 
Stream," which takes its name perhaps from some long-lost legend of the 
Battle of Howth, It is now diverted from its original course, which was 
at the end of the chancel of the church, and forms a cascade nearer to tha 
town. MediiBval chroniclers say that here Sir John De Courci, with bis 
brother-in-law, Sir Almoric Tristram, vanquished, in 1177, the Danish 
and Irish inhabitants of Howth. This place, marked by these indications 
of ancient strife, was in a situation most favourable for the evolutions 
of armed men. It lies above the strand still called **Baltray,*' i. e. 
the town or place of the strand, now cut off from tho sea by the rail* 
way embankment. Here most likely landed the various raiders who 
fieshcd their maiden swords on the natives of Ben Edair. An old roud, 
formerly called "the paved lane," now the CasUo Avenue, led from 
hero up to the hill, going through a field called •* Cross Garvy" till il 
reached to where tradition says the " Old Town of Howth" stood ia 
that part of the demesne called " Balkill," under the Bcu of Howth; 
between which and the old earth works is a mnrah, from which flows 
the '* Bloody Stream," passing by the site of the old Celtic town. Here 
ore to bo seen the remains of very ancient earth works; a circular 
mound in the direction of Dunhill and Carricmore encloses a very con- 
siderable space, fifty paces in diameter. It is now divided by the fence 
of the plantation which runs through it There arc also some indica- 


tions of square and oblong building, with other less defined remains. 
•' Kitchen Kiddcna'* were opened somo years ago, in wliich were found 
bones, shells of tbo oyster, musseU pcriwincle, &c., disclosing some 
£iiiit ideas of the habits and modia of life of the old Celtic inhabitants 
of Ben Edoir. 

Ko. U. 

In the month of May, 1 86T, excavations were made on the East side of 

the hill of Dtinboe in the town of Howth, for cellars, &c., for a house 

I intended for the residence of tho District Inspector of the Coastguards. 

Some curioui remains were turned up by the workmen. At a depth 

I of six feet below the surface, a kist-vaca was discovered; its sides and 

^^nds were formed of blocks of limostonc, perforated by the action of 

^B^ mussels. It measured seven ieet in length by two feet wide; the 

^^%>Tcring stones were of a coarse clayey conglomerate. No traces of 

I human bones were disoovered ; there was however some bbok unctuous 

clay, apparently the only relics of its primneval tenant. The sides of 

the cuttings showed traces of ancient interments, as in horizontal lines 

' couJd be seen the same kind of clay which had the appearance of 

\ ancient burials. Some time before these discoveries came to lij;ht, my 

I friend Mr. William M. Hennesey lent me a copy of the " Talland Etar" 

which he had transcribed from the " Book of Ix-inster." I got it with a 

riew to annotate it, and identify localities there named, in which I hud 

some saccesB. This very ancient tract, treating of events in the time 

of Conchobar Mac Nassa, brings his intriguing poet and ambassador, 

" Aithema the Importunate/' across the Liffey to the Tolka, wheu the 

Leinstcr men attacked him, endeavouring to regain possession of the 

150 women, the 700 cows, and other spoil he had wrung from them 

while in their territory. Worsted by liis opponents, he flies to Ben Edoir; 

entrenuhes himself and his spoils on its Dun, and there awaits succourfrora 

the heroes of the " Red Branch," under the guidance of their champion 

Cnchullaind. On studying this interesting tale, it struck me that tho 

hill of Dunboe, i. e. the Cow-fort, was the scene of the siege recorded 

there. To test the accuracy of this opinion, I watched the excavations 

made in its neighbourhood. Tho archaic remains brought to light in 

the digging of May, 1867 — a hollow place between the castle lawn 

and Don hoc, cuUeJ the "Boulia,** i.e. a cow park, referring perhaps 

to this old tale, gives some appearance of probability to thifl opinion. 

This tale speaks of a hollow, or "gap" beside the I)un, called "Cu- 

collin's Gap," from the feats of bravery there performed by tliat 


To find out this precise place was for nome time a difficult endea- 
vour, as there were many places ab<mt the harbour called by that name* 
An old man at last turned up whose grandfather lived under Dunboe 
before moilem innovations changed its appearance. He remembered a 
hollow, through which in wet seasons some water flowed, leading up ft^m 
the sea where Mr. Crosbey's new store is erected. The depression of 
the lawl behind Evora-house on Dunboe grew deeper as it reached tho sea 


in this place. The old Dublin road crosned it where now tho new road 
leads from Abbey-streot to the railway station ; the hollow was then filled 
to level it up to its present height This, my inlbrmant told me, was 
called '*the Gap/' and that he often beard his grandfather speak of a 
battle that was fought there " about cows/* These traditiona must have 
great value in settling the precise loc4ility of the scene of the " Siege of 
flowth." The top of Dunboe was crowned with a moat— portions of it 
can be still seen. It was a favourite spot in the olden time as a look- 
out station for the seamen of Howth. On it, too, were lighted the mid- 
summer fires, which were visible through the whole of FingaL To the 
west of the moat at tho mearing of the demesne was a terminal erosa, 
to which the funeral processions of the lower part of the town were 
marched before interment in the old cemetery. Danboc has suffered 
much by recent innovations : to make *• The new Road," more than forty 
feel of its flank were cut away some years ago. Still earlier, another slice 
was cut away to give room for the road at the top of the harbour. 
Some rocks in this place under the Court-house (now being built), called 
*• Molly Piles Rocks," anciently defended its base from the fbry of 
the sea in the north-east gales. Then also the place now occupied 
by tho St. I>awrcnce Hotel was a deep pool of water, so that the 
hill was surrounded on the east north, and west sidca with the 
sea. Dunboe seems destined for still further ruin : an immense hole 
is made on its side. A house is to be built into it, which, apart 
from the questionable tasto of removing an ancient land-mark of 
history, will be anything but omameutal to tho only approach to 
the town. 

No. m. 

In the spring of this year (1868), the arable portion of Ireland's Eye 
was ploughed for the purpose of setting crops. A coin of tlie Em- 
peror Constantino was the only object of interest which then turned up. 
It was found on the bank over the deep cut or gap in the eastern part 
of the island, brought into notoriety by a tragical occurrence some 
years ago. The edge of this coin is eaten away, as the place where 
it was found is exposed to the spray of tho waves in stormy wea- 
ther. The monogram XP of our Redeemer on the reverse, with the 
profile of the Emperor on the obverse, place iu assignment beyond 
question. On the dth of this month (May, 1 868), a flat stone, which was 
in a potato trench, was removed, aa it was in the way of the labourer. 
It was found to be the covcriog flag of a kist-vaen, containing human 
remains. This grave waa not further disturbed till the IGlh of May ; 
want of opportunity, rough weather, and a heavy sea in the sound, 
prevented its being inspected and examined sooner. On the 15th, 
the grave was opened ; it was not more than twelve inches under the 
surface, which wom all removed, and the covering flags laid bare; 
thcflo were then carefully taken up. The sides and ends of the grave 
were built in rubble without any cement j at its head or wofttcm end 




ft small square nook> about ton inohcA by nine at the crown, aad twelve 
ut the ehouldors, was furmod to receive the beoU of its tenant; eo that 
in shape the grave won not unlike some mcdiicvol stone eoffinn, found 
at tlui Block Abbey in Kilkenny. A small square Aug was laid in it 
lo sorvf as a pillow. This grave measure<l six fuot four inches long by 
Mgbtei'n inches wide, and about twelve inclies deep. The eovoring nags 
were of green stone. Some of the same kind may be seen in the dehru 
of the chancel arch in the now ruined church, from which the grave is 
about thirty paevtt distant lo the north-west, Ita aJtis is more to the 
north-west than that of the old church. Inside the grave was found a 
perfect human skeleton. The skull was not in the nook intended for 
it, aa it lay somewhat below it, fyinff on iU right iide, A more otireful 
examination proved lliat the body^ which was undisturbed to this mo- 
ment, waa buried OD its right side. The ribs of that side etarted up* 
wards ; thoae of the left, or uppermost side, fell in their natural position. 
The bone of the left arm lay across them ; the right was beside them, 
at the side of the grave. The articulations of the spine lay in such a 
way as to show unmiatakeably the po(*ition now described. All the teeth 
(126) were perfect, with the exception of odd, the canine, of the right 
aide of the upper jaw ; they were much worn down on the top surface, 
by Iriturition, an indication of a very ancient intonnent. The sutures 
of the cranium could be traced, though they were well knitted ; 
tlie bone of the thigh measured eightocn and one-half inches; all 
the boDOs were of a duep copjter colour. Tlic orientation of the 
grave ifl fluggestivc of a Chrifttiiui interment. The liead being at the 
western end may prove that its owner was not a cleric (if then 
the same cuatom prevailed as now, of bui'^'ing u cleric witli bis 
feet to the wcat).* No carving or inscriptions were discovered on 
any of the atones connected with the grave, which, afti^r being thus ex- 
amiood, was carefully secured to prevent further disturbance. f There is 
roason to fear that Sunday exoursiooista and other idle persons have 
been tampering with it, to gratify a vulgar and morbid curioait^\ It is 
probable that other graves, such as the one discovered, cxi^t on tbo 
ialand : human remains wvre turned up near the church, proving the 
ice of an ancient cemetery. In the hollows between the hill and 

* Id the madcnt Biunlicti the priot stood UAn^ the people, tiM alurbetni: between 
•ad thffm. He looked Ut th« WmI, th« oongrrgntion fnc«d th« Kut. Tliii ravf 
It for tbp ilinlncUon nude in buryinir dcrlu vitli thv fafwd to the Juui; Uics ere 
ilirsTe tmried io the opiMMitc dircctiun, with the head to the Wv»t 

t On Sooday, Uey 3tit, V)r. Wiltuin K. KuUiven, H. R. I. A., Mr. R. D. Kane, aoa 
tl)« writer, weol o?er to Ireland'! Kye. 'lite ^arc was afpilo opciml; Hi contents were 
ftoaiid lo a aUtt of dlsortler and confusion. Aa this dtscorery was much spoken ot, nnm- 
Toai to aeo 11, rnmmagiii(( tha grave, and diaarranginp the position of (he 
I, Ac. Dr. Sullivau fortiutalc))' secured the cranium uninjured, excepting tlio kM<i 
of MCae UWlb- This, with two ulhrr cnnia, a bit of iniu, prubnbly tl>e \iack uf a iwoid, 
a jet ling, with other boiios, Ac., were pmmited lo the Mnftciim, wb«n Uiis paper, an- 
neoaelng th^ir disL-vvcrj, wa§ read befure tbo utenibcrv of the Koyal Irish Aradetpy. 
». I. A. VBOC. — VOL. X. 2 t 


tho sand duncss on the wcsU^rn shore, bones, oyster aholl«, Stc, were 
turned up by the plough. 

It may ha perhupa vain to speculate who the tenant of the name- 
less grave may have been. The sous of Ncssun, who gave their name to 
Uiifl island, previously called '* Inia FaithUn,'* i. e. the Eldcr-trcc Is- 
land, doubtlftiB rest here. In the year 701, IrgoLich, regiilua oftlie 
Ciuuuclha ol'Bregia, according to the Annuls uf Ulster audTigemacb, 
was Bhun " on Inis Mac Ncssan, east of Ben Edair/* by the BritoD«» 
who invaded his territory-, and followed him to hia retreat on this 
island, where he was sluin. AVas he the tenant of this hastilT- 
niaxle grave? Did ho lack a friendly hand to close his ryes m 
death ? His burial may have been premature, and his struggles to 
escnpG from his living tomb, when suspended onimution returned, may 
account for the unusual position in which tfaeee remains have been 
found. The Irish Annals record various battles and sieges of which 
Inis Mac Nesson was the theatre during the ninth and tenth centurie«, 
interesting mementos of which were discovered during the past two 


XXXIII. — Ok the Pqtszcal CoKnniovs of Cliiut& nruiro vjrrEsxur 
Geolooicax Epochs. By PnoFEsson H. Heknesst, F.R.S. 


[Rnd onStli ind 22ii(l June, 1668]. 

The author had briefly placed on record at different times since 1856 
his conclusions as to the question which occupies his attention in the 
present inquir)-. His object in this paper is to submit to the Academy 
a scries of proofs of the correctness of his fundamental propositions 
more elaborate and complete than he has hitherto attempted. The pro- 
positions referred to may be thus summarised : The phenomena of G4H>- 
logical climate may be eapluincd by the existence of two recogniaed 
sources of heat. 1, Outer, that of the sun; 2. Inner, that of the 
earth's cooling mass. 

By stud^-iiig the facts revealed by Geological observations as to the 
varialionR in the heat receiving and heat <listributiug materials of tJio 
earth's outer coating — namely, tlic solid crust, its watery envelope^ and 
the atmosphere — the aullior endeavours to show that the differences of 
Geological clinmto neceesaiily result from such variations, and do not 
require for their explanation any hypotheses of great cosmical revolu- 
tions. Primarj* importance is attached to the action of water as a 
receiver and ciirrier of heat derived from inner and outer heat sources ; 
and the author called attention to the fact, that, Mnce he had first ven- 
tured in 1856 and 1857, to maintain the climatal inHucncc of hydro- 
thomial action, similar views have been reproduced by several eminent 


XXXrV. — Note on tvto SiaiiiMS fmwiso proit i common Sochcb iw 
OPPOSITE BiaBCTioxs. By Thoi'Essob H. Ubsnksst, F. R. S. 

[Read Jtue 22, 1868.] 

Tab peculiarities of riTcr watersheds appear to poaseas much intereat 
for geographers, and have frequently coccited discussion in recent 
timt-s.* 1 may, therefore, be cj^cuaed lor attempting to make a triiling 
contnhutioa to the facts already collected. Amidst the group of 
mountains to the south of Dublin, two small streams arise, one of 
which is traceable from tlic Dodder, through Rockbrook, up to Ulendoo; 
the other is traceable from its junction with the Dargle Kiver at St. 
Valeric, up through Glencullen. Both etrcama flow from tlie same 
point, which is precisely at the highest part of the axis of the ravine, 
one %nd of which is denominated GlencuUen and tho other (Jlendoo. 
At the point in question, there is a hollow or pot constantly full of 
water, which is received laterally from a brooklet that rises much 
higher amidst the boggy slopes on the sides of Cruagh and Glendoo 
Mounloins. The parting of the streams is not shown on the Ordnance 
Haps, bat thcro seems to bo a rudo indication of its existence in 
Rocquo*s Map of the County Dublin, published during tho last cen- 
tury- 2so topographical writer appears to have hitherto noticed the 
phenomenon, and it has thus seemed to mc dcsiniblo that it should be 
systematioiilly placed on record. Tho partings of small tempomrj' 
streams frequently arise after heavy rains, but, as in this case, the ob- 
serrationa were all made during the prevalence of dr>- weather, tho 
phenomenon may be considered as comparatively pcnmanent. 1 visited 
the spot three times, and on the last occasion (June 17) I found almost 
all the watercourses which I crossed on the sides of Tibradden Moun- 
tain perfectly dry, while tho turf was everywhere hard. Ko rain had 
been recorded in Dublin since the 3rd, and then it had fallen in a small 
quantity ; while a shepherd whom J met near the bifurcating streams 
oasurcd me, that for the preceding three mouths the dryness which pre- 
vailed in the locality was quite unusual. In company with Mr. J. 
CVKdly, of the Geological Survfy of Ireland, I minutely examined the 
circumstances of the water parting. We verified the precise point of 
bifurcation which 1 had previously detected in tho pot already alluded 
to, by scattering in the water somo fragments of moss which had 
nearly the same specific gravity as the water itself; after a short inter- 
val some fragments were carried N. W,, towards the Dodder, while 
others were carried S. E., towards UlencuUen and 8t. Vallerie. Tho 
appearance of tho ground exhibited no truce of artificial rutting or 
embanking that might give rise to the bifurcation, while the rushes and 
moaa wbi^ surround t»be diverging BtreamlGte seem to have hoen long 

• 8m the *• AthetuDnm,** volame for Jdy to Decerabor, 1863, pp. 19, ft9, 88, 113, 
Sia. 676, C62, and G57i alio the volume for January to June, 186G, pp. 3G7, 893, 

it9, &C4, sas. 


growing without dittturbunoe. A Ithoiigfa tho complete vcritication of 
IhiH phenomenon in dry weather requires patience nnd attention, it 
cnnnot be attended with difficulty ufter heavy rains. The so-called bi- 
furcations of large rivers, often referred to in the writings orgfogniphere, 
are entirely different in character ; being, in fact, rather Siamese twin 
junctions by intermediate channels ; while this, though on a very small 
scale^ is an instance of a true bifurcatioUf and appears to bo of com- 
paratively rare occurrence in a permanent form.* 

XXXV Oy THE Discovert of thkek Eartbbh Vasm at PiLinais- 

Tow>% County of Dldlin, onk op wuicn contained Houan Be- 
iiAiMB, FuAUMKiirs OK SuKLL, AKD Dou JioNF^ By Dk. W. Feazks, 
M. R. I. A., Jfon. Member Montreal Medico -Chirurgical Society, &C. 

[KeadJunoSZ, 1808.] 

PoKTioxs of three earthen vases were recently obtained at Palroerstown, 
county of Dublin, oil of them unfortunately broken into pieces by tho 
rude treatment they got when found by the labourers. One of these 
urns, of small size, presents little of interest. The :*iM;ond, in which 
human bones were discovered, was of unusual bulk, it* mouth measur- 
ing eleven inches in diameter; its peculiar style of oniamentation is 
aho deserving of remark. Around the third vam, the mouth of 
which was about seven inches in diameter, was built a carefully 
cunstructed kist of flags ; it contained portions of tho bones of a human 
being, two fragments of shell, nnd also some dog bones; a strange as- 
Rcmhlnge that remind us of the " Kitchen Middens** of Denmark, and of 
our own shores, in which human remains are found mixed with shells, 
and occasionally also the bones of man's faithful companion in the chasCi 
his dog. Unlike, however, to ihcRe "Kitehen Middons," no weapons were 
di.'4Covere<l in or near the locality where these vases wcro procured. 

A pit or quarry, marked on the Ordnance Maps, has been long 
worked for raising boulder stones for paving and macadamizing pur- 
poses immediately beyond the village of Vrdmerntown, and within a 
short distance of the Kiver Liffey ; it is e.TCavrtted in the idluvinl drift, 
and iU open banks present good views of tliat deposit, which through- 
out the district covers over the stratified rocks, the mass of rolled stones 
imbe<lded in tenacious clay rising within a foot or eighteen inches of the 
wdL This pit is satuated in a rich grass field that slopes down to the 
river. Early in June. 1868, when the workmen were excavating tho 
wofltem side of tho quarr>', which is about Un feet deep, a foil of Iho 


* Some of tho dbcunii n« in the " AthAnopuin,'* rflfeired to In not«, pk 336, nlMlt to the 

t"*"""""*^ of lako* with two oullela. It now H<cmB thAt Lough Ehersf (Donegal) may 

inong inch lakci^ for In addition to ita principal outlet, wfakta dowatowanla 

the Atlftolic ibore b a tecund smaller outlet, which dbcbar^ca Itself aooth- 



I obi 
I tho 
I it I 

bank took place and exposed one of the voaeft, enclosed in a stone oyst : 
the other large vase was discovered in a similar moaner a few days 
ftt^rrwnnJHi but imbedded in earth, there being no stones under or around 
it. When the labourers found theM vessels contained only bones, they 
amuAcd. themselves by throwing stones at them and breaking them into 
fhigmeiits: a few of the larger pieces, and of the bones, were preserved 
and brought to Kichard A. Gray. Es(|,, County Surveyor, who kindly 
placed them at my disposal; I visited the locality, and got the particu- 
iare of their discovery from the workmen, who likewise gathered for 
mc all tho pieees they could collect of the broken vessels : in arranging 
them I detected the third or sninllcr vase, upwards of half this vase 
remaining in frogmentR, mixed with the pieces of the larger vessels : it 
hud not been noticed by the workmen^ but probably fell do^ii from the 
•ide of the quarry when the othrr vessels became uncovered. 

The vase, Fig. 1, was found about five 
Ibet nearer the river than the large one; 

fficient of its fragments remain to enable 

to judge of its size and form by cement- 
ing tJiem together (for this purpose I cm- 
ployed A cement consisting of bees' wruc, 
Vt-nice turpentine, and starch, whicli is 

dly applied when warm, and adheres 

th great firmness. I can recommend it 

those who wish to restore similar ob- 
jects). It lay deposited in a rude quadri- 
lateral excaration, placed mouth down- 
Wards upon a hroaid slab of stone, and sur- 
rounded on three sides by flat flogs^ but 
there was no stone disoovercd on its east 
side t this primitive grave or cyst was covered in by two slabs of stone 
lying in apposition, tho chink whore they joined being closed by a 
llirrtl slob, tbu* constituting a rude roof over the chamber. The ex- 
cavation in which it lay was hollowed out of the upper part of the 
drill bed, the toj) of that formation being about level with the cover- 
ing flags, and upon these rented eighteen inches of undisturbed vege- 
table soil. 

The vessel is hand-rande, of coarse baked earthenware, ornamented 
by rude markings of parallel and vertical lines, with others impressed 
obliquely, producing rough chevron or herring-bone pattern, of which 
tho engraving gives a good though greatly diminishrd representation ; 
it measures ten inches in height, tlie mouth of tho jar being, as already 

ted, seven inches in diameter, and has the usual graceful form of 

any similar articles of early pottery; the interior of the jar ia coated 
on its bottom and along the sides with black carbonaceous matter, 
fbrming a thin adhering crust. The fragments of bone that it con- 
tained were dry, friable, and evidently of considerable age ; they were 
of pnre Tvhite oolonr; but it would bo imposaiblo to assert with cer- 
tainty they had been charred or burned, for boiled^ or even buried 




bones wonld in the course of time present a similar appearfmce. Aj I 
got all the bones which were contained in this jar when diacoforod, it 
is certain there were not one-fourth — perhaps far leas — of the bones ol 
a humnri being in the vessel, though amongst them were portions of 
several different parts of the skeleton, and these all broken into pieces* 
few of which exceeded on inch or two in size. Amongst them, aided 
by my friends, Professor Traquair and Dr. Macalister, I recognised three 
portions of human skull, through one of which ran a line of suturt ' 
(probably the lambdoidal), the ungual phalanx of a toe, and a fragment' 
of n second similar bone; also the ungual phalanx of a tinger, the fung 
of a human tooth, a bicuspis whicli we believe belonged to a lower jaw, 
a portion of the head and net-k of a thigli bone, a piece probably of the 
ischium, a frugmeul of the orbit, half the lower articular end of the 
fibula, and some scaly lamimc of ribs, with detached portions of bone 
that seem to belong to a tibia. There were, further, filleen small frag- ^B 
meuta of bone, not human, and which we cousidor referriblo to a dog ; of ^| 
these we can identity a portion of a vertebra, parts of a rib, part of the 
articular end of a tibia, and pieces of a long bone which was probably the 
tibia; the rest of the osseous fragments were humau, though too much^ 
broken up to permit of identificatioa. Mixed with the bones were tw^ B 
pieces of shell — one, a portion of the common oyster; the other the 
articulating valve of Lutraria oblonga^ a shell that still abounds in the 
mud banks of Dublin i3ay. 

The seeoud earthen vase was described by the workmen as being con-* 
sidcrably larger sized and thicker ; it is made of coarse materials, imper- 
fectly bui-ned ; its outer part is reddish, and at least tbreo-fourths of ita, 
thickness still lilack coloured : the fragments that were obtained provt " 
too imperfect to admit of its restoration, with the exception of the neel 
of which three- fourths remained, though broken into many pieces ; the? 
form portion of a circle measuring eleven inches in diameter, whilst th< 
neok of the vessel, figured No. 1, was not fully seven and a half tnche*] 
across ; it would appear thut both vessels were formed alike in shape, still 

Fig. 2. 

Fiir 3. 

Fig. 3 repiVMBta a plooc of Iho nr«k of rht* Jar, mcuurine abuut two and ■ ball 
Fl^S U another frksment, atmnl (dot tnil ma<\%, lulf Inches in Icnj^tti. 

the style of ornamentation was altogether different. Figs. 2 and 3 oro 

wood-cats taken from photograph* of two portions of the neck of this 

lar; they afford fair representations of the appearance of the outaide 

Tkin^^ *'^ng the upper edge was a row of v-formed fttrios im* 



wilh somt induntiug tool, vhkh prodaced suoh impresftiona as 
womareeult from a piece of fine twisttd cord wrapped round the end 
of a stick ; under this was dUposed a row of rude imitations of roses 
or raised tlowers, and beneath those an irregular line of oblique in- 
dented markings uot continuous round the veesL*! ; farther down, where 
the neck swelled out into the body of the vessel, appear to have been 
alternating roses, and rather well designed wreaths made by continuous 
impressions of the indenting tool ; the entire presenting an duborato 
pattern tliat appears, so fur as I can ascertain, unique amongst Irish 
sepulchral unas; the inside of the neck was likewise ornamented by 
three oblique lines of striations running in oppobite directions; many 
of them well formed by the indenting tool, and others rude irapressiona, 
each as the ehorp edge of a stone or brick would produce ; the entiro 
conveying an impression that the fabricator hud commenced his task 
with skill and taste, and tiring over it, had endeavoured to complete it 
in n ruder stjle ^vith rapidity. Some pieces of the body of this vase 
which were recovere<l were decorated in keeping with the pattern on 
the neck; in others rough ovals are marked out by angular impressions 
of Kime sharp-edged instrument that surround 
a raised roec or central boss, as in Fig. 4 ; 
a much diminished representation of the 
lorgt'st fragment that was got, it measuring 
about four inches in both diameters. 

When the falling clitf disclosed the vase, 
it was found lying mouth downwards in an 
excavatitm prepared in ttie upper surface of 
the drift, and covered with undisturbed soil ; 
there were no flags placed under or around 
it ; all the surrounding space being filled in 
with fine clay, from which the larger stones 
and jiebbK'a had been separated; it ^^a8 then 

entire, and one of the workmen, breaking it to seek for treasure, 
found in it only bones; these were black, softened, and in fragments. 
I saw them where they were thrown in the quarry ; they were evidently 
humLun remains, but crumbled to pieces when cxjioBed to the uir. 
^^ The third v jpo that wus discovered was small, its height being wix oiid 
^Bbalf or seven inches, and its nc<k littJe more than four inches in diame- 
^It; it was made from a bluish clay that liurus pale yellowish brown ; 
the upper jMirt of the body was marked by a rude cross-bar pattom of 
deeu.t!>ing lines, whilst round its lip, and at the junction of its body and 
neck, are paniUel lines dividing liorizontal patterns made by oblique 
indcmtAtions, The recognition of this jar wa» occidental ; its fragments 
were brought to me mixed with portions of the large-sized vessel, but 
the workmen were ignorant of ils existence, and stated positively they 
hod noticed only two jars ; thry were asburod this small one eould not 
have bcon inside tlu- larger one, for they broke it open in nilu before 
the rliff fell, to seek for treasure, and finding only bones, destroyed it. 


I urn dispoBod to beliere it lay buried very cXohq to tbo large jar, and 
fell dowii in the cliff with it» 

The fragmcnta of all thcso jars wore throwa into a Heap of 8ton< 
broken for repairing roads, and much of it carted off before I reaoh< 
the quarry ; what 1 got wen? recovered by having tho residue of bcvoi 
tons of broken stone.^ Hiftcd and cxaminod by workmen. 1 have d< 
posited the specimens in tlic Museum of the Aoodomy. 

Aote A few days ago I had the opporluuity uf Boeing the lat 

Dr. Petrie's collection of sepulchral vaaes, through tho kindness 
Mr. Clibbom. He directed my attention to the fragments of one 
particular, which was of unusual size, probably us large as the 
Toso I hare doscribed : of this about one- third remains in brokcm pieces. 
It is entered by Dr. Pctrio in his Catologuo, but I know not on what 
authority, as " portions of a re^al urn found in Co. Sligo." It has 
elevations or rldgea running obliquely over the exterior, and decussat- 
ing, wliich produce's a large chequered ornamentation ; within those ara 
rough bosses, that appear intended for imitating flowers, very similar 
to the roses on my large vase; they are, however, exoouted in ooaTser 
and more primitive style. 

XXXVI. — On a ctrarocfl iNscmnED Stoxe vowd at Tvulauu Cauacu^ 

VAJtu, MKAU Cabirteely, Co. Duuu>'. By Hekuv Faukinson, K.<4q. 

[Read Jan«2-i, 18C8 ] 

DcRiKo a recent visit to the ancient 
burying-place of Tullagh, which con- 
tains within itn pre<;inclfl many ob- 
jects of interest to tlie ujUiquariun, 
my attention was attracted to u very 
curious insoribed etone whirh liiy 
close to the ruins of the old church 
of Tullagh, nlniuRt completely hid 
with earth and weeds. On clearing 
away the latter, I di«covcred i;eHain 
tiicnlar carvings on its upper surface. 
As I can find no reference to it 
either in tho writings of that ob- 
servant antiquflnan, Dr. Pelrie, or in 
luiy of the works I have conttultcd 
on the subject, I am inclined to think 
thut no one has hitherto noticed it ; 
and, therefore, annex the following 
pnrLiculurtt, with u view of drawing 
the attention of antiquarians to ii 
very interesting specimtn of a class 
of ancient monunicntB which the pn- 

sent Hixhop of Limenck clesigaates a» ** previou>dy uudesaribed** 
paper rend before the Academy on the 13lh of Febiiiary, 1800. 



Thb stone which, for the sake of oonreuieQce, I have repreRented in un 
upright position in the preceding Figure, is about 6 feet long, by from ) 7 
inch^, tapering to H inches broad, and, as far as I conld ascertain, from 
6 to 6 inches thick. It presents no appearance of ever having been 
droased with the chisel ; but, on what I suppose is the smoother side, is 
inscribed three acta of well-dctlnod rings. The sets or groups differ in 
Kize, as the one at the base, or broadest port of tlie stone^ is 1 5 inches in 
diameter; the centre one 13, and the third only 1 1 inches. They all ap- 
pear to have had the same numbor(four)of rings, with the exception of 
the third, or top one, which seems to have had only three. The three sets 
are connected with euch other and both euds of the stone by almost 
straight lines, which arc now biu"ely diseernible. The larger sol has in 
addition two lines or grooves connecting the outward circle with each 
side of the stone. The centres of the three sets ore of a peculiar cou- 
Btruction, not consisting of the usual cup-shaped hollows, or rock basins, 
found in cAnuexion with inscriptions of a similar kind in other porta 
of the country, but of bosses, having their apexes slightly under the 
general surface of the stone. 

Without venturing to express an opinion on a subject which has 
occupied the attention of such a distinguished antiquary as the Bishop 
of Lunerick, I will only remark, that it is admitted by all I have con- 
sulted on the subject that these kiuds of carvings are of very great anti- 
quity, and are, porhapH (as I have read somewhere), the remains of the 
one primitive race which overspread the northern hemisphere of Europe 
prior to the formation of the present tribes. I will also add, that tlie 
following conjecture is worthy of consideration, namely, that the in- 
scribed stone at TuUagh was the monument of some former chief, and 
the carvings representing three shields were the symbob of his name, 
rank, and tribe, similar to the distinctive marks, called " Totems," used 
by the North American Indians of the present day. I subsequently 
visited the old graveyard of Rathmichael, which is about hall' a mile from 
TuUagh, for the purpose of seeing the two inscribed monuments the late 
Dr. Petric gives an account of in the " Dublin Examiner" for October, 
1816, and referred to by the Bishop of Limerick. I found in the grave- 
yard no lees than six of these stones, all of them but two so defaced that 
little is to be seen but the centre cups and parts of the rings. The two 
I first mentioned are now used as modem head-stones, and probably, as 
i)r. Tctric slates, formed once the one monument. The rings comjws- 
ing the gruops on these stones are pretty well defined, but not at all so 
perfect or regular as those on the stone at Tullogh, nor have they the 
botaes in their centre. 

I am strongly inclined to think, from the uamber of these stones at 
Knthmichoel, that at a remote period of this island's history there 
existed, either there or in the immediate vicinity, a burial place of note; 
and, further, from the fact that the stones vtiry so much in si^e, some 
having only the remains of one group of ringA, and no room for any 

a. t. A, PROC. — VOL. X. 2 1 


more, others haying two, and only one with three groups, as the one 
at Tollagh, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the nmk and station 
of tliOBe buried were denoted by the numbers of the groups or zing* on 
each monumental stone, as also by the number of the rings in each indivi- 
dual group. But these are only conjectures, and it is to be hoped that 
before long some light will be thrown on this interesting subject. 










H. L A. PROC. 





:a 3 « M3 



NBoavj Hsno 





^ ^ 






XXXVII. — Oir THS IxionrAKT Roots of 'NmofiicAz EavATiovs, with 
AW Ihtestioatioit akd Fkoof oy NKwrow's EtrLS. By J. It Touho, 
£sq., formerly Professor of Mathematics in Belfast Ci>ll6ge. 

[Read Korember 9, 1868.] 

( 1 ) Let the general equation of the nth degree, with niunerical coef- 
ficients, be represented by 

A^+ A^^af*-' + A^^iT* +....+ A^ + ^iT + ^ « . . . [7], 

and let it be transformed into another by substituting x + r for «. 
Then if r be determined by the condition that the second coefficient in 
the transformed equation shall be zero, the third coefficient will be 
found to be 

A^ n(n-l) (A^,\t 

A^ ~ 2 \nAj' 

conseqnently, if the sign of this third coefficient be the same as that of 
the first, the first three terms of the transformed equation, — the middle 
term being zero, will satisfy the condition of Be Gua,* and will there- 
fore imply the existence of at least one pair of imaginary roots in the 
transformed, and therefore of one pair also in the original equation. 
Hence, multiplying this third coefficient by the positive quantity 
2HAJf a pair of imaginary roots will be indicated, provided the first 
three coefficients of the proposed equation satisfy the condition 

2n4..,4«>(n-l).lV» . . . .[!]. 

(2) If the order of the coefficients in [/] be reyeiwd, we shall 
have an equation the roots of which will be the reciprocab of the 
roots of [/] : the existence of a pair of imaginary roots in either equa- 
tion implies therefore the existence of a pair, the reciprocals of those 
roots, in the other. Consequently the criterion [1] may be applied, as 
a test, as well to the last tlu*ee coefficients of [/] as to the first three ; 
eo that a pair of imaginary roots in [/] will equally be indicated, pro- 
vided that the condition 

2n^o^>(«-l)A.» ... .[2] 

be satisfied. 

J (3) Now, it is well known that if a limiting or derived equation 
have imaginary roots, the primitive equation must also have imaginary 
roots, — as many at least : taking, therefore, the several limiting equa- 
tions, derived one after another, each ftom the immediately preceding, 
in the usual way, [/] being the primitive, and applying the criterion 

• Confurmably to usage, I have called this "tho condlCton of Da Gua;** bat it la 
implied in tha Rule of Newton, publubed many years before tbe researches of De Gaa 

n. I, A. TROC. — VOL. X. 3 A 


[2] to the last three coefflcienta of each, we shall arrive at the Beriee of 
conditionH which here follow ; and the existence of any one of theee 
conditions will imply the existence of at least one pair of imaginary 
roots in the primitive equation. 

Conditions of imaginary roots in [/]. 

2nA<4i> (»-l)^i» 

4(«-2)i4»i44>3(n-3)i4,» ... [3] 
6(»- 3)4^4, >4(n-4)ii4*. 

2nA^iA^>{n- l)^Vi. 

(4) From a mere inspection of this group of conditions, it ia ohviooa 
that all are comprehended in the general formula 

(« + 1) (m - m - 1) A^iA^,i > m{n -m)A*^,,., [4], 

where m is the exponent of re in the middle one of any three conse- 
cutive terms of the equation [/]. And irora. this general formula we 
at once see that the (Merence of the nnmerical multipliers 

(»! + I) (» - in - 1), and m(n - m) 

is always the same for the same value of n, namely, n + 1 . We may 
therefore express the above conditions somewhat differently, thus : — 

[{n-l) + (n+ l)]^o^> (n-l)^,» 
[2(n - 2) + (» + 1)] A,A, > 2(» - 2) A^ 
[3(n - 3) + (w + 1)] AtAi> 3(n - 3) A,'. . . [5] 
[4(» - 4) + (» + 1)] A,A, > 4(»^ 4) Ai* 

[(n- 1) + (n+ 1)] A^A^>{n^\) A,\,; 

80 that the multiplier for the square of the middle term of any triad of 
terms, increased by the constant number n + 1, will always be the mul- 
tiplier for the product of the extreme terms ; and therefore, in applying 
the tests, it will usually be the more convenient to deal with the 
squares first. 

(5) It is evident that the foregoing inequalities, for an equation of 
the nth degree, are n - I in number; and from the general expression 
[4] we see that the multiplier which enters the middle term of each of 
the two completed series of terms, when n is even, or the number of 
terms in each completed series odd, is always a square number : thus. 



putting 2m for n, the middle term will be the mth, and therefore, by 
the gcaerul form referred to, the proper multipliers will be 

(m t 1) (2w- m - I) = (w + 1)*, and m(2m -m) = m'. 

Of coorfte, since the multipUera in each completed series taken in 
order from first to lost are the same as when taken in order fi-om last 
to first, the product of the extremes, as also of any two multipliers 
equidistant from the cxtrcmoa, will be a square number. 

(6) If in any one of the foregoing conditions, the first member 
should be equa)*to, instead of greater Uian, the second, a pair of ima- 
ginary roots will still be implied. For in that case, not only docs the 
second cocfRcient vanifih m the equation in which the condition 
of equality has place, but the third coefficient also — the general ex- 
pression abore, for the third coefficient, being then zero; and we know 
that consecutive zeros always imply imagioary roots. 

(7) Any one of the group of conditions [3], involving three consc- 
cutive coefficients of Iho primitive equation [/I, being Uikcn, if that 
condition hold or fail, it will, in like manner, hold or fail for the terms 
involving the same three coefficients in every limiting equation derived 
from the primitive. This is proved as follows: — 

The general expression for any tria4 of consecutive terms in [7] is 

^«Hi«^' + -<<««" + A^iST-K 

The triad derived from this is 

(m + 1) ^«.,x~ + m A^X^' 4 (ot - I) A^.^!^, 

and the property affirmed is — that according as the condition in [4] 
holds or fails for the above primitive triad, so will the following condi- 
tion, in which tho deriv^ triad replaces the former, hold or £ail, 
namely, the condition 

w(n - m - 2) (fw - I) (m + \) A^^ A^x> (m- \) {n - m - i){mAJ)', 
or, expunging the factors common to both sidesi the condition 

(n - in - 2) (m + 1) A^i A^y > m{m - m - 1)^'«. 
For, it being remembered that, for the triad with which we are now 
dealing, the degree of tho e<iuation is » - I, and not n (aa in the case of 
the primitive triad), wo must put fi - 1 for n in this expression : its 
form will then be 

(n - 1 - m-2) (m + 1) A^.A^^ > m{n - \ -iT^i) A'^ 

which is tho some us 

(w + 1) (n - w- 1) A^iA^i > m{n - m) A\, 

thftt is, 1^ M identical tcUh (he form [4]. And, as a corollary to this 
theorem, it follows that when the two exprr*H'ions [3] ore equal instead 
of unequal for Mty triad in a derived equation, they muiit bo n^anl for 


the corraepouding triad in the preceding equation, and conTenQly- ; and 
from this it further follows that in the dovclopment of (« + a)", all the 
triadfl mufit satisfy the conditions of equality. For they are nil satiaficd 
in the case 

{x + «)' » «* + Sflx* + 3a'jr + a\ 

and consequently, from the above inference, all (except the lost triad, 
which has no correapondeut here) must satisfy the conditions of equa- 
lity in 

(ar + o)* « a* + 4aar' + 6a'x* 4 4»^ + a\ • 

of which the former multiplied by 4 is the derived etjualion ; and Ihence 
the conditions of equality arc satisfied in (j- + «V, (« + «)', Ac, by 
whatever factors these be multiplied. And since in each case the last 
triad always satisfies the same condition as the first, it follows that oA 
the triads in the development of A„{x + a)* satislA* the couditions of 
equality ; and tliis development being fixed in form, these testa of equa- 
lity may be employed to ascertain whether a polynomial is really the 
development of a binomial^ or of a binomial multiplied by a factor, or 

(8) From the theorem just established, we sec that whatever ima- 
ginary roots the conditions [3] may enable us to detect the existence of 
in the ctjuation [ /]. these roots always have a peculiar chai-aclcr ; iJipy 
are distinguished from other imaginary roots in this, — namely, tlial 
on account of their entrance into the primitive equation, imnginarily*i» 
nfcesmrilij transmitted to tlie first derived equation, thence to the se- 
cond derived equation, and so on, till one of llic three coefficients of ilic 
primitive, which supply the condition [3], disappears, as it at leugth 
must do iu the process of successive dcnvation. As long as the Ihreo 
coefficients fulfilling one of the conditions [3] are all i)reserved in the 
subsequent equations, so long will each of those equations Iiave a pair 
of imaginary roots. With regard, therefore, to this particular clas* of 
imaginary roots, it is true not only that a pair in any derived equation 
implies, of neceBsily, the entmnoe of a pair in the primitive, bat, con- 
Torscly, that a pair in tlie primitive necessitates a pair in evt^ry derived 
equation down to that one from whicli the third coefficient in tbeprimi- 
tivo triad has disappeared, 

AVith other itnaginarr pairs, that is, with those pairs the existence 
of which is not indicated by any of the conditions [3], the case is dif- 
ferent: we know that the equation may have imaginary root*, and 
yet not transmit imoginarity to any of the equations derived from 
it — tho roots of the^e may all be real; if a pair of them be ima- 
ginary, then, indeed, n pair also imaginary must necessarily enter 


* Thia term. " {miginantx," » not employed by Englfih tt^bnisU : fti efiulvalait, 
imapitiaritif, li, howerer, of freqacat oceomne* In French worln. and doMrrw lobe ioi' 
ported into our Uugunge. 


the primitive equation ; but the converse of this U not true, except 
under the peculiar circumBtances noticed above; that is, except when 
Ihe original coefficients satisfy one or more of the conditions [IS]. It 
M exclusively with this class of imaginary roots that we propose at pre- 
sent to deal : we shall have nothing to do — at least till notice is given — 
with any of the imaginary roots pf an equation, the exiRtence of which 
loots is not discovumble from the mere coefficients of that equation 
when submitted to the testa of imaginohty marked [3] or [5] at 
page 344, 

It may bo well to give a specific name to pain of imaginary roots 
of this class: we shall call tbcm primary pair*: and the conditions 
[33 or [5], by which their eutmuce iulo mi equation is discovered, 
are merely the embodiment in formuIoD of these verbal statements, 
pamely : 

For a primary pair to exist, cither, Ist, the second term of the pro- 
Dosed equation mui>t vonibh (fur the proper trousformatioD) between 
like signs; or, tind, tho second term in the reciprocal of the pro- 
d, or of some one or more of the derived equations, must vanish 
twt'cn like signs. 
Of course, as already proved at (7), when the second term in the 
direct primitive vanishes between like signs, that is, wheu the condition 
[1] haa place, tho second term will also vanish from every derived 
equation, down to the quadratic, inclusive. But tho condition [2], 
supplied by the finul triiid of term:^ in the primitive, will not be trons- 
mjtLed to the first derived equation, since tho last term At, will not 
enter that equation ; but whatever intermediate triads in the primitive 
ti^fy the conditions [U], these tiiads, one after another, most become 
al tritidx eveutuuUy, in suuiu of the derived equations; and the con- 
tiuus [3] bt^iug sutinfiiHl for the corresponding triads in the primitive, 
must bo uathiticd for these also, as proved at (7). TIic second 
I, tljureforo, in the reciprocal of every such derived equation must 
Tanish between like signs. 

(10) Such are the peculiar circumstances exciusively and invariably 

tendant upon the entrance of primary pairs of imaginary roots into an 

nation. As to the number of such pair9, when two or more of the 

dilions [3] ore aiiti>tlied, or as to whether more than one pair can 

ever bo safely inferred, however many of these conditions are satisfied— 

CSC are points in reterenco to which nothing can bo dctennined at 

is stage of the inquirj', except the fact that in u cuhie equation, 

ougfa both tho triad.-* furnished by its four terms should equally satisfy 

the oondilion of primarj* pairs, yet only one pair of imagioary roots con 

c equation. A single ilhifttration of the fact, in an equation of 

dugrce than the third, will BuiHce to show that the fultilraent of 

live condition* [3], how many soever, does not imply, of neccs- 

than one pur of imaginary roots. Thus, take the equation 

4*« - 9*' + 8a» - 4* ♦ 8 - 0, 



all the triads of wliich satisfy the conditions [3].* namely, 

let 2nx4x8 > (n- 1)9% that is, 256 > 243 
2nd. 3(n - 1)9 x 4 > 2(n - 2)8", „ 324 > 256 
3rd. 4(n- 2)8 x 8 > 3(n - 3)4«, „ 612 > 48 

and yet, only two of the four roots are imaginary ; a real root lies be- 
tween and j. For diminishing each root by -5, we have 

1-2-25 +2 -1 +'2(-5 

■6 - -875 -6625 - -21875 

- 1-75 + 1125 - "4375 - -01875 

the change of sign showing that a root lies between and *5. We shall 
find, upon trial, that the first figure of this root is '4. 

This example clearly enough shows that the fulfilment of the condi- 
tions [3], one after another, without interruption, by the sncceesiTe 
triads of an equation, is no proof that more than a single pair of imagi- 
nary roots enter ; one pair there necessarily must be ; other pairs there 
may be, but there are not other pairs necessarily. If the absolate 
number in the foregoing equation had been 1*4, or any greater number, 
instead of the number *8, all the roots would have been imaginaiy, 
although only two imaginary roots could hare been indicated by the 
preceding tests ; for the coefficients would then hare satisfied the con- 

which has place only when all the roots of the equation are imaginary, 
as may be proved as follows : — 

(11) Let the general equation of the fourth degree, with the last 
term positive, be put in the form 

jr»(i4|X» + A^ + At-p) + (px^ + -4,x + ilo) = 0. 

Then, Up be taken equal to ^i' -~ 4^0, the second of these qua- 
dratic expressions, being a square, will be positive (or zero) for every 
real value of x ; and the first will be always positive also, that is, aU 
the roots of the equation will be imaginary, if 

^- s) 

* If the fourth term were + 4«, tneteftd of - 4r, the fint and lest triede would each 
■Ull satiefj the conditioni ; but the middle Mad would fail. Tet. ae the ima^nary roola 
iDdicated by the first triad are iDdieated ia the poaitiTe region of the roott, and the ima- 
ginary roots indicated in the last triad would then be indicated in the negative regioa, 
we should know that the two pairs of roots are distinct. As it is, however, all the roots 
are indicated in the positive region. 


or, 4^4^ I — 


or, {^A^At'A\)Ao>AiAi\ 

And all the rooU will still bo imaginary if the sign = replace tbe sign 
>, since each of the two component parts of the equatioDi in the above 
form, will tbeu be a positive square. 

(12) Ab implied in the title of it, one object of the present com- 
munication 18 to prove the truth of the rule proposed by Newton, 
in the Arithmetica UnivertalU^ for detercnimng the number of imaginary 
roots in an equation, whenever the coefficients ofthat equation have cer- 
tain specified relations among themselves — the relations, in fact, which 
are among those exhibited in the conditions [3], at page 344. In those 

aoations, in which no one of these conditions is satisfied by the co- 
knent^, Newton's rule is of no avail; although, notwithstanding the 
non-fulfilment of any of the conditions adverted to, the equation may 
have even all its roots imaginary. Yet, restricted as it thus is to the 
class of roots which we have called primary pairi<, when two or rooro 
of 6'jch pairs enter an e<juation, the rule will frequently enable us to 
^n^tect tlicir presence ; while the criteria [3] alone, how many soever 
^^Hthem might be satisfied by the coefficients, could never assure us of 
^^Bie existence of more than a single pair. By the aid of the general 
^^Bieorcm at (7), Newton's fiule may be demonstrated as follows: — 
^^ (13) Ketoming to the primitive equation [/], suppose we were to 
deduce from it the several limiting equations in order ; we know that 
the coefficients A^^ j4,, i4„ &c., would disappear one after another, tho 
leiuling coefficient, A^t being the only one that would be retained at 
tho end of the operation. Suppose, now, the order of tho coefficients 
to be reversed, as well in the primitive as in each of these derived equa- 
tions, and that then the series of limiting equations be deduced from 
each of thcee, till we arrive at a limiting equation of the third degree ,* 
then, leaving blanks for whatever numerical factors may have been in- 
I troduced into the coefficients by this process of derivation, the derived 
cabic oquationa will be 


low, for the purpose in hand, wo are not interested in knowing what 
the numerical quantities are which would correctly fill up these blanks ; 
it ia sufficient for this purpose that we know, from the property estaln 
liabad at (7), that, if we were to apply to each of theeo cubica the cri- 



]^,^ + [ 





] ^.-r" + [ 







[iJV + [ 





terioD of imaginary roots, n being e(]ual to 3, be the wanting numbcra 
whatever they may, we bHouM obtain the very same conditionji [3] 
which the original coeflScients Aq, j4,, A^, &c.j finpply ; each condition 
here being the same as that condition there, into which the same triad 
of original coefficients enters. Mere, however, we see that the last triad 
of terms in any cubic always inToIvce the same ooefficienta off/] as 
the first triad in the cubic next following; ao that, if the criterion of 
imaginary roots be satisfied by the lust three terms of one cubic, it must 
be satisfied by the first three of the next, and vice vptsA. A"? a cubic 
equation cannot have more than one pair of imnginary r*' itrs 

that the fulfilment of the condition by any two consf ■« of 

three terms of the primitive equation implies^ of necessity, but one piiiT 
of imaginary' roots in that equation. 

"When, however, each of the two triads of a cubic cqnntion indicates 
imaginary roots, the concurring indications im])ly a distinct peculiarity 
in the pair of roots thus indicated. The peculiarity is this, namely, 
that not only docs their entrance caaso the second term of the ctibic 
equation to vanish between like signs, bnt the entrjinee of their reci- 
procala, in the reciprocal equation, causes also the second term of that 
equation to vanish between like signs; that is to say, the second term 
raniBhed between liko bign^, whether the coefficients be token in the 
order proposed or in the reverse order. 

When tho first triad of terms gatisfies the condition of iraagteaiy 
roots, and the second triad fails, the reciprocal pair is not thus indicated ; 
when the second triad satisfies tho condition, and the first tJuls, it is in 
the reciprocal equation alone that the second term vanishes between 
liko signs. And it i?, moreover, only when such evanescence takes 
place in the reciprocal equation thalimaginarity is necessarily conveyed 
from the one cubic to tho other; and not only in the couln that 

is, when the final triad faila to satisfy tho condition, is in, not 

necesiartij/ conveyed to the next cubic, but it cannot possit^l} be con* 
veyerl under any circumstances whatever. In no single instance is ■ 
pair of roots in u cubic imaginary, eillier primary or non-prinntry» 
merely in consequence of the final triad in the preceding cubic lieing 
what it if>, unless that preceding Iriad itself t^atisfiea the condition of 
imaginarily. This may be proved as follows:— 

(14) Let the cnbio equation be 

in which tho leading triad of terms, supplied by the final triad of the 
immediately antecedent cubic in [/^]f fails to satisfy the condition at 
[3] ; and let it be tnmaformed into 

a*+|?aj + y = 0. 
by the removal of the first coefficient, and the second Icnn ; p will then 
be necessarily negative, by the hypothesis. Now it is known ihiJt 

1. If (•?)>( of ' *^^ "*^^' ^^ ^ ^ ^^ •"^ unequtl. 


2. If ( " ^ I ■* ( o ) » ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ imaginary. 

3. If (•* ?^ )■ (^]* ^^^ "**^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^* "*^ ^^'^ °^ 

them equal. 

The second of these conditions shows that, in the proposed hypo- 
thesis, the three coefficients, A'j, A't, ji',, can never silono suffice to 
introduce imaginary roots into the complete cubic, since that condition 
.implies that a suitahlc value of y, and consequpntly ofA',^ ia indispen- 
ibly necessary to such introduction. Hence the final triad of one of the 
ibics r/7]'cun never introduce imaginarity into the cubic next follow- 
ing, unless that triad itself eatis&ea the cuuditiuu of imaginarity. On the 
other hand, whcncTer the triad does satisfy that condition, no value of 
the absolute term (or 9) can ever prevent imaginary roots from enter- 
ing the cubic to which that triad is transferred ; that is, under this con- 
dition imaginarity ia of necessity introduced by the former cubic into 
le latter, let j, or A'^t in this latter cubic, be whatever it may : it may 
ideed bo anything or nothing, p being necessarily positive ; and on ac- 
count of this sign oij? it is, and on tlus account solely, that two of the 
roots ore of necessity imaginary ; the value or sign of q (and therefore 

KA't) having nothing at all to do with the matter. 
(15) It thus follows that when in any cubic equation 

le condition 

3 A', A', < AV . . . . [«]* 


has place, it is impossible that imaginary roots can enter indepcndf^ntly 
of the value of A^; so that imaginarity can never be introduced 
into the cubic (if the absolute term A'o bo arbitrary), whatever values 
we may give to the three leading coefficients, provided only the condi- 
tion [a] is pre»erved. But when, on the contrary, the condition is 

3 A', A', > A' 


then it is impossible that imaginary roots can be excluded, let A'o 
take whatever value it may ; that is, under the condition [£], imaginary 
roota must enter the equatiou independently of the value of A\. The 
first of these two conclusions is that to which attention is here more 
especially invited. It is indispensably necessary to the inference which 
it is our main object here to deduce, that it should be clearly seen that 
ihe transference of the final triad of any one of the cubica [//] to the 
sition of leading triad of the cubic next following can never hv a 

* Tb« pvnerml condition 7n Jn-3<(n~ 1)j4Im-i. obTtoutlr becomtt, in tha cam of 
ihft cubiCf the p(irticul«r tonditum in tbe tfcxl; aod it it furlhcr ulTioua, from the group 
of condition* [Al, thit whenever tlw exponeot n li odd, khemultipUon ate ucb of thein 
«v«», utd tbet^ore diriAiUa hf 2. 

u. 1. A. PBOC — vot. X. 3 a 


transmission of imaginarity, from the one to the other, if the triad 
Mtisfy the condition [ff] ; u truth which ie indeed sofflciently obrioas 
from the first of tlic formulae nt ( 1 4) ; for rcTnoTing the middle term of the 
transferred triad, the resulting p is necessarily negative; and IherefiiR; 
by merely altering the value of q (that is of A',,)^ if it be found to need 
altering for the purpose, without meddling with the transferred triad, all 
the roots may always be made real ; which could not be done if the txans- 
ferenco of the triad ever involved conveyance of imaginarity. The 
conclusion^ therefore, is irreeistible, that if each of these two cubics haa 
imaginary roota — the second, in virtue of its^?m^ triad alone, aatislyiflj 
the condition of a primary pair — the two pairs must be entirely inde- 
pendent of one another: the entrance of the second pair cannot poasibly 
be a consequence of the entrance of the first pair. 

(16) Let now the first of these two cubics, taken from [i7], be 
presented by C= 0, and the second by Ci = i the imaginary pair in 
former by /, and the ima^ary pair in the latter by /i ; then, as J 
seen, the entrance of Z, into the cubic Ci = is not a consequence of ' 
entrance of /into C=0, but is entirely independent of the entrance of 
/. Calling the two reciprocal equations from which these cubics have 
been respective!)' deduced 7? = 0, and /?, = 0, we may, by reversing th« 
process by which C has been derived from R, derive this latttr from the 
former, adding in at each reverse step that particular constant (or final 
term) which in the direct slop was made to disappoar. In the equa- 
tion of the fourth degree, the result of the first step from C, there enters 
an iraaginar}^ pair — a primary pair, necessarily and exclosively depea* 
dent for ita character as such upon the pair in C= 0. 

But the pair in C, = is not dependent for its imaginarity on this pAir 
in the biquadratic ; for if it were, it would be dependent on the pair in 
C=0, which it is not. In like manner, ttie equation of the fiflh 
degree, in the next reverse step, has an imaginary pair dependent on 
the before -mentioned pair in the preceding reiralt, una therefore on tb« 
pair in C = : the pair in C, = is therefore equally independent ftf 
thia pair ; and so on throughout all the rercrse steps up to 72 = 0, thnt 
ia, there is a pair of imoginar)* roota in A =0, of which the imaginorj' 
pair in C, = 0, derived from Ry = 0, is independent. 

But imugioary roots can enter iJi = only as a consequence of ima- 
ginarj' roots entering 72 = ; and imaginary roots can enter <?, =0 oiity 
as a consequence of imaginar}* roots entering 72, • ; and thdrc/hre ottljr 
as a consequence of imaginary roots entering 7? = 0. 

But it was shown that the pair in d = docs not enUsr as ft etmff- 
quenco of that particular pair in 7? = 0, of which the pair in C = (ft* 
the reverse process of derivation) is the source : hence the pair in C| ^O 
must be the consequence of some other pair in 7? = ; wiich eqnatioki 
has therefore at least two pairs of imaginary roots. Consequently th« 
primitive equation has at least two pairs of imaginary root«. 

The particular imaginary pair in the equation R -0, here adverted 
1o, ia that pair the entrance of which Jh iudioAtod by tiie cvane«oencc> of 
llif treoiid term of the equation 7? = lielw««*n like ngas : in otfavr 





^OT<lfl, if r be the traQfifbrming factor by which the second term is ro* 
moved, the imagijiury pair, traceable to the pair in the cubic C^O, ia 
indicated between r~8 and r+B; since it id the linadttt^ triad of It that 
ftiliila the condition — the same condition, by (7), as tiiat fulfilled by 
the leading triad of C, No doubt, in certain cases, other coefficients, 
besides the second coelQcient, may also vanifih between like Bigns for 
the same tranaformation (r), and othtr pairs of imaginary roots be in- 
dicated between r-<5 and r + S. But, by taking account of only a 
f single pair, in all circumfitanccs — the pair, namely, that would necea- 
I laniy be an imaginary pair, though any or all of the cocfficicnte in R, 
after the leading triad, were changed — we restrict oursulvea, aa we 
ought, to that pair alone, the imaginarity of which is conveyed, in the 
reverse process, through all the intermediate equations, from C = U, up 
L ^to Ji = Ot regardless of whatever other imaginary pairs may be, as it 
^^Vere, picked up and absorbed into the equation in its progress towards 
^H^omplction tiom C to S- Whatever modilications this pair may UJider- 
^^po from changes in the coefficients after the third term, its character as 
^^Kn imaginary pair in if = ia stili preserved, and it continues through- 
out to be indicated between r - ^ and r + «. 

It will have been observed, that in the foregoing reasoning JZ, is re- 
garded as derived from C (after restoring at each step the factor pre- 
\ viooflly expuugt-d) by the proccub uf tHttgrationt as wc may for tho 
' moment c«Jl it : and it is to be noticed that it is Uie g^eral integral, at 
each step that owes a pair of imaginary roots to the entrance of 
the pair iu C = ; in other words, tlmt although the constant 
tmplcting any integral be taken of any arbitrary value, even xero, a 
lir of imaginary roots— primary roots, resulting &om the pair in 
0, must still enter. The constants actually introduced are each of 
ugBod vaioef because a speoific equation, E = Q, with assigned ooeffi- 
rnts, is ultimately to bo deduced. The constants, added one after 
lother, ns the dcrivatiou (or integration) proceeds, may cause the in- 
lUOtioo of additional imaginary pairs, as just noticed; but none of 
thett pairs arc traceable to tho pair in C ^ ; and u pair traceable to the 
pair in C - would still enter each of tho ascending equations, though 
no oonstanis at all were introduced. 

(17) From what has now been shown, wo see — always beoriug the 
general property (7) iu mind — that the seamh after distinct and iudc- 
peadont primary pairs in the equation [/I may be converted into a 
search ^^ter the independent primary pairs in tbe group of cubic 
ffquations [ir\ ; for although, in applying tho tests [3] to each of these 
cubicft, n is equal to 3, yet that when the blanks in the ooefloienta 
filled up, the conditions, unaffected by this lower value of the ex- 
it, become the v«ry same as those marked [3], in which n is the 
expuneot uf the equation from which these cubics have been 

So far, therefore, as thia inquiry ia concerned, the group [//] 

efTectuolly replaces the single equation [/], with this advantage, namely, 
that as the individual etjuations \_if\ &r« connected together so that the 
final triad of coefficients of one supplies the leading triad of ooefflcients 


oi the equatiou next following, wc can readily eee whether or not imv 
ginarity la conveyed irom the former to the latter. After the firrt triad 
of [/] (or the first when the coefficients are reversed, it makes no diffe- 
rence) each successive triad up to the lost is thus repented in [// ] : it 
is this triad — common to two oonRocutive cubics, which forras the con- 
necting link mentioned, and wliich causes the same fulfilment or failure 
of the condition [3], in the lending triad of the second of these cubicSf 
08 in the final triud of the tirst And this is tho only connecting link 
between the two : in other respects they ore indcj>endcnt, so that when 
the final triad of a cubic (and consequently the leading triad of the next 
eacceeding cubic) fails to satisfy the condition [3], and the final txud 
of this Buccoeding cubic does satisfy thut condition, an imaginary pair, 
distinct from whatever other pair or pairs have been inferred ironi 
earlier cubics in the series, must enter the primitive equation: and thi* 
is the same as saying that when a fulfilment of a condition [3] by « 
triad of the coeflicieuta of [I~\ is preceded by a failure, a pair of primary 
roots, distinct from and inuopcndent of whatever pairs may previously 
have been detected, is indicated in the equation. 

(18) But before the passage from a fulfilment to a failure, or from 
a foUuro to u fulfilment, there may have been a continuous sncoe^sioa 
of such fulfilments or failures in passing fiponi cubic to cubic ; or, which 
is the same thing, in proceeding from tenn to term of the primitive 
equation. From these tui interrupted eoncurrcnces wo cannot iafo 
anything, as to additional imaginary pairs : such additional pair? auy 
enter the primitive, or they may not ; as is suificicntly exemplified id 
article (10) : but we shall always be on tho safe side — that is, we shall 
never be in danger of inferring more pairs than really enter — if wc 
always regard these concurrences as merely repeated indications of one 
and tho same thing, namely, the succession of fulfilments aa only so 
many concurring proofs of the existence of but one pair of imagi- 
nary roots, and the succession of failures as indications that no addi- 
tional im»ginary pair is to be inferred so long as the &uluree reznoiu un- 
internipt4?d by a fulfilments 

We moy remark, however, that when tlicre is a continuation of ful- 
filments, u peculiar character is impressed upon the several cubic equa- 
tions [//]. as already adverted to at (13) : the triad supplied to acnbie 
by the antecedent cubic, imports primary i mag in arity simply; whilst 
the triad which the new fourth term completes, so modifies the roots 
that, whether we take the direct or the reciprocal equation, the second 
ttrm in either case vanishes between like signs; and imoginarity cannot 
be expelled, whether we change the final term or the leading term; it 
is what it is in virtue of hoth triads satisfying the condition indepen- 
dently ; and is as much u consequence of one triad qs of the other. In- 
dependent imoginarity in any one of the cubics afler the first cubic 
can bo inferred only when the imaginnrity is due exclu&ivtdy to tho 
final triad, and may therefore be exptllvd from the equation by mcrclv 
modifying tho final term, that is, the absolute number which complelr» 
Out cubic* Of course it will be understood throughout these remarks 




that truDfiierence, or conveyance, of primary imagiDorily always implies 
transference of a triad of terms. 

(19) From what has now been established, we deduce the follow- 
ing rule for determining (at least approximniely) the number of imagi- 
nary roots in a numerical equation, from the mere examination of the 

KuLE 1. Under the loading term of the eqtmtion, write the sign 
pitts, as the first of a row of signs. 

2. Then, taking the oecond coefficient of the equation as the middle 
one of the firet three coeflicients, apply to those three the proper test 
[3] or [5]. If the condition be satisfied, write tiiinua under the Heeond 
term ; if it be not satisfied, write phu. In other words, plus or minus 
is to be written under the second coefiicient according as its st^oare, 
multiplied by the proper factor, is greater or less than the product of the 
adjacent coefficients multiplied by the proper factor. 

3. Passing to the third coefficient; take that as the middle of the 
two adjacent coefficients; and apply* in like manner, the next follow- 
ing test ; and as before, annex to the former signs minua, or plus, ac- 
cording as the condition holds or fails. And in this way proceed till all 
the coefficients have been employed. Then as many changes as there 
are in this completed row of bignn, from plug to minus (not from minua 
to plus), 80 many pairs of imaginary roots must enter the equation : it 
may have more pairs, but it cannot have fewer, 

JfoTE. — The last triad of coefficients need not be tested whenever 
the row of signs already written down terminates in a minua sign ; and 
it is well to remember that the test for the lost triad is always the somo 
OS that for the first; for the lost but one, the same as that for the 
second ; and so on. 

It may further be observed that it is impos^jible for fulfilments in 
e positive region of the roots to be succeeded by fulfilments in the 
gittive region, or for fulfilments in the negative region to be suo- 
eded by fulfilments in tlio positive region, without a scparatiDg 
"urc ; lor whether permanencieB of sign in the equation, are suc- 
eded by variations, or variations by pcrmBncncica, the sign which is 
termination of the one set, and the commencement of the other set, 
endently always have Uie sign adjacent to it on the one side of 
tc character to that adjacent to it on the other aide ; so that the 
sign written under the middle one of the three must always be +. 
The region, therefore, in which a pair of imaginary roots lies, or in 
which the pair is indicated, is sufficiently marked by the collocation of 
tigns in the eouation. 

(20) The following ore applications of the foregoing rule: — 

+ + - + -f 


'he equation has one pair of imaginary roots, at least. By the rule o 
there are but three roots in the positive region; two of these 
thoac here found to be imaginary. 



3«» + 8;f' - 5^ + 12j:» - 7x + 9 « 
+ + + - 

The last triad here need not be tested, as the row of signs alrowPr 
written down terminates in a minus sign. One pair of imaguior) 
roota is detected in the positive region. 


7a;' - 2£r» + 8x» - Sir + 17 = 

+ - + - 

In this equntiun all the roots are imaginary-. 

In applying the tests it will always be found preferable to employ 
them in the tbrras marked [5] at page 344. The multipUeni in iho 
right-hand members of these forms are all included in the gt-neroJ rx- 
pVMsion m (h- m), and those in the left-hand members, arc thcficcarh 
inoreased by the constant number n + I. In an equation of a high 
degree, the cosiest way of proceeding will be to place under the woond 
tenu of the equation n - I, under the third term 2 (»- 2), under the 
fourth term 3 (n - 3), and so on; in other words, commencing at the 
aeeond term, to multiply the exponents by 1, 2. 3, &c,, placing the 
remdta undorDeath ; remembering that these numbers will pocur in 
rererse order when the middle term, or the first of the two middle 
terms, is reached: each will be the multiplier for the square of the 
term nnder which it is placed ; and when this multiplier is increved 
by the constant number w + I, that is, by the leading exponent j>/im 
1, the result will be the multiplier for the product of the two extmne 
terms of the triad we arc teating : thus, 


60 = 

'2x^ t 3j:* - 2^ - I6r« + x» - ix* - 2ar 
7 12 13 16 16 12 7 

These numbers are the multipliers for the squares of the coefficients 
immediately above them; and those for the product of the extreme 
coeflicienta of the triad, found by adding 9 to ouch numbcTr 




25 24 21 16 

or, expunging common faotora, the two rows of numbers will be thoat' 
here underwritten : 

5j;* - 2a;' + 3** - 24j:* - I6af* + «« - 4*' - 2x - 60 
For the trfiMfYt, 

7 4 5 16 5 4 7 

FvT the producit^ 

16 7 8 25 8 7 10 

And since 

IB.5.3 < 7.2', 7.2.24 > 4.8V - 8.3-16 < 5.24', - 2524.1 < 16.18*7 
8.16.4 > 6.1', - 7.1.2 < 4.4% and 16.4.60 > 7.2% 
iho row of aigUB will bo 

+ + - + t- + - 


I the equation has six imaginary roots. As the last term of the 

eqnation ia negntivo, tho two remaining roots ore real — one positive, 
and the other negative. 

It may be observed here that when the extreme terms of any triad 
hnvo unlike signs, as is the catte with the third, fourth, and sixth of 
Uio triads above, it may always be passed over ; the oorres|>onding sign 
in tho row of signs being WTitten +, to imply that the triad in ques- 
tion fails to satiBty the condition of imaginary roots. 

It may bo remarked, too, that the accurate calculation of the two 
members of the inequality appealed to is but seldom necessary. "Which 
of these two members h in excess of the other may. in most instances, 
be ascertained at a glance. 

In the foregoing discussion, the case in which the sign of inequality 

one or more of the criteria of imaginary roots is replaced by the sign 
of equality is not adverted to, except in so far as to notice (6), that one 
pair at leart is then implied. There is another case, too, namely, that 
in which consecutive zeros occur among Uie terms of equation, which 
has not been specially ccmsidcred above, Tho two cttscs have a certain 
relation to each other, and it remains for us to examine what arc the 

ercncea which these peculiarities justify. We shall first consider 

e case of consecutive zeros. 
(21) — 1. TV7m« thei'f are comenitive teron. If «// tho terms between 

e firet term and the last ore zero-j, as in the equation 

A^^O + + + .-.. + 0+^. = 0...[l] 

le exact number of imaginary roots is dotermiua'blo at once; for siucc 


it ii obvious that if n bo oven, and Ao negative, there will be just two 
real roots, numerically equal, but of opposite signs ; and, therefore, 
« - 2 imaginary roots ; while if Ac bo positive, nil the roots will be 

But if n be odd, then, whether Aq be negative or positive, there 
will be only one real root; and, therefore, »- I imaginary roots. 

The terms of an equation of degree n, being n + 1 in number, tlie 
foregoing xeros ore » - 1 in number. Hence, if we apply the rule at 
355tothoequation[l] above, forthe purpose ofraarking the number 
imaginary pairs, we must evidently write minuM under tho first zero; 
d then, to secure conformity with tho foregoing eoncludons, must 
write the signs pUu and tnittu» alternately, till the last zero is reached, 
the sign under which, if n be even, must always be the opposite of tho 
sign of A^: but if n he odd. this sign nuy l>e f or - jndiiTerititly. 




When n m odd. 

^,z" + + + + 

+ - + - 

. +0+ ^0 

- or +, indifferently. 

For taking account of the leadiug sign -t- in tho underwritten row of 
signs, it is readily seen that the » - 1 zeros, when n is eren, furnish - 

changes from + to -, if ^g is 4-, and -z -\ changes if ^ is -. And 

n - 1 

that when n is odd, the number of changes is — — , whether -4, is + 

or - : and since each change from + to - implies a distinct pair of 
imaginary roots, the number of Buch roots, thus indicated, i^ prcciadjr 
the same in each case oa the number tiotormined aboTc. As the sign 
under the zero immediately prtcediiig the lost zero is always + when n 
is even, and always minus when n ia odd, in the latter case it is plainly 
matter of indifference which sign be placed under the last zero. 

But suppose that two or more significant terms precede or follow 
the zeros, or both precede and follow. By taking the succcssiv© limit- 
ing equations, these latter terms will disappear one by one, till only a 
single significant term beyond the zeros is left ; and by reversing the 
coefficientHof tho equation thus reached, and proceeding in like manner, 
we shall finally arrive at an equation of the form 

A'^' + + + Of... + + A*o = 0... [2], 

that is, at an equation of the same form as the equation [1] above. 

(22) If, in this latter equation, A'^' should bo positive, like A^ in 
[1]. the foregoing conclusions, as to the number of imaginary roots, 
would of course apply to it ; but i^ A\- bo negative, we should hare to 
change the extreme signs of [2], or to multiply the terms by - I, 
before wo could deduce the number of imaginary roots, as above, from 
the underwritten signs. Yet, leaving the leading minus sign and the 
sign of A\ unchanged, if, as before, wo write + under the first term, 
and - under the first zero ; then + under the next, and so on, as directed 
above, till we come to the last zero, and write under that -*- or - , ac- 
cording as A'a is + or - , it is easy to see that the underwritten row 
of signs will have the same changes from + to - as if the sifms of A'^ and 
A'ft had themselves been changed ; for it will be remembered that, in 
the case of n' being odd the changes from -t- to - are the same, which- 
ever of these signs bo placed under the lost zero. Now, since the 
signs of J'.- A'^f are the same as the signs of the original coefficients 
from which they have been derived, and as the intervening zeros oro 
tho same in number as in the original equation, it is plain that actual 
derivation is not ncocsBory. All we have to do is to proceed with the 

inderwrittcn signs in conformity with the rule at page 355, till wo come 
'to that term which immediately precedes tho Keros ; under this (what- 
ever be its sign) to write +; under the first zero, -; and so on alter- 
nately, till we reach the last zero, under which is to be written 4, if the 
signs of the two terms which bound tho zeros are unlike, and - if they 
are like, and then to proceed according to the rule. The sign under the 
terra which immediately follows tho zero3, as well as that under tho 
term which immediately precedes them, will, of coursCj always be +. 

Note It was directed above that when the first of tho boundary- 
terms is minu*t the sign of the other boundary-term is that which is 
always to bo written under the last zero. If it should be for the 
moment thought that what has just been said is inconsistent with that 
direction, the reader has only to reflect that, in the case ofA\. negative, 
if A'a be +, tho signs of the two terms will be unlike, and that if A'o bo 
-, tliat the signs will be like ; so that in tho former case, + is to bo 
written, and in the latter case -, tho sign being always (in the cose of 
A'^ negative), the same as tho sign oiA'^. 

Wc shall now give somo examples of the application of these pre- 

I. iir' + w^ + O +0 + + * = fl; 

+ + - + - 


+ + - + + 

o first of those equations has four imaginary roots; the second two, 

least; of tho otlier three, one is positive, and tho remaining two 

ong to the negative region. [It may be observed here that if each 

the roots of an equation be diminished by c, the number 6 may ob- 

ously be taken so small, that in carrying on tho transforming process, 

Homer*B method, each addend may be made as small as we please ; 

BO small, thcrefoa*, th^it the signs of the significant terms of the original 

shall all be preserved unaltered in the transformed eqiiution ; in which 

eaaer what was a zero in the original, will, in the transformed equation, 

be a flignificant term, ^vith the some nign as the significant term imme- 

ely preceding tlic /.ero. There will thus bo a permaneihct of sign ; 

in tliis way jwriuaiit'nfirH will n-plut-i' the arbitrary signs of all the 

ic'-ar' + ax'-aa^^ + j' + o + o-a^o 
+ - + - + - + 

Therefore six of tho roots aro imaginary. 
I 4. x' - 21* + 3ir* - 2x* 

2i' + 3ir* 


+ - - 

Here the equation has four imaginary roots, at least; one real root is 
dtiTe; the other two roots are doubtfHil, and belong to the negative 
a. I, A. pBoc. — VOL. I. 3 c 


6. Sat* - 2a;^ + 3flB* + + + + 4as« - Sfl! + 60 = 

+ -+- + -+- 

Therefore all the roots are imaginary. This concladon may beTetified 
as follows. Writing the equation &ufl : — 

a!«(5ai* - 2a; + 3) + (4x» - 2a: + 60) - 0, 

we see that each of the two quadratio expressions is positiTe wiutercf 
real value be given to x ; and, therefore, as a^ is always positiTe too, 
no real value of x can satisfy the equation. 

6. Sa* - So* + - 2** + 7»' t - 4 « 

-fc + - + f + 

Consequentiy, only two imaginary roots are detected ; they are in the 
negative region. 


«>*+0t0 +0+ - oar** +0 +0 + - ia^+ «JB* + + (&•+ + +0+ 0+0-*=0 
+ _ + -+ f -+- + + - + -+- + + 

Therefore, the equation has fourteen imaginary roots, at least ; there 
may be sixteen, but there cannot be a greater number, since, aa the agn 
of the last term shows, two roots, at least, must be real. If this sign 
had been -f, then the sign under the last zero would have been - ; and 
the equation would hare had eight pairs of imaginary roots at least. 

(23) 2. JThen there are irtade of equality. Let us first suppose that 
all tile triads, except the last triad, famish conditions of equality. Ife 
except the last triad, because if every triad throughout were to satLrfy 
the condition of equality, the roots would all be real and equal ; that is 
to say, the equation would be of the form 

An{x + rY = 0; 
BO that 

would express each of the n roots. But if, as here supposed, the last 
term Aq of the equation be of such value as to render tiie final triad 
one of inequality — all the preceding being triads of equality — then it is 
plain that the form of the equation will be 

-4„(a: + r)''*<j-0; 

From Fourier—" Aualjse dcj Equations Dett-niiin^eo." 

(« being poditivc or negative according aa 

-4„ = A^ + c, or Ao = Aj"" ~ c. 
In the former case Acisin excess, in the latter case, in defect) 

- r + 


which ahowfi that when n is even, and, moreover, c positive, all the n 
roots will bo imaginary ; hut, if in this case of n even, e be negative, 
only « - 2 of the root* will be imaginary. And that when n is odd, then 
whether c be positive or negative, x will have one real value, and one 
only. From this it appears that— 

JFh^ n i» evm^ and it be found necessary to »iihtract n positive 
number (c) from A^ to make the triad oue of equality, the equation 
will have oil its » roots imaginary ; but if it bu necessary to add a posi- 
tive number (c) to A^, for this purpose, then the equation will have » - 2 
imaginary roots, and no greater number. 

WhifH n IS od^f the oquatioa will have n - I imaginary roots, what- 
ever be the value of Aq, or, which is the same thing, whether c bo sab- 
tractivo or additive. 

(24) The conclusions, then, are quite analogous to those deduced 
above from the case in whicU the » - 1 terms between A^'*, and A^, 
art' zeros, instead of significant terms having the peculiar relations to 
one another here supposed. If n u evm, and A^ in ^xrtf«f, the sign 
to bo placed under the last of these interAening terms is to bo - ; and 
if ^0 ts in defect J the sign is to be -(- ; but r/ » i« oddj then, in the case 
wo are considering, oa in the cose of the zeros, it is matter of indilTo- 
rence whether the sign under the last of the intervening terms bs + or - ; 
the number of imaginary roots indicated being the some, whichever sign 
be chosen. For the immediately preceding sign in the row will always bo 
-, inasmuch as the sign under tlic first of the odd number of interven- 
ing terms is itself - ; and the underwritten signs ore alternately - and 
■t-. But, Imring in view the case to be considered in the article next 
following, and in order to preacrvo uniformity in both cases, it will 
always be better to write + or -, oceording as A^ is in defect or in e»- 
ceM, JusL us iu the case of n being even. 

liie fori-goiug oouclu^iuus may be orrivod at in another way. Put- 
ting the proposed c<{uation in the form given to it above, namely, 
A^ (x + r)" + tf « 0, and supplying the w - 1 zero-terms, it becomes 

^«(« + r)- + + + + ,.. + Of<i = 0, 

which, X -k r being here in the place of x, is identical with the form 
[1], at page 357, and whatever values, real or imaginary, x has in the 
lurmer etiuatiun, so muuy must x -f r have in tliia, aod vi'm rerid, since 
the value of r ia alwaya real. 

Suppose, DOW, that triadt of equality oceur enytch^t among tbo 


terms of on equation; then, by tjiking the successive limitiog equatioDS^ 
as in the case of cousccutive zeros, we can reach an equation in whidi 
all the triads are triads of equality, except the last triad,* and can thoa 
return to tlie case just conaidered. And it is plain, from what hiu 
oli'cady been shown, that the aigna to he written under the terms which 
intervene between the first term and the last term of this derived equa- 
tion will bo alternate signs, like as if these intervening terms were so 
many zeros ; and, as in the case of the zeros, these ore tho agUB to be 
writtf^n under those terms of the primitive equation from which the 
terms here spoken of, in the derived equation, have been deduced. But 
one thing must be attended to here, which, in the ca«o of intcrrening 
zeros, requires no special notice. The signs to be written under the 
first tcrn\ of the leading triad, and under the last term of the series of 
triads wo are hero considering, are not necessarily -t-, as in the cade of 
the zeros, but may be either both -, or one f and the other - : t^Hch 
sign is to be underwritten, tho general rule at (19) will, of course, 
enable us to readily ascertain. If the former of these two signs is seen 
to ho -, the eign immediately next following must be + ; and so on, 
alternately, till the latter of the two is, in like manner, determined by the 
rule, and underwritten. In the case of the zeros, the first of these two signs 
was invariably + (and so was tho last) ; and the immediately nest sign, 
- ; but it may bo otherwise here, as tho general rule must be obeyed. 
It may bo observed, however, that an underwritten - always implies « 
pair of imaginary roots, as a + must have preceded it ; for it is with a 4 
that tho row of signs under the terms of the proposed equation com- 
mences ; so that no fewer imaginary pairs can ever be indicated by the 
Bigns under the terms of the primitive than woiild be indicated by the 
signs under the terms of the final derived equation. 

Wo shall now give an example or two by way of practical illns- 
tration : — 

1. x*+ I0x« + 40ir* + SOa^ + 8031+86 = 
+ - + - - [Here A,, 

Hence there are four imaginary roots. 

a. 16x*- 96x* + 2l63;»+216ar- 80 = 

2 + - + + [Here A9 « 

80 that the equation has but two imaginary roots. 

3. x" + 6x' - 3a^ 4 56i* + 70«* f S^x" + 2&c» + 6a^ + 4 = 

S6, 16 in excea.] 

80, 18 in defect*] 

[Here the 4 is in 






* If tbo list triad utisfy ihe condition of vqualiLy. aod DOt all tho triads, tiien, Jmi 
u in the ctM of tht flni triad beiug a triad of equAlity, an imaginary pair wiU be itirfi- 
<«tMl by that triad ilooe (Art. 6). 


>nf»e<|iieDtly thcro ore at least six imaginary roots, two in the positive 
';iou, and four in the negative region. 

Sjj^ + 7x» + 21a:* + 35a:* + 36x* - 8«* + 12j: - 5 = 
+ - + - + - + 

Henco there are six imaginnry roots in tlie equation. 

As in the tirst and fourth of tlieso examples the sign immediately 
preceding the last is tHtnus, we might, in each of these, have slopped 
at that sign : the dctcrminatioa of the ia*t sign wus unnecessary, as no 
additional imaginary roots could be indicated, whether the hisc aign 
proved to be + or - ; nor could another pair have been indicated, 
though the degree of the equation hod been even instead of odd. 

(25) We hei*o terminate these practical details respectlug Newton's 
Rule, which rule is subRtantinlly the same us that given at page 355 
of this paper. We have not attempted any exttftttion of it, but have 
been content with ascertaining what is the utmost amount of infonuu- 
tion, rcspeoting the number of imaginary roots in a numerical equation, 
that can be educed from it. The rule itself does not appear to the pre- 
sent writer as capable of any extension — if by that term be meant its 
being so enlarged as to bo available for detecting the presence of ima- 
ginary roots other than those which, in the foregoing investigations, 
have been called p^rimary pairs,* Before, however, passing to other 
matters, it may be well to give a practical illustration of the way in 
wbioh we may always ascertain whether or not any proposed polyno- 
mial is the development of the binomial form A^{x + a)" : it was ad- 
verted to at p. 346. 

Suppose, for instance, wc wished to know whether or not the poly- 
nomial following is a binomial development. (See p. 356.) 

!l 27a:* - I08ac* + 180x* - lOOa:* + 80flB» - 21 J + ^* 



[ult. for the squares. 

,, products, 

As wo find that all the triads satisfy the conditions of equality, and 
that here 






or - 



108 2 

6 X 27' °'' 3' 

Of course if the lust t«rm of any polynomial, when divided by A^ the 

Ire infer that the invelopment of the proposed polynomial is 27( x 

* It wfll b« berviiftcr Alinwn, however, that non-priniarr pain in in equAlion Mtt 
alwmf9 conveniUIo into prttiiarv p%in by dinuoiUiuig «dcb of thu rooU by m delvrmimbk 


coefficient of the first term, be not a complete power (o^), the not of 
which is a = - A^^y h- nA^ wo should at once know that the poly- 
nomial cannot be the development of any expression of the form 
An{x ± ay -J nor can it be if the terms be neither all pontire, nor yet alter- 
nately positive and negative. Yet if any number of consecutiTe triads 
satisfy the conditions of equality, an expression of this form may 
always be found by computing towards the left, aa well aa towards tli^ 
right (if the consecutive triads be intermediate terms), such that those 
terms shall be identical with the corresponding tenna of the develop- 
ment for soms values of An and a. [The foregoing method of oompnt- 
ing term by term, may of course be employed for developing any case 

(26) The remainder of the present communication will be quite in- 
dependent of the rule of Newton, and of everything that has pieoeded, 
except the group of Criteria at page 344. These formulas [3] are 
mer^y deductions from the principle of De Gua ; but as we shall have 
£requent occasion to advert to the numerical multipliers connected with 
the formulae [3], and as these same multipliers are those employed in 
the rule of Newton, we shall for brevity and oonvenienoe refer to than 
under the denomination of Kewtenian factors. The following general 
property will be found useM in the business of actual solution. 

If an equation be represented by the notation ^(a;) = 0, and ita roots 
be each diminished by r, the transformed equation will hef{x + r) « 0, 
each of the roots (x) of which will be less by r than the corresponding 
root (x) of the original equation:* and we know from the theory of 
equations, that /{x + r) may be written either 

Ax + r) =A^) +/.(:r)r + l/,(a,)H + ^.(^^ + . . . . + ^ 

2.3.4 . . . »• 

=/(0 +/.(r)x + ^/,(r)i« + ^/.(r)a- + 

/„(«>- = 



2.3.4 . . . »' 

Now tlie property we propose to prove is this, namely:— If the middle 
one of any three of tlie consecutive functions, 

• Of coi:r8e, althougti we here speak of the roots being " diminished" by r, it will be 
undcistood iliut r may bo regarded as either positive or negative. Indeed the property 
in the text holds whether r be real or imaginary, as the general demonstration of it prove*. 


be squared, the first two tenns of the lesult, when multiplied by the 
proper Newtonian factor (as suggested by the degree n of the equation), 
will always be the same as the first two tenns of the product of the 
extreme terms when multiplied by the corresponding Kewtonian factor. 
Let any consecutiTe three of the functions [2] 1^ represented by 

Aaf + A'xf-^ + 

w m 

The first two terms of the product of the first and third of these ex- 
pressions retaining coefficients only, are — 

and the first two terms of the middle expression squared, coefficients 
only being retained, are — 

By multiplying [3] by .— ~r» we get [4]: therefore if we 

multiply the former expression by {m + l)p, and the latter by m{p - 1), 
the n^mlts will be the same ; and these two multipliers are the proper 
Newtonian factors, as is easily seen by putting 1, 2, 3, &c., in succes- 
sion for m, and «, » - 1, n - 2, &c., in succession for^. 

The same conclusion may be arrived at more expeditiously thus — 
If/ (x + r) were a powerj that power would, of course, be 

(x + r)" 

(-feT=-^t"-^--- c^^ 

and the triads of [1] would all be triads of equality. The square of a 
middle term, multiplied by its Newtonian factor, would be a result 
which, in all its terms, would be the same as the product of the extreme 
terms, multiplied by the proper factor. But though / (x + r) be not 
equal to (x + r)", / (x), and, therefore, all the 'ftinctions [2] derived 
fi!t>m it will have the Jtrst two terms of each the very same as if the 


polynomial were the power [5], as is obvious; and henoe ihetrath of 
the theorem announced above. 

(27) An immediate deduction from this theorem is, that if the con- 
dition of imaginarity hold or fail for the first three coefficients of any 
equation, it will, in like manner, hold or fail for the first three coeffi- 
cients of every transformed equation which can result horn, incieaaiiig 
or diminishing the roots by any quantity (r) whatever. 

For the proposed equation being 

A^ + ^„.,a*-» + A^^-* + . . . + Jo -= 0, 

we know that the first three coefficients of the transformed equation 
/{x + r) = will be the last three of the second development [1] j and, 
therefore, writiag the final coefficient first, that they will be of the 

A„ or -t A^i, hf^ + cr + A^. 

But, by the foregoing general principle, if the condition hold or &il for 
the three original coefficients, A^^ A^i, A^^y it must equally hold or 
fail for these, inasmuch as that 2n times the product of the first and 
third of them differs from n~ I times the square of the second by 
exactly the same amount that 2nA^A^., differs from (#i-l)J'».t; 
for the two terms involving r disappear from the differenoe, as jost 

Hence, for every transformation, these two functions of the coeffi* 
cients have the same constant difference. 

Suppose we had developed one of the roots of a cubic equation by 
Homer's method, and that we wished to aecertain whether the roots of 
the quadratic equatiou 

AaX* + A'^ + A\ = 0, 

to which the process would conduct us, were real or imaginary ; that 
is, whether ^A'lAt be less or greater than ^V* ^ow we know, frt)m 
the foregoing principle, that 

^A,A, - A,^ = ZA\A:, - JV [6] 

and, therefore, having calculated the first of these expressions from tho 
original coefficients, we see that wo have only to ascertain whether 
A' I Ai added to it will make the result positive or negative. If positive, 
the other two roots of tho cubic equation are imaginary ; if negative, 
they are real. For example : In the writer's treatise on " The Analysis 
and Solution of Cubic Equations" (p. 172), the development of a root 
of the equation 

x' + 8a;' + 6x - 75-9 = 

conducts to the quadratic 

x* + 15-2771X + C2-46326147 = 


and ffom tlio priaciple above^ wo readily see, without any calculation 
with those large numbers, that since 

18- 64 + 62 

is positive. 

the remaining roots of tho cubic must bo imaginary. 

But it may bo wcU to show here tho amount of numerical labour 
spared when the character of the roots, from close proximity to equality, 
is much less readily discoverable, by the ordinary method, than in this 

By the method hero proposed, the work is 

18 - 64 = - 46 

62-463 26147 

By the common rule (after multiplying the absolute number by 4), 

(15-277l)» = 233-3897844U 


If the first of the expressions [6] be itself positive, we should know, 
at the out«et, that two roots are imaginary. If it be zero, then, since, 
when increoised by a positive quantity, the result would bo poaitive, 
we should know then, also, at tho outset, that two roots would bo 
imaginary: and similarly in reference to the second triad of coefficients, 
as the coefficients may be reversed. But both of those conclusions may 
be inferred from what has been previously eetablished. 

(28) Iteturning now to the first of the equations, p. 364, if we re- 
prcaont the original pol^-noiniol J{x) by X^ and the successive co- 
cAciente of r, r^, &c., in [1], that is, the several derived polynomials, 
by JTi, X(, &c., respectively, a very general form may be given to the 
criteria of imaginarity at p. 344, namely, 

2nX^X^> (« 


3C» - \)X,X^ > 2iM 

4(n - 2)X^X^ > 2(n - S)X»' 

5{n - 3)j;JK. > 4(« - ^)X^^ 

2hX^J. > («- 1)X»^* 

in which expressions the x involved in Ju„ T„ &c., may take any real 
ralnet positive or negative, whatever. If we put x « 0, the formulae 
become those at page 344 ; J'o, X|, &c., and A^, Ai, &c., then being 
ide&ticaL Take, for example, the equation 

then Xi = 16j^ - 30a> + 18x - 3 
„ X,«24t*- 30a: + 9 
„ J,= 16a: - 10 
„ J^- 4 

When V s 0, these give the origiaal coeffloients, namely, 

JL4 JL^ Jlj JLi JLq 

and for underwntt«n eigns, + -f + f # showing no imnginary 

£ut whon X = Ij the results ore — 

^4 '^S "^^ "^1 '"'V 


and the underwritten signs, 

+ - 

showing two imaginary 

The other two roots are found to be real ; one lies between '1 and '3, 
and the other is -5. 

The coefficients last written are those of that transformed equation, 
which we should get by diminishing each root of the original equation 
by I — an operation much more readily performed than that above. And 
we see, by this example, that non-primary pairs of imaginary roots in 
an e<iuation may become primarj* pairs in the transformed equation that 
would result from diminishing or increasing each root by some number ; 
but what tliis number is we con discover only by trial, or by a preyioiu 
analysis of the equation. Yet, by developing a real root by Homer's 
method of approximation, whenever we find that two variations of sign 
are lost or gained, in passing from one step of the operation to the nextf we 
may always ascertain, as here, whether the two roots passed over are cer- 
tainly imaginary, or possibly real ; and in thus testing the aevenJ txiads 
in any of the transformed equations, the firsttriad need never be examined, 
since, by the foregoing theorem, the results of such examination Is 
already known from the three leading coefficients of the primitive equa- 
tion. Andf as regards other triads, any nice calculation of the squarei 
and products of ttie coefficients will very eeldom be necessary ; a men 
glance at those coefficients will often suffice to assure us whether the 
criterion of imaginarity is satisfied or not. We can generally see, by 
inspection, whether the square of the middle coefficient of any triad is 
less (or not gieater) than the product of the other two coefficients ; and, 
since the numerical multiplier of the square is always leas than the 
numerical multiplier of the product, we may thus, in most instanoes, 
have sufficient indication of the presence of a pair of imaginary roots 
without any actual numerical work. 

(29) Wo have stated above that in developing a real root by 
Lomer's method, it would be well, so soon as the two variations are 




loet or gained in a transformed equation, to apply the test of imagi- 
narity anew ; but we need not wait till 6uch changes occur : the test 
will be as litely to discover the presence of an imaginary pair 
before any change of Tariations takes place, as alter; so that when 
in the cose of doubtful roots in the aasigned inter\'al, we carry on the 
work of approximation in uncertainty as to whether these doubtful 
roots may eventually turn out to be real or not, reference to the criteria 
should always be made at each completed step. Thus, take the ex- 
ample at page 308 of the '* Theory of £t^uatioDs/' namely, 

12r* + 24^ - 58a; + 25 = 0, 

in which it is doubtful whether the two root* indicated between '7 and *8 
are real or imaginary. Proceeding on the supposition that they are real, 
the first figure of caoh root must be *7. Diminishing by this number, 
the transformed equation is 

12*^ + 49-2x» - 6-76z + '276 » 0. 

The next figure, still presuming tlie roots to be real, is '06 ; and the 
next transformed equation is 

12ar» + 5l-36«"- 7264x + -050112 = 0. 

Taking the first of these throe eqimtions, wo see at a glance that 58' is 
greater thou 24 x 25, and greater even than four times that product, or 
2'l X 100 ; so that here there is no indication nf imaginary roots. Tak- 
ing the second equation, the conclusion is similar : it is seen at once 
that 6 76' must exceed not only 492 x 2*76, but also three times this 
product. But as respects the third e(|uation, the conclutfiou is different; 
■72<>4' is obviously hfin than 5'136 x -501 12 ; and therefore we may bo 
certain that the two roots, hitherto in doubt, are imaginary. 

Suppose, however, instead of the inferior limit '7, between which 
And *8 the roots are indicated, we had taken the superior limit, and had 
diminished each root by 'S : the transformed equation would have been 

12«» + 62-8a* + S'A4t + -104 = 0, 

in which the condition of imoginority is satisfied ; for three times 
52*8 X "104 is greater than 3*44', since it is pretty obvious that 3*44' can- 
not bo so great ns even Id. 

(30) Of nil the known methods for determining the numerical 
raloea of such of the routs of an equation as may be real — after by 
trifti, or by a previous analysts, the iuterrulfl in which they lie ore oa- 
certained, Ilomer*s method of continuous development is to be preferred. 
And if this method be employed in combination with the criteria of 
imaginarity in the case of doubtful roots, we shall always bo led to 
MlisCaotory conclusiona respecting all the routs of a numerical equation. 

But oven without applying these tests, th« true character of the 
doubtful roots may always be diacovercd by proceeding onwRrd(> with 


the development exactly as vo should do if the doubtful fooEb vei« 
kDown to be real. For in this way we shuU invariably arrive at ao 
absolute term in a transfunned equation which, if Uie roots bo imagi- 
nary, will be socn to bo irrcduoible to zero, however far the approadma- 
tivo process be continued ; thai is, we shall have evidenre that the ab- 
solute term (the final number) is each successive transformed equation 
muii tend, as the work proceeds, not to zero, but to a finite limit, be- 
yond which, towards zero, the absolnt^ term caniiot paAR — a conelnsart 
indication tiiat the roots in the interval we are thus contracting an 
imaginary. But the Us»i» of iinaginarity will generally enable us U> 
resolve the doubt at on earlier stage of the work. 

It is always better, in Homer's proceM, to develop positive raoU 
only i and, with this object in view, to convert negative roots into posi- 
tive by changing alternate Mgns: the passage otf a pair of root* 
will then always be indicated by the lou of two variations, and 
there con never be a gain of variations. We Bpeok here of the 
passage of but a single pair of roots in thns continuously proceeding 
from the inferior towards the su^ierior limit of the interval ; but, in 
equations of high degree, several pairs may pass simultaneously, and 
consequently as many pairs of variations be lost. (Such will alvrays 
happen when there are four, 8ix, &c^ equal roots, or when either of the 
functions is made up of equal quadratic factors, whether the rooti of 
these bo real or imaginary* [I'ho consideration of these casea of equal 
roots is postponed to a Note at the cnd.j It is scarcely necessary to 
remark here thut the process for computing the function /(x), for any 
vulue oi u\ by Horner's method, supplies, in its progress, the computa* 
tion, in order, of the Bubordinatc functions 

^/.i'). ^.(«). /,(«>■ -.[1] 

for that value of r. If the interval which is doubtful, as respects the 
equation J{x) - 0, is doubti'ul also in reference to one or more of the 
inferior equations /,(x) « 0, 4/, (x) = 0, &r. — n circumstanco which 
the rule of signs of Bndan will apprise us of upon comparing tlie 
signs due to one limit of the intervaj with those duo to the other limit, 
then the Jirft of the functions [I] — the function /,(x) - 0, suppose,* 
wliich, when equated to zero, has two doubtful roots in the same intet^ 
vol as each of the ftinctions following, up tof{x) = 0, inclusive, must 
bo such that the immediately prec<»ding function /^(a-) « 0, will hard 
one, and only one, root in Uds etuue interval.f And it is alwayn to thU 
real root that our approximation tends as we work onwards towards 

* For dfnpllclty, wo hero luppreu the fractional multiplier : tbc roota of an witutioa 
Kinj; the snine nli. titer che •iK-nificant inemt)cT ottt be multlplird by a number or oot, 
atiil as it iswith n>ot« fn\y^ and not with numerical valuu of fuiictiouf. Itiat «« arv hm* 
the muliiplivT allii<l«(l to inaj \m (IhrBined. 

t Sta *' Theory of f>)tutioiu, " p. 170. 


/[s). It ift lhu8 that the roots otJ{x) = 0, Ijing in the same internal, 
are separated, when they are real, and when not real» are shown to be 
imaginary by the conliuuoua U-ndcncy offix), utter a certain Htnge of 
the process, not to zero, but to a finite limit ; and it is obvious thut 6uch 
tendency there must necessarily be whenever the roots o{J{x) = 0, in the 
interval under examination are imaginary*, whether the roots o{/,{x) « 0, 
in that interval be imaginary or not If thcac latter roots be real, the 
prooew will separate them ; if imaginary, /,(x) will it«elf also tend to a 
finite limit ; and a pair of imaginaries in/(x) » will be indicated. In 
the former ca&c, after the pasrugo of the real root otf,{x) ■ 0, if a real root 
of /(x) = have not aiso passed, the process is to be renewed, the ap- 
proximation being now directed to the development of the. remaining 
angle root of/j(x) - in the remaining iiiter>'iil ; Just as at Erst it was 
directed to the development of the single root, in the original interval» 
of/*(') = ; until, in the case of the roots of/,(jr) = continuing 
doubtful, notwithHtandingthis further contraction of tbe interval, thest, 
if real, become separated ; and so on, up to/,(x) ■ 0» and/(x) = 0. 

In this way, the doubtful roots, if they lum out to be real, are con- 
tinuously approximated to, however closely they may lie together ; and 
we now proceed to show that the criteria eslablislied at the outset of 
this paper — without even regarding the tendency of the absolute num- 
ber,*— can never fail to detect their existence whenever the doubtful 
toots are imaginary : — to show, in fact, that whatever be the character 
of a pair of imaginary roots of the proposed equation, that pair will al- 
ways be replaced by, or give rise to, a primary pair in a more or lees 
remote tranafurmud equation; and this, we think, is an important 

In order to prove it, however, we must premise, what has been clearly 
enough proved by Fonrier^ that in the operation of continnoos develop- 
nMiit« briefly described al>ove, the limits of the doubtful roots become so 
coQtow!tod AS we proceed, that not only do those limits exclude all 
roota except one root, of the function (taking the series of functions 
from riRht to left) immediat^rly beyond the last of [1], into which the 
doubt ontt»r9, but they also exclude every root of the immedtutely next 
t t unction: in otlier words, the interval becomcd at length so 

i rhflt in the passage over it, while two variations ore lost in 

tl:- -li. - I t -i^Tis under the functions [1], reckoning onwards from left 
Iv ii^ii.t, uj' i.. ilie above-mentioned doubtful function inclusive, only one 
variatiufi i» lust in the series tcmiinuting at the immediately antecedent 
function : and no variation at all is lost in the series ending at the 
function immediately before this.f 

(31 }. Now let /.(a;) be the function deeoribed above as the last of the 

* XtTwlbelfM, tt U alwAj-iadriuhlA to Uk« note of thU tendency m the upproxt* 
msilon pKice»da. Th« Auetualloni of ihf ftbaoluu OBinber, In It* puastf« from uiw 
tnta^Mlamkm to ai ^We early indlmtton uf 111* tm* ch*r«cC»r of tb« 4oulit- 
M roala, idU«ngti > u root or/i(j') = chat the spproainstkiD Isdinoied. 

♦ B«»**Tb«at> ,.i i-i ...»,'■ [1 172, H ttq. 


coDsecative functions [1] in which doubt «nterB; and let us 
that the two roots off^[x) = 0, in the interval under examinalianr art 
imagimiry : then the operation of continuous development, as explaaneJ 
above, will conduct ns eventually to a tranafonned equation, such Uul 
the thi'ee coeiBuieutfi under the functions, 


will satisfy the condition of imaginarity ; that u, the triad will indiestt 
the prescnco of a primary pair of imaginary roots in the tranflformed 
equation, as may he proved as foUowe : 

The approximation being to the real root (r) of /».,(*) ■ 0, 17105 in 
the contracting interval, the coefficient under /,.i(a:) will continae 
tending to zero, whilst the coefficient under /„(x) ia approaching « 
finite limit Moreover, in the passage over the interval [r-r , r + ijj 
d may become bo small that, in the terms of the tranafonned equadoOi 
up to the term under/>,a(-r) inclusive, no variation shall be lo«t: but, 
taking in the two terms next following, two variations are lost in the 
passage over the root r, since /m,i{^) changes sign in this passage, 
whilst the signs of the preceding functions, us well as the sign of/.(z), 
remain unchanged. Now tliis cannot possibly be unless for the truu- 
fonnation r - ^ the collocAlion of signs under the three functions is eilho' 
+ - +, or - + -; for otherwise there could not be two variatiana to 
lose. Hence, in passing over the interval, ^r - B^ r + 3], the signs of 
the first and third of the cocfflcicnts under the above throe functiont 
continue to be like signs ; and as the middle coefficient raoiahes in 
this interval, it follows that not only at, but before and after thia 
crancsecnce, the square of the middle one of the three coefficients most 
be 1ms than the product of the other two coefficients. The triad most 
therefore satisfy tbe condition of imaginarity ; and must do so all the 
earlier in the process of continuous development, inasmuch as tha 
square has for multiplier a number l^ss than the multiplier for the pro- 
duct by the number » + I (formulae 5, p. 344). 80 soon as the triad of] 
coefficients satisiHes this condition of inequality, a stop may be pat ta 
the work, provided but one pair of doubtful roots lies in the intervoL 
We should know that, in the remaining ]>orlion of the interval, a pur 
of imaginary roots would exist for each succeeding function. If, how- 
ever, there are other pairs of rootfl iu the interval under examina- 
tion, the transformation must be completed, and the development be J 
proceeded with, in order to ascertain, from the variations lost betH'eeofl 
r - i and r •¥ i, whether additional pairs of imaginary roots are also ii>* ^ 
dicated by the paasafe of the root r. 

Whatever pairs, nesidca these additional pairs (if any), may still be 
indicated in the original intcr\al [u, ft], they are to be sought in the 
partial inten'ul [r, b\ by proceeding in the same way as at first. We 
have only further to ooscrvc tlmt, >vlien the hadiwj triad of the proposed 
equation satisfies the condition at page .'^4;), we know that the leading 
triad for ^veryf rflnsformation will also siiLisfy it (27 ). But the pair of inu- 
ginary ivots 'i\ij\t) = 0. which this triad indicates, lies in the Tntonral 



[tf*. if]* wHicb, embrocipg two roots of/(z) ~ 0, embraces also the root 
of thu middle eqaalion of Ihc first dof»ree.* It thna appears that those 
imagimu-y roots of an equation which haro not, at first, tho clmracter 
of what we have called primary pairs, become convertible into primary 
pairs by the same process of continuous approximation by which they 
would bo separated and computed if they were real. And we submit 
that all desirable extension and eflicieuey is thus given to Homer*B 
■lethod of development, and to the general criteria at page 344. 

(32) As to the practical operation of carrjnng on the development 
adverted to, when two or more roots are indicattKl in the same intorvnly 
and arc long in separating when real, or in disclosing their character 
when imaginary, we must refer for the necessary directions — more 
e^>ecially as to the trial divisors for facilitating the discovery of the 
roocoMive figures of the real root actually approximated to, to " The 
Theory and Solution of Equations of the Higher Orders," pp. 259-263. 
But we may add here that, in testing a triad of coefficients by the con- 
dition of imaginarity, if the figures of these coefficient? are numerous, 
and it be seen aeoeoeary to compute with some degree of precision, the 
Btpiaring and multiplying may be tedious operations. In such cases we 
would recommend a shorter method of proceeding, thus: — Let the pro- 
duct, with its proper Newtonian multiplier, be represented by pPP', 
and the square, with its proper multiplier, by yQ": then the condition 



and these division operations being carried on, a figure at a time alter* 
natcly, we shall find which quotient exceeds the other without com- 
puting even a single supcrfiuoos figure. 

(33) We flhaU terminate this paper with the inveetigatioa of a 
general formula for determining the character of the roots of a complete 
cubic equation, indci>endcntly of actual development. 

If either of the two triads of a cubic equation satisfy the conditioa 
of imaginarity, no special formula for this purpose will be necessary : 
we have therefore only to provide for the case in which both triads ftul, 
or in which the square of the middle term of each ( with its proper fac- 
tor), minus the product of the extremes (with its proper factor), is a 
positive quantity. Let 


P m A,ie* + A^ + Axx + A^ ; 

or, page 367, 



f 1 


FmZA^ ^ At 



•.•Q"-3Pi'*-(^/-3i4,^>» + (^,^,-9^o^,)x + (il,"-3-4g^,)-[J] 

* TIm |iuMe« of this root being attand«d with tb* lou of two vsriatloiUi that 1% 
two rarladou an IgiC in purog front r - ^ to r > 9. 


Now, this expression is positive for every real value of z, provided 
it be either a complete square, or that it satisfy the coaditioQ 

4{A^* - SAiAj){A,* - SA^A^) > {A,A^ - 9^o4,y ... [2] 

and it cannot be positive, for every real valae of x, unless one or other of 
these conditions hold. Hence, when all the roots of P == are real, 
[1] must be a complete square, or else the condition [2] must have 
place, and conversely ; so that the condition which must be satisfifd 
when a pair of roots is imaginary, and which cannot be satisfied unless 
there be an imaginary pair, is 

4{^3« - SA,A>){A: - 3^<h4,) < (A^A^ - 9AoA,y ... [3] 

The criterion of imaginary roots for an incomplete cubic, is, of 
course, but a particular case of this more general condition ; the case, 
namely, in which il* = 1, and A^^O ; for making these substitationfl, 
[3] becomes 

-124.'<(9^.)«, or(-^J<(^J 

as at p. 351; Ai, Aqj here, being j?, q, there. 

It follows from the above conclusions that when the roots of 
(^ ~ SPF' = are imaginary, those of P « must all be real ; and that 
when the roots of Q" - SPP' = are real, two roots of P-0 must be ima- 
ginary, and v%c« verndj unless the roots of Q' - ZPP « are equal roots ; 
and equal roots they will always be whenever P ~0 has two equal 
roots, the equal pair in the former of these equations being the same 
as the equal pair in the latter. For one of the two equal roots of P «■ 0, 
namely, a? » r, must enter the equation Q = ; so that QF and 3PP 
are each divisible by (x - r)' ; therefore r, r, are the two roots of ths 
quadratic Q"- 3PP'=0. In the case supposed, therefore, [1] is always 
a complete square:* hence, if the equation P= have equal roots r, r, 

.4,> - ^A^A^y and AC - ZA^^^ 
must be squares ; and 



and whether the sign of r is to be positive or negative will be at once as- 
certained from the signs in the proposed equation, by the rule of Des* 
cartes, as all the roots must be real. 

Of th« form m»(« -»■)*• 


I£J.t « 0, then - ^AiA^ ia a squtkrOj ia the case of equal roots, and 



If all the roots of P-=0 are equal» each coefficient of [1] will boxero; 
^ - 3/*/" being then identically aero. 

NoTi 1. 

In the foregoing discuaaion, we have not specially considered the 
cases in which equal roots enter an equation, with the exception of 
what has just been said as to tho cnhic. Such special consideration of 
these cafics, when actual solution of the equation is the sole object in 
riew, we do not regard as at all necessary ; and wc cannot but think 
that a great deal of labour is sometimes expended, with but little profit, 
lA tr^'iug to find out, by tedious common measure operations, whether 
an equation has roots strictly equal or not. 

If equiU roots really enter an equation, the approximation to that 
one of them which always enters singly into an antecedent derived 
equation, most cause, not only the rcsiuts in the corresponding column 
of work to approximate to aero, but also the results in each of the sub- 
siquent columns, up to the final column, or that which computes 
/(jc). The simultaneous Itudcucy to rcro of the results under /(a;), 
/,(ir),/,(x), Ac., always of course indicates so many roots either 
accurati-ly equal, or nearly equal ; uuless, indeed, the tendency to zero 
ioJ[x) should cease, after a certain number of steps, and thus conduct 
us to the condition of imaginary roots. 

Wlien, however, the approximation to tho single real root here al- 
luded to has been carried on so far that the incomplete development 
would bo Hoarded as a value sufficiently near to the complete root of 
/(x) » 0, if this were the only root in the interval ; then, althougli the 
approximate root neither separate* the other roots of /(jt) - 0, nor yet 
conduct* to tho condition of imaginary roots, wo may, nevertheless, 
diaoootinue the devtdopment, uid may HLfily regard tho value obtainLKl 
lu a olo«e approximation to one» or two. or three, as the case may be, 
of thfl values ofx whicli satisfy the equation /(j-) = 0. 

For the roots in question, having been d«vclopcd up to whatever 
number of figures may have been BctUed upon at the outset, a^ su£BctcQt 
for the purpose in hand, what can it matter whether tho superfiuoui 
figures which follow thoae already found to be common to the two or 
more roots, are the same, or different for those roots? The roots are 
practically equal if the figures which compk-tely express them are of 
no praotinal value beyond those thus far f'uund to cotdesce, or to bo 

H. r. A. HOC. — VOL. X. 3 R 


common to Uiem all ; whether the more remote figures agree or disagree 
cau be of do moment in reference to the object in view; eincOj agree or 
not, they are confessedly useless. 

We submit that there is no difference of opinion as to Homer's 
being the best method of computing the real roots of a numerical equa- 
tion of an advanced degree by continuous approximation ; and with ap- 
proximations only, in all those instances where a root has interminable 
decimals, we must be content, even though those interminable decimals 
may be but a very simple vulgar fraction in another form. As is usually 
the case with general methods of computation, in whatever department 
of prooticAl mathematics they are proposed, there will always be parti- 
cular examples that might be better treated by particular rule«. The 
present writer ia not likely to bo charged with undervaluing Homer's 
method : he believes that its merits are such that, as a general metbodf 
it will never bo eupcracded. But, however high one's estimate of any 
practical process may be, it is right fairly to state its inconvenience* in 
particular coses, as well as its general advantages ; and an inconvenience 
in Homer's process, it certainly is — we think the only inconvenienco— 
that a fractional root has to be developed in tlecimols. 

Suppose, for example, one of the roots of an equation to be f : tfaif 
root, by Homer's method, would be determined in the approximate fonn 
-M2857 . . . . , and if the equation were of on advanced degree, a good 
deal of numerical work would be required to obtain this approximative 
value of f . If the development were to be extended two or three 
places further, the recurrence of the figures would, no doubt, suggest 
the equivalent fraction; but fractions may readily be assigned the 
equivalent decimal of each of which would not bo seen to be a recorring 
decimal till many more figures were computed. However, if it be ^ 
no practical consequence in the inquiry before us that a root with in- 
terminable decimals, and which is not the development of any finite 
fraction, should be approximated to beyond, say, six places of decimals, 
neither can ii be of any practical consequcnco that *l428o7 should re- 
place \ in that inquiry. 

Viewing the matter generally, in reference to incommensurable roots, 
it would ho more strictly accurate to rcgani our approximations — not as 
approximations to the exact roots of the equation we are dealing with (for 
it may not have exact roots — roots expressed in finite numbers), but to 
consider each as the complete or exact value of a root of an approxinuito 
equation — this approximate equation differing from the equation pro- 
posed oidy in its final term or absolute number. The amount of the 
difference may be made smaller Uian any assignable decimal; for the 
development of the incommensurable root may be carried to such an 
extent, that the final term of the transformed equation, at which the 
operation is stopped, may differ from zero by as small a quantity as we 
please ; and the root thus for developed will be a complete root of that 
approximate equation which would arise from merely correcting the 
absolute term of the proposed equation by the small decimal alluded to. 
What is here aaid as to u single incommensurable root applies, of course. 




equally to two or more roots which agree in their leading £gureB to the 
extent mentiunod. These are equal roots of un approximate equation^ 
mud have the some claim to be conaidered equal roota of the proposed 
oquatioD as either of them has to be considered a root of it. The con- 
elusion ia the same, whether at a more remote figure the roota would 
separate, or the coudition of imaginary roots, hitherto delayed, be after- 
wards fxdfiUed/or a ^nal triad. In cither case a real value is found 
which satisfles an equation so nearly coincident with the equation pro- 
posed that» since i^proximations only are attainable, the two equations 
may be regarded aa identical — in so far, at least, as the roots thus far 
common to both are concerned. 

No doubt, in thus prosecuting the development of one of a pair of 
contiguous roots, there may be abiding uncertainty as to whether the 
toots are strictly equal or not; for the decimals being interminable, all 
tiiat we can affirm, however far those decimals are carried, \&, that thus 
far, at least, the roots are undistinguifthablo from equal root«— supposing, 
that is, that a separation has not yet taken place. But in the case of a 
pair of imaginary roots, there need never be abiding uncertainty at alL 
The approxiroativo procces may fail to separate a pair of real roots — for 
they may not be separable ; but a pair of imaginary roots must, sooner 
or later, unfold their character as such, by means of the tests of ima* 
giuority. There are no such tests for incommensurable equal roots; 
by continuous approximation, J{x) may, in the one case, continuously 
lend to zero intfrminahly ; in the other case, it cannot Approach two 
within a certain finite limit;* but, in either cose, the process may be 
stopped when a sufficient number of decimals is obtained ; and the 
exact root, thus for developed, will be an exact root of on equation so 
early coincident with that proposed, that it may be substituted for it 
tbout appreciable error, in so for as concerns the particular roots ia 

It should be observed, however, that the approximate equation, of 
which a partially developed root of the proposed equation is an exact 
root* is not precisely the some as the approximate equation for another 
ially developed root ; since for different inexact roots the correction 
the absolute number of the proposed equation will most likely be 
t ; and similarly as re«pects different groups of approximate equal 
ts. But unless the correction in each case be so smsdl as to be of no 
txcaJ consequence, the approximate equation will not have ap- 
hed near enough to the proposed to justify its being substituted for 
AH that the present Note affirms is, that a pair of real roota way 
Te so many leadmg figures in common, or a pair o( imaginary roota 
bttTB the imaginary element so insignificant, that both in the one 
and in the other the roots may be regarded as real and equal — 
the conditions of the equation with as much precision as the 

• If it b« not tlM Anal triAil, bal ■ preceding triad, which lodieat* the fauglasriijr. 
ihtD. u tbfl spprozlnuulon will ool be dlnetvd to « root otfi{s) « 0. tb* •occtttivq 
ftiam of/(») may rreo dlvrrgv from Mro, though not beyond a Aiilte limit. 


reoeived approximate value of any single incommensurable root of it 

satisfies those conditions. And we thcTC>fore think that the Kndi,<cri- 
minnte rejection of roots involving an inioginary element, rcgunlles* of 
the inflneuco of this clement on the coefficients of (he equation, is un- 
justidable, and, moreover, inconsistent, where approximate values onlj 
of the real roots — that is to say, exact valuee of the roots of oaly ap- 
proximate equations — are received. 

Some remarks on this subject will be found in Peacock's paper, in 
the " Report of tho Third Meeting of the British Association," p. 349, 

There is, however, ono case of equal roots which deserves special 
notice — namely, the case in which tho roots are oU oqaal imikgnrnry 

Let tho equation be one of the fourth degree, made np of two equal 
quadratic factors (JT) each having a pair of imaginary roots : the equa- 
tion is then XX = 0. Taking tho successive hmiting equations (or 
differentiating), and remembering that X being of the second degree, 
we mast havts at the third step of the operation, X'" = 0, the limiting 
equations will bo 

that is. 

2XX' = 
2Xi' + 2XX 
4X'X" + 2X' 

6X'X' « 

QX^'X*' ^ a positive number. 


Ci" =. [21 


Now, the root of tho equation -Y' - 0, of the first degree, is the 
root of [ 1] of the third degree ; and it is equally the root of [3] ; wb> 
16 also of the lirst degree, X^' being a constant numl>er. Hence, if the 
rootfl XX - be dimmifihcd by the root of the simple equation X' ■ 0, 
that is, if wo cause the second ttj-m of the proposed equation to disap- 
pear, the fourth term will vanish also; they will vanish, moreover, 
between plus signs ; for A* is always plus, and iu [2] X'' and A' are 
both always plus; and A" is a positive number. When, therefore, the 
imoginarics are equal paint, the alternate terms, in the transformation 
which removes the second term, are zeros, each zero being between lik« 
signs, and we know that whenever this happens the routs ure oU ima- 
ginary. The Bomc has place when the equation is A" + iNTa 0, JV b^ing 
ony positive number, though tbo pairs arc not then equal paira, 

The conclusion is the same, whatever l>e the number of equal quft- 
dratic factors A'A'A ... of the above kind ; that in, if the roota of the 
equation be cat^h diminished by the root of the simple equation A' = 0, 
the last of the derivc-fl equations, the result will be an equation in which 
tho alternate terms will be zeros, each zero being between like signs. For, 
let the number of equal quadratic factors bo w; then, using the notation 
above, no A' can appear in any of the derived equations with more than 
two dashes, because A'*" is zero. In the first derived equation, there occurs 
but one dash in each term ; in the second, there arc two da.«liea in each 
term ; in the third, tlircc ; and so on up to the final strp^ in which then 



are 2n dashes ; this last result being a positire number : moreorer, each 
tenn consiBts of a group of n .Y's. 

Now, it is plain* when iu each of the terms, or individual groups, 
entering n derived equation, the number of dashes is odd, that JV' must, 
of necessity, enter that grouponce, or some odd number of times; and that 
when the dashes in each group of Jl's, in a derived equation, are even 
in number — since that even number can be made up without noy X i 
all — there mnst be one group from which A' is absent. It follo^'8, 
therefore, that the root of the simple equation X' = is equally u root of 
every ascending equation of an odd degree ; but that for this, and for 
all real values of x, every one of the functions of even degree is posi- 
tive ; hence, if we diminish each of the roots of the proposed equation 
by the root of A'' = 0, we shall arrive at a transformed equation in 
which the altemate terms will be zeros, each zero being between plus 

In diminishing by the root of JT' » 0, should it consist of two or 
more 6gurc3, Newton's Rule, in the case here considered, is of special 
Bervice ; as tho conditions of imaginarity arc likely to hold and fail al- 
ternately before the fiill development of the root of A*' = is completed. 
And tho same may be said in reference to equations made up of qua- 
dratic factors furnishing imaginary pairs not strictly identical, but only 
nearly so. But in every application of this rule to tho determination of 
the number of imaginary pairs in an assigned interval [a, 6j, care must 
be taken that pairs outside that interval are not included in the enume- 
ration ; that is, that the evanesccncies — which Newton's Rule anticipates 
— are not any of them delayed h(*yot\d the limit 6; such as are so delayed 
imply pairs belonging, of course, to the euceecding interml [6, r], 

^^ It may be well, before closing this paper, to give a short practi<'al 

i illustration of one or two of the theoretical principles established in 
the latter articles of it. Tho equation of the fourth degree, at p. 3G8, 
is well adapted to this purpose, since the roots are all doubtful, and ull 
lie within the narrow limits [0, l], 
<. The inquiry is — Does an imaginary pair enter this equation? and 
if so, by which triad of terms is the entrance of the pair first indicated ? 
It cannot be by tho leading triad, from the principle at (27) ; that 
is, an imaginary pair cannot enter tlie derived equation X, = 0. Con 
n pair enter the derived equation of next higher deffree namel}', 

X, = 0? "D O J. 

The roots of the derived quadratic X, = 0— that is, of ^a* - lOx 

+ 3 = — wo readily found to be -6, and 75. Taking tho smaller of 

' ese OS a tmnsfonaing number, and working up to X^ if imsginarity 

NOTB 2. 


is not indicated in X| » 0, real roots of Xq « (if sach exist) msj 

4-10+9-3 + •25{-5 
2-4 2-5 - 25 

~s ~ - -5 
2 -3 1- 


Here we see that '5 is a root, not only of X^ <= 0, but also of ^ = 0; 
and that there is no indication of imaginarity in Xi ■ 0. A real root 
of this equation is, however, passed over; and it farther appears that, 
for the tiwsfonnation '5 - J, one variation, in the entire series of signs, 
would be lost — the signs for this transformation being + - + + -, as is 
obvious. Hence, one real root of the proposed equation JTo = 0, lies 
between and *6 ; a second real root, as just seen, being *5 itselfl 
Again, diminish the roots by '7. 



+ 9 


- ^228 


+ •26 (-7 
- '1596 



- 112 



- 1-6 

- -24 

As before, one root, and one root only, of Xi = 0, is overstepped ; but 
there is indication sufficient that the other two roots of this equation — 
and, therefore, two roots of Xq = — are imaginary. Hence, the equa- 
tion has two real roots, '5 and [0, -5], and two imaginary roots. The 
approximate value of the latter of these two real roots, found in the 
usual way, is '12256 : it is somewhat more expeditiously found by em- 
ploying for the purpose the depressed equation of the third degree, 
4j:' - 8j:* + 5jf - '6 = 0,* as given by the first row of coefficients in the 
former of the two operations above. 

* W« ii««d Kirody nmlod the reader that the firtt member of thie «qtutioa ii the 
quotient arimog from dividiog the first member of the given biquadratic eqaatioa by 


In the foregoing operations, we have analyzed the interval [0, 1], 
within which the four roots are all comprisedj by commencing with the 
roota of the quadratic X^ = 0, seeing that these roots are real, and their 
values BO easily determined. There is, of course, no necessity to reach 
this quadratic through the descending steps at p. 368; we may a9C«n4 
to it by means of the three loading coefficients 4 - 10 -f 9; thus the 
dmplo equation ia 4 k 4x - 10 = 0, that is, I6x - 10 = 0; and the 

quadratic, x^ + 3 x 10» +'9 = 0, that is, 24a" - 30x + 9 = 0. But 

if, without regarding this quadratioi we had commenced with the lead- 
ing figure of the root of the timple equation, namely, - — - =» "6 . , . , 

a proceeding which would have been in strict accordance with the ge- 
neral directionfl at p. 370, the corresponding transformed equation would 
have been 

4a?* - •4x» - -36^* + -4541 + -0484 = ; 

so that the original interval would then have been subdivided into the 
two partial intervals [0, -el and 1 '6, 1], each comprising two roots; 
and the character of each pair would become known by contracting each 
of these intervals as above;. 

I It is here proposed to prove that whenever the condition of imagi- 

nary roots holds or fails for any triad of the functions X,, .^i, ^*it 
&c., as deduced from the primitivo Xo, for an assigned value of x, it 
will in like manner hold or fail, for the same value of x, for the cor- 
responding triad (the first, second, third, &c.) when J^ is taken for the 
primitive function. 

If we take X, for the new primitive, the scries of expresaiona fur- 
nished by Xi and its dcriveea will bo the original series X|, Z^, X„ &c., 
moltipliod respectively by t, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c., taken in order. 

If JC, be taken for the now primitive, X, and its derivees will bo the 
original X, X,, X^, &c., multiplied, in order, by 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, &c. 

And if X, be taken for the new primitive. X^ and its derivees will 
be obtained by multiplying the original Xi, X4, X^ &o., by 1, 4, 10, 
20, 35, &c., taken in order, and so on. 

This will be readily seen to be the case firom a mere inspection of 
the several developments. 

Now the general expression for the m'^ term in any one of these 
aeries of flgnxate numbers is 

NOTK 3. 

w(i»-fl)(w»2)(m + 3) ■ . . (bh-;?- 1) 
I. 2.3. 4... » 



p being of permanent value for the same MrieA, whaterer be m^ or t 
number denoting the place in the numerical scale, of any single tenn 
[^] in that Rcrios ; thus, for the first scries, p = \ ; for the second, /> - 2 ; 
for the thirds /> = 3 ; and so on. 

If we take the two t^rms B, C, next following this m" term [il], 
the first of these, B, will evidently be the expression [AJ with tbe 
leading factor, m, mippressed, and the new factor {m + p) annexed ; and 
the next term, C, will be what [^] becomes when the two f&c 
m{m + l) are removed, and the two, {mi-p) {m +^+1), iutroduoed 

Hence we have the conditions 



= m+i) + l, — 



A {(m + \)AC, tnB*\ = {m + p+Um+p\ AB . , . [2], 

m being the numerical place of Jii in the series, and p denoting the place, 
or order of the scries itself. 

[Wo may hero notice, in passing, as an inference iVom the relation 
[I], that the place (p) of any one of the series being given, we caa 
readily write the entire scries from the beginning, or can extend it, 

when leading terms of it are already written, since B - 



Pt it will be observed, is always equal to the second term minns I ; 
thus, for the third series the first two terms arc 1, 4 ; the next term it 

(ili^* = 10 .• the next <±^ = 20 ; and so on.] 

From the numerical equivalence [2], the proposition enanoioted 
above may be dodnecd as follows : — 

Let X, (taken ns primitive), and its derivees, be denoted by f J^)«. 
(X,.)i, {Xf,)2, &Q. : then calling the highest exponent of x in X^ n', w« 
shall have the several conditions (p. 367) for these new ftinctions, by 
substituting them for the functions, Xo, Xi, X,, &c., in the formula) re- 
ferred to, provided we put n' for n throughout But since, by the pro- 
perty adverted to at the outset (X^),,, (X,.)„ &c., are no other than X^ 
X^i, &c., multiplied, in order, by thcngurniive numbers^l, 1 + p, Ac., 
if ^ be the w** numlx-r in the scries, B, C, being the two numborv im- 
mediately following, then, as (X )^., is the m" function in the 
(X,)o, (Xp)i. i-^r)^ &C., we shall have 

ACX^^.X^, - (X,)„., (^).,„ and &X»^^ « (X,)«,. 

Now. by tlie formula [4] at p. 344, the condition of imaginftrity for 
the three functions here last written is 


(ffi + l)(n' - m - 1)(X,)„^,(X,),„.. > m(«' - m){X;f^ ... [3] 

and the condition of imnginarity for the ihree functions of which thoi«e 



we thfl multiplefl (A, B, C). u the condition within the braoketa in the 
foUowiog expreBBioQ, Darnel)', 

and by the property [2] theae two eipreasions [3], [4], arc equal ; for, 
pulti g in the former n - /> for h', which it is, we »ee that the two 
membert of [3j and the two of [4] are respeotlTely what the following, 

(w +^ + 1, w A-p\AB 

beoome, when the first member of each ia multiplied by the Dame num- 
ber, (rt - p) - (ffi - 1) ; and the Becond member of each by the same 
number, n - p ^ m. Hence if the condition of imaginarity hold or fail, 
for any value of x, for the three fanctiona in [3], the condition will, 
in like manner, hold or fail for the same value of x, for the three funo- 
tiona of the same de^ee in [4], and, moreover, the two members of the 
condition [3] are the two members of the condition [4], eaoh multiplied 
by AB, 

As a practical illustration of this, in a particular case, let JT, be the 
function taken as primitive , then ^ •> 3, and n' = n - 3 ; also, for this 
value of p, the figuratc multipliera ore 1, 4, 10, 20, SS, &o. 

Taking the first triad of these for i4, B, C; then the second triad i 
and so 00, we have 

"-♦ (2(« - 5)10^,X, > (i» - 4)16-1*41 = 

I 2(n - 3X J.)/X.l. > (n - 4;,(X.)i'| - 
|5(n - 3)X,X, > 4(m - 4)Z/)4. 

9«id. |3(« - 4)80X«X. > 3> - 6)100X|*| - 

|8(ii - 4)(X,).(X.). > 2{n - 5)(X.V| - 
|6(n - i)XtXt > 6(n - 5)X/|40. 

(4(n - 6)350X^r, > 3(ii - 6)400X,»| - 
|4(ii - 5)(X,WX,), > S>- 6)(X,),»| - 
(7(n . 6)X»Xt > 6(H - 6)X»»)200. 

and so on, oonformablr to the general eouclusioD above, BAmely, thut 

The object of the foregoing investigation ia to prove that when a 
limiting equation X, « 0, derived in the ordinary way from the primi- 
tive equation Xq = 0, has imaginary roots indicated between assigned 
limits, in contracting these limits by Homer's process — whether we ope- 
rate npon the equation Xo » itself, or upon the derived equation of 
inferior degree, X, = 0, the indications of imaginary roots wUl present 
themselves, in both operations, at precisely the same atop of tho two 
prooessea. Since the numbers, riv<ulting from a transformation in the 
one operation are all different {txcept those under X,, and sooh as 

».i A. nioc. — VOL. X. 3 r 


may be xvro from the uuoibers resuItiDg from the oorrespondisK 

transformation in the other operation^ there might be uncertajnt^. in 
the absence of proof, m to whether the indications of imngiuarity, wb« 
we operate apouXo^O, might not be delayed bc^'ond the step at which 
they would offer thumsolvcs if we were to operate upon X, = itself; 
we now see that 8uch dflay can never occur; but that the fulfilment or 
ttir failure of the prescribed condition, for any triad of coefficients in oua 
of the transformations of Xo« 0, iniplice the Like fulilluieut or failure for 
the correBponding triad of coefficientSt in tho correaponding transfoimi- 
tion ^by the same number) of X, = 0. 

And hence the remarks, at p. 378^ respecting equal and nearly equtl 
imaginary pairs entering Xq^ 0, equally apply whenorer bucK pain 
enter a derived equation. 

XXXIX Off Av OonAM-iNscbiBFD HoNiTVEKT ty Glbs Faxs, Covxtt 

KsafiT. By Kxchasd Uolt Bjsash, H* K. I. A. 

' [Bead KoTdmber 9, 166g.] 

05 November 8th, 1858, a paper of considerable interest waa rwii 
before the Royal Irisli Academy by the late Venerable tho Archdia- 
con of Ardfert^ Dr. Rowan, giving on account of tlie discovery by that 
gentleman of a remarkable inscribed monument in Glen Fais, and of 
the historic locality in wliich it was found. Ab tho readings given in 
the ArcbdcoconS paper appeared to me unsatisfactoiy, aa also tho«e 
given in other publicotions, 1 was anxious to obtain a perwinal inspec- 
tion of the stone iu question, to aHcerlaiu if the publii^bi'U copies. 
aa well as othcre in my possession, were correct, as I have liad abundant 
reason to distnist copies of Ogham inscriptions, unU-sa m'aiio by vwy 
experienced and trustworthy O^hamists. Xtting on an untim»ariaii tour 
in the borony of Coreaguiney, iii July of the presentyear, I had an oppor- 
tunity of gratifying my dt-eire, by visiting tho locality of the monu- 
ment, which 1 found lying prostrate in a grass 6cld iu the to^^-oland of 
Camp, a portion of Glen Faib, or, as it is locally pronounced, Glcnaiali. 
under the west face of Caber Conrigh mountain. It lies .ibout twenty 
yards inside the fence, to the left of tho public road winding up th» 
glen, and about ten miuutee' walk from Camp Foet-oQice ; distant from 
Tralee nine miles. Tho locality will bo found on pheet No. 37 of tha 
Ordnance Survey of Kerry, on which, however, the monument is not 
markcMi. It is an irregular flag-shaped monolith, measuring iu length 
eleven feet five inches, and in extreme breadth five feet nine inchM, 
and varying in thickness from ton to eighteen inched ; it is a hard, 
compact, close-grainad red sandstone, the inscription being on an 
obtuse angle on the face of the stone towards the left, and about 
midway in the length of the monolith. The engraving whioh 
accompanied Dr. Rowan's paper {" Proc. K, I. A.," voL vii. p. 104), 
is a fair representation of the stone, while the inscription is, I an bappr 
o ••-" •ccurately copied. The line on which the charaotera run u 



more of a natwrol ridge on the face of tJie stone ihao an actual angle. 
The letters are aliarply and clearly cut, and are all perfectly legible, so 
that, comparing my own copy with those of Dr. Rowan, Mr. Windt-lo, 
and others, I found no differcuce. The consonants are markod by Miort 
•trokos, deep and broad ; the vowels, with one exception, by oval dots, 
well sunk— that exception is the first vowed, 0, tho second letter of iho 
iuBcription, which is expressed by two short strokes across the lino, ns 
if an error of tho engraver, or aa if he changed his mode of representing 
the vowels. This peculiarity has been noticed by Dr. Kowan. 

Wo find also in this inscriplion the Ogham equivalent for the 
diphthong KA, which is the only character of that class yet found on 
these monumeuU, and only on a few, as on Nos. I and 10 of tlie CuUec- 
tiou of inscribed Ogham stones in the Museum of the Royal Irish 
Academy; on a Btono from Tiuahcly, county Kerry; on one at St. 
Olan'a churchyard, county Cork ; and from the Huth of Roovesmore, 
•am« countT, but now in the British Museum. 

iiiii », mil V L-u »« «JiiiL 











Q Ea V V U 

Dr. Rowan has inserted in. his paper a translation of this inscrip- 
tion by the late Rev. John Casey, formerly of Dingle, a wcll-knnwn 
Irish scholar, and one intimately conversant with the anlitjuitiea of 
this district ; but one whose enthusiasm sometimes got the better of bis 
udgmcnt, particularly in dealing with inscriptions of this class. This 
(luumeni, being found in the track which our mystic history aud tradi- 
a»tign to the invadiag Scoti, after their landing at Inbhcr 
vine, the rev. gentleman conceived it prolmblo that it marked tho 
are of some one of the fallen chiefs, or captains of the invaders, and 
at the name of such might be found on it; he accordingly reads it ; — 

" So cu uarf mo m ao cu O AT/* 

i. o. •' Here is martial sun officer Druid Xi, here illustrious alas Ni.*' 

Mr. Casey states, that Ni is Nighe, oghamicaliy written, the same 
Vighe, according to Keating, the father-in-law of the Amazon 
^ais. who was slain in the battle at Slinbh Mis, that he was one of the 
Iruids whom our Irish Livy designates under the names of Car and 
Uth^r, The original inscription, however, cannot by any means be 
indc to bear out his interpretation. To form the word Car/t hu turn* 
fifth character. Q, into an R, and omits the diphthong EA. To 
ing out tho words Nt, he transposes the sixteenth grotip — namely, 
lie vowel U into nn ; and the seventecth letter, whicti is a palpable 
being five strokes across the stem line, iuto an X. I need n'jt 
^mark, that a translation, founded upon such an unwannntublc muti- 
m of the original inscription, cannot be ar-rcpt^^d n^ of the slitclitctt 
>gical vuliie. Mr. \V. Williams, of Dungnr\-iin. who, I am inliTmed, 
led and capicd this inscription, giveij the folhjwing reading : — 

•* Sot hui'd thffmon il loco art" 



which he translateB, "The sacred stone of hosts of mighty men in the 
pkce of slaughter." 

The same objection also lies against this rendering in a mncb 
greater degree, as to produce it, the original characters are changed, 
transposed, and subdivided, in an extraordinary manner. Another 
Irish scholar, now resident in New Torkj has published a reading as 
follows : — 

'* So cu c$inb-mom ; So eu re" 

i. e. " The priest of holy cnub (or cneph) the priest of the suiu" It 
is quite evident that a foregone conclusion in each of these cases sug- 
gested, in a great degree, the translation ; and, consequently, we find 
that the original letters have been made to minister to these views. 

In reference to such arbitrary modes of dealing with ancient in- 
scriptions, I would here repeat that sound canon of criticism, recom- 
mended by the late Mr. John Windele in a similar case : — ** I confess 
I dislike arbitrary dealing with the letters, where we find a group of 
scores well defined, and so unconoected with any others at either 
Bides — so isolated as to warrant the conviction that it has been care- 
fully and well expressed ; or, where its direction, whether vertical or 
oblique, is expressed with similar care, I am disposed to be very 
jealous of any intermeddling with it, and am disposed to protest 
against any arbitrary forcing or dislocation" (** Proc. R. 1. A.," voL vii., 
p. 105). Dr. Rowan expresses some doubt as to the value of the six- 
teenth group of dots; he writes — "The sixteenth group is cut where 
a natural inequality in the stone renders it doubtful whether the points 
are to be read as two vowels or on^" {Jhid.). 

This point I paid particular attention to ; the dots are equidistant, 
and there is no doubt that the group composes one letter, U. Mr. 
Windele, who, 1 believe, never attempted a rendering of this inscrip- 
tion, recognized it as an U. 1 now respectfully ofier, for the considera- 
tion of the Academy, my reading of it : — 

" So €u Cueaff Moni so cu Ri ," 
literally rendered : — 

"This is the warrior Cueaf my grief, this is the warrior king." 

So, pron. this here, this is (O'Reilly and O'Brien). 

Cu, sm, a champion, a hero, a warrior (Hid.). 

Cueaff, a proper name, of the same family as Cuan, Cucaech, CucaiUe, 

Monit an Oghamic form of " Monuar,'* an interjection — My 
grief! alas! woe is the day ! (O'Reilly). The rest is obvious. 

In this renderinf;, it will be observed, that I have not in anywise 
interfered with the integrity of the original. 1 have not altered or 
transferred a single score; taking the inscription simply as it stands, 
it naturally divides itself into the Oaedhelic words I have given. 



The legend itsslf is of that simple, archtio, and exprcseiTo fonn 
usual on very ancient monuments, and is quite consistent with 
the geniu3 and feeling of our people. That this monolith should have 

n erected over the grave of an arch-chief or king is also oonsistent 
th the great e\ze of the stone, and the accuracy with which the 
characterB are cut. The formula, '* Wnrrior King,*' is found in our 
ancitnt MSS. Thus, in the " Wars of the Unedhil with the Gaill,*' 
as edited by the Rev. Dr. Todd, we have the following pnsBage ; — 
*' Now, this Cathal was the king-soldier and champion of Erinu 
during his career in his own time" (p. 75). 

The same epithet is also applied to thia warrior at p, 83 of the 
same work : — '* Great spoils and plunders and ravages were now 
committed by Mathgamhain in Munihnn. By him great epoils were 
taken from the Hi Euna of Anc. and there it was that Cathal, eon of 
Feradaeh, the king-aoldier of Erinn, was killed.'* 

A far more ancient example of tho same formula is given by Raw- 
linson from the concluding portion of the inscription on the tcmb of 
Midas, tho Phrygian — 

To Midaa the Warrior King." 




We must also observe, that the four concluding oharacters of this 

inscription form the name of an ancient chieftain of this immediate 

istrict, and whose Caher, or Dun, looks down dark and grim from the 

fty euramit of Caher Con-righ mountain, on the very spot where lies 
the great pillar stone. I allude to Curi, or Curoi Mac Dair^, of the 
race of Erenion, who was king of lar Miunhan about the time of the 
Iucarnation» The fjUowing account of the family of Curoi Mao Daire 
is given by the late Mr. John Windele, in a privately printed paper, cn- 
itlcd *' Cahir Conri" : — " He was the head of the Milesian Emains of 

unster; so called ixom their original settlement in Brefny, bee^ide the 

ores of Loagh Erne, whence they bad disposscescd a Belgic tribe, 
•lao denominated Emains, from the same vicinity. It is curious to 
observe that, when thia Bolgic tribe was expelled from Brefny, it located 
itself in that part of Kerry, from which it was again driven forth by the 
same Milesian tribe, themwlves now exiled fVom Ulster by the Clanna 
Buraidhe, of the race of Ir. This expulsion took place in or about 
A. M. 3920. under Deaghaidhe, the son of Suin. descended from Olild 
Erann, of the lino of Fiacha For Mara, son of Aengua Turmach, king 
of Ireland. 150 years B.C. The reigning monarch at this time was 
Uuoch, of the race of Hebcr, known in history by the name of Dalta, 
or the fostered of Deaghaidhe, who had adopted him. Thia prince 
towed upon his foster-father possessions in Luachra, the then general 

me of Kerry, a large portion of which received from him the name 
of Luachoir Deagaidh ThodescendantsofDeaghaidh gra- 
dually extended their power and authority over West Munster, and 
several of ihem obtained the sovereignly of the whole province, to the 
vxclusiou of the Ht*l>enau line. As the Ua Deagaidh, or Degadii, they 
w«ra noticed by Ptolemy, in the seoond century, in their proper ter- 


ritory in West Munstcr^ under the nomc of Udei, or Vodii, which Tcr7 
nearly expresses the pronunciution of Dhcaghaidh. 

Better known by the name of Clanna Dheaghaidh, thoy occapy a 
prominent place in the military history of the time, as one uf the iUrvo 
warrior tribes Tvho represented the rude chivalry of the iX'ri<Hl. The 
otherfl were the Craoh Ruadh (red hand, or branch), of Ul*t«r, and the 
Gaman midhe, of Irrufi Domnanu, in Mayo. De^haidh had thrco fiom. 

lar, Daire, and Conal Daire, the second son of Deftghoidh, 

had by his wife, Maoin, or Moran Mananagh, i.e. of the lele of Man, 
Conroi, much celebrated for his valour and prodigious strength : — 

" Moran of lifiina of lionor pure, 

W«R thfi cbild of Ir, tion of Utanaidlie, 
The sitter of E^icHoidh lilcl«ol she 
AnJ iiiulber of Cvrigh^ siui of l>ari."* 

Curoi Mac Daire is the Ufa aud soul of Munst«r romance : the gmt 
Cyclopean Caher on the northern spur of Bawr-tri-Gaun (the summit of 
the three. cows), overlooking Glnu Fais, is attributed to him. and bean 
his name. His success in carryiug o6f the fair Blanaidh from hit 
rival Cuchullin, and his death by the hand of the latter, ore inejihaust* 
ihle themes for tho story tellers. He is represented as being brtve 
and chivalrous — a hero both on land and sea — having been engaged in 
many foreign expeditions. Many ancient historic ttUea ure faundeil ua 
his exploits, some of which arc no longer in existence, aa the Cat\ 
huadha Cont-et, mentioned by the bard, Erard Mac Coisi ; alsK) tfas 
Aithed BUithnaifv in^en Paill Mic Fidaig re CoineHuiiainiK and 
Argain Cathair Chonrai. In the '* Leabhar-na h-L'idhre," we have k 
tale called "The Mtsca Ulladh'* (or the inebriety of the Ultonians^, who, 
in a fit of excitement, after a great feast at the royal paluce of Etnania. 
made a sudden and furious march into Miinster, where they burned the 
palace of Teamhair Luachra, in Kerry, then tho residence of Curoi Mac 
Daire, king of "West Munster" (O'Curry's Lectures. &c, p. l8o). 

Among tho historic tales in the Book of Lciustcr, called Oitt* 
(tragedies), is one, " The Tragical Death of Curoi:" a more uncicut 
veraion of this curious tale will be found in the MS. E^erton, 86, British 
Museum. *' The Adventurda of Curoi." is another historic tale in the 
Book of Leinster. In Dr. O'Donovan's Battle of Magh Rath is the 
following passage (p. 139): — 

" Oh ! I^tli Mof;lia, who art wont to gain iha Ytetoiy, 
Oi'i'resa ihe Ultoniana with flSgcraeu. 
Remember C'liri of the Spean, 
And tho chielj of the youtbi of tbo ErnaAiu/* 

It is worthy of remark that the orthography of the name in ifce 
above passage is the same as that on the stone at Gleo Fais. I Ihink 
that there are strong presumptions in favour of this vtone being tb« 
monument of Curi, or Curoi Mac Dair^ : — 

* " Cajxtv Corm," p. xtU. 



I^B First. The name on this monumoDt. 

^^ Secondly. Ita great size and evident importance, of showing that it 

I wua erected to commemorate some distinguished personage. 

Thirdly. The finding of this atone in close proximity to the reputed 
palace, or Dun of Curoi Mac Dair6, who was king of the Mhole dis- 
trict, and who was treacherously slain by CuchulainDf la the very 

Should we then conclude that the four last letters on the Glen Fais 
JJouumeut present to us the name of this proviucial monarch and 
I warrior, the inscription will stand thus — 

** Thii is th« Warrior of Cueaff M^ griof, Lhii u Curi." 
An apparent difficulty arises from the presence of two proper namea, 
but this may be fairly accounted for by the fact that many of our 
ancient celebrities bore more than one name^ thus : — Nuadhat, king of 
ibeTuiithDe Dananns, was also called " AirgctJamh," or " of the Silver 
Hand.*' Finn Mac Curahoill, bore also the name of*'Mougan/* The 
monarch Con was sumomed " Cead Cathach;'* and the celobrated Niall 
had also the name of Naoighiallach, **orof the Nine Hostages." Nume- 
rous other examples will be found in our ancient MSS. of a similar 
I nature, bo that the apparent difficulty vanishes before the probability of 
both the names in the inscription being applied to the same personage, 
though, as far as I hare been able to ascertain, he is only known to us 
nr that of Curi or Curoi. In the Book of Lcinnter it is stated, that the 
TLeeht. or monument of Conri. is on SUeve Mis Mountain. The late 
I>r. O'Donovan (in Magh llath) f^tatea that it is still to be seen on the 
/rth-east shoulder of the mountain (Calier Conri). 
Dr. Rowan, in his paper, has referred at some length to the account 
ren by Keating, from the Book of Invaaions, of the landing of the Scoti 
Clanna Miltdh, at Inbhcr Sgeine, and has referred to the topography of 
le dibtrict, names of places, the pillar stones, and to the recent discovery 
^a conwderable number of cist- formed gravce in GlenPais, aa to a certain 
ttent confirmatory of the bardic accounts of that event. 
"Wliilc I fully agree with the reverend writer that thefacts andcircnm- 
tces he bos adduced arc evidences that in this district some remark- 
ablr trnnwiclions occurred at a remote period, and that probably in this 
idi'utieal glen a buttle may have been fought between an invading force 
and the then posseasorsof the soil. I amnot disposed to accept the circum- 
mw* attending th<i landing of the Scoti and their conquest of Ireland, as 
\i forth by Keating from the Book of Invasions, and other authorities. 
Tfaile the main facts of the case are probably true as to the Scoti being 
kple from tlio maritime coasts of Spain, their having landed in the 
ratb-west of Kerry, and of their having become the dominant race in 
ir island, the details are entirely unwortliy of credit. This will bo 
!ttcr understood by referring brifily to Keating's narrative: — *' Three 
UvH after I [pbor and hia followers were got on shore, they were attacked 
Eire, the wife of MacGreine, one of the princesses of the country, 
Sliabh-Mii, or the Mountain of Mis. This lady was attended by 
a Btroi.g body of men, and a desperate battle followed, in which 
lacy were destroyed oa both sides. In this action Fai$, the wife of 


* Un Mae Vigh* was alain in a ralley at the foot of the inount&iD, whicli 
from her obtaiued the name of OUn-FaU, which Big:ni£e8 the ▼alier of 

The death of Fau is thns obserred by an old poet :- 

'* The valley where the \o\tAy Fbis fell, 
From h«r, m flDcluit Iriib rtcordi tell, 
Obtained the name Glen-Faii ** 


" Scota, the relict of King Milesius, was likewise slain in thii en- 
gagement, and was buried in another valley on the north aide of Sli&l 
Mid, adjoining the sea. This valley, which was the place of her int 
ment, was called Glen-Scothian, or the ralley of Scota, as an old p 

This was the first battle that was fought between the Hileuani a&d 
the Tuath-De-DananuS| for the empire of this island, as we kro infannad 
by the same author. 

" The persons that fell on the aide of the Milesians in this tiotioii 
were, the Princess Seota^ and the Lady Faia: they likewise loat two 
of their principal Druids, whose names wci*e Uar and Either, and then 
was no more than three hundred of the Gadelian soldiers missing after 
the fight; notwithstanding, they defeated the Tuath-De-Danan*, aad 
slew a thousand of them. 

** £ir0f the wife oi Mat ffrffin^i one of the priuoeasea of the ooantiy, 
with as many of her flying troops as she could keep together, retired U 
Tailte. The Milesians continued on the field of battle burying ihetr 
dead, and etltbratxng ih$ funeral rtUs of the two Druids wii/t great m- 

80 far, Keating : the narratire which has been receired aa gospel 
by many Iriah antiquaries has absurdity on the face of it, and will not 
stand one moment the tost of criticiam. The country is represented u 
baring been at that time under the dominion of a people called Tua ~ 
l)e Dananns, and who were governed by three kinga reigning conjoiutl; 
at Tailte, in Moath, and named Mac Cuil^ Mao Ceacht, and Mac Greina 
they seem to have been lazy, cowardly fellows, for tliey remained 
home, and sent out their three wives, Fodhla. Eire, and Banbha, to d 
battle against the invading Scoti. The invaders ore repreaaoted si 
landing at Inbhcr Sj^eine, which is generally supposed to be the present 
bay of Kenmare, upon what evidence I am at a loss to conjecture, 
all the probabilities are against it. To believe Keating's narrative, 
should imaxjine that the Tuath De Dananns must have had electric tel 
graphs and railroads radiating from the seat of their power at Tailt* 
into the remote wilds ofDunkerron, or Corcaguiney; otherwise, how 
could they, in three days after the landing of a hostile force, not only 
have had intimation of the same, but actually an organised army, under 
the command of the wife of one of the reigning kings, ready to confroa 
them in battle, in this remote district? Again, if the Scoti londiid 
the bay of Kenmare, what business had they in marching on 
Mis? Woe not their natAiral and politic course to march eastward' 
*he rich, level, and fertile heart of the island, if indeed they felt th 
TM equal to its conquest ? Lot us for a moment look at the geogra 





of the district ; take the map of Kerry and examiue the country lying be- 
tween the bfty of Kcnmaro and the Sliubh Mis mountnina, which run 
iwtilh of Tralee into the remote barony of Corcagiiiney, and wo find 
between these points an immense tract of the most rugg«d, mountain- 
ous, and wild moorland country in the three kiogdomt^, comprising the 
baronies of Iveragh and Dunkerron, with their mountain ranges, includ- 
ing the Kecks, the highest mountain range in Ireland. To an invading 
force, ignorant of the district, such a ninrch was an iuipossibility. 
Again, did they land at the south side of the bay, and making a detour 
oa?ilward, skirt round the Killarncy mountain? and lakes; and then 
l>cnding to tk north-west, make a long an^l weary march through the 
great bog district between Killumey and Triilce, could they have ac- 
complished their mureh^ and be in fighting order, within three days 
after their landing? Again, what business had they making a long 
and painful march into a wild and remote district, if their object was 
the conquest of the island ? As I hiive stated lieforc, their natural course 
was to march eastward into the centre of tlie couiitiy, and towards the 
■eat of government. Aguin. what object had the army of tlie Tuath Dc 
Danans in marching to SLiabh Mit), when their intention was to en- 
rount*,'r and cut short the progress of an enemy landing in the boy of 
Kenmare? In the former place there was nothing to defend, no strate- 
getic point to cuvtr; on ttie contrary, such n procecdiug would leave 
all the paasea into the rich ami furtilt* provinces quite open and unpro- 
tected. The natural course of the delonders of the country would be 
to select some strong and defensible position covering the direct route 
into the heart of the island, and there uwuit the enemy's approach. In 
truth, the details of the narrntion are opposed to all probability, and to 
the phyficitl features of the district. But while I am disposed to reject 
the details, 1 um by no means disponed to give up the broad facts upon 
which they ore foundwi. I accept the statement^ that at some remote 
period an emigrant colony from the maritime coasts of Spain, or north- 
western Gaul, landed in the western district of Kerry, and who, under 
the name of Scoti, or Gaedhclians, or Milesians, became the dominant 
race in Ireland. 

That in remote times such a migration waa probable we must ad- 
mit, if we look back at the history of Spain and Uaul, during the 
Carthagenianand Roman occapations. AVc know that each of these domi- 
nant stales hjiraased ond oppressed the natives, and where more likely 
should they tloo for shelter but along the shores of Spain and Gaul, into 
these remote and then undisturbed islands? Such a migration will 
account for what baa been deeme<l mj*thieal in our early hifitory, as 
I firmly believe tho pe<ligive of the Scoti to be Cuthite, and the course 
of their migration t" be from Asia Minor, through Northern Afiica, 
into Spain, and from thrncc to Ireland. 

The Scoti. then, must luive been a seafaring people, and consequently 
rotut have attained to a respectable civiliisation, in accordance with the 
ago : tboy could not have come to our island in any great numbers, 
consequently they could not have effected its conquest in the quick 
and off-hand manner described in tho Book of Invasions, That they 

K. I. A. MIOC. — VOL. X . 3 

^ 392 

l&nded at a place then known as Inbher Hgeine is Terr probable, nd 
that the namea of their leaders, as Eibher, Eremon, Ir, Donn, Colfii 
Scota, and Fais, &c., are genuine historical ones, I have do doubt ; §g 
howerer facts may be disguised, distorted, or inrcnted, namee of phm 
and indiriduals are generally preserved intAct^ and iffill bold their 
ground through ages. I have long been of opinion that the Bey of 
Keamarc vas not tlie scene of the landing of the Scoti. I beiiere tint 
crcnt took place in the Boy of Dingle. Acc(>pting the atatemait a 
Keating, that a battle was fought at Sliabh Mis, three days aAer tk 
landing of the Scuti, it could only be true on the supposition that tbor 
landing took place cither infthe Bay of Dingle, or that of Tralee. If 
we ezaminc the map of the district, we find a long narrow peninaK 
the present barony of Corcaguiney. stretching out between the abov^^ 
named estuaries, and having a ridge of lofly mountains running throi|i 
the centre, from Tralee to Brandon Head. At the extremity, on tk 
north side, is the open Bay of Smerwick; on the south side, are dtf 
harbours of Yentry, Dingle, and a small land-locked inlet, now drysl 
low water, called "Tra-beg/* or '*ihc Little Strand," upon the shon 
of which lies the most remarkable Ogham monument -we have. Din^ 
is also a land- locked harbour, having a very narrow entrance, butof «•• 
Riderable capacity inside. Now, the ocean current that rona rooi 
the south-west shores runs into the Bay of Dingle, striking bctvva 
Dunmore Head and Yentry Harbour ; these currents do not run iiit« 
Keumarc liay. This is important in estimating the chances of a fleetol 
strange adventurers navigating, in their frail barks, seas to them little, 
if at all known, and landing on our coasts. If it be admitted that ov 
shores were previously known to the invaders, they could not httt 
selected a more suitable locality for an infant colony. Here were mh 
and sheltered harbours ; a district remote from the centre of power ud 
population; a sea teeming with fish, the mountains and woods with gam*; 
a district naturally fortidcd by the sea, and by mighty mountains, tt 
whose feet were large tracts of fertile soil. 

I If, then, the Scoti landed at Yentry or Dingle harbours, they wouU 
march along the base of the mountains through the lowlands pkirting 
the bay towards Castlemaine, and the first available pass through which 
they could penetrate would be Glen Fais, In this pass a battle may 
have bceu fought between them and the natives who inhabited the 
great district of country lying between Tralee and the Shannun. If 
they had heard of the arriviJ of the strangers, and were bent on opposing 
them, the passes of the Sliabh Mis mountaius, which terminate at Glt-n 
Pais, would be the natural points of defence ; and, accordingly, we find 
this mountain range handed down to us as the scene of their first battle, 
and the two principal passes. Glen Faig and Glen Scothian, identified 
with the names of two of the invading colony — Fais and Scoto. In lhi« 
view of the case the difficulty as to lime vanishes, as the distance be- 
tween Yentry and ihe centre of the Sliabh Mia mountains is not mors 
than thirty-five miles, so that an invading force could have landed, 
marched to that locality, and have fought a battle within three day*- 
a feat utterly impossible had they landed in the bay of Kenmare. 


I am not, however, disposed to accept Keating* s narratire as to 
time. I think our bardic writers have miBrepresonted the nature of the 
Scotic invasion, which, I believe, came more iu the capacity of a colony 
seeking for a permanent Hettlement. than of an invading army bent on 
conquest. Aooording to the bardic aiinale. our island had seen at least 
two dynasties — the Firbolgs, and the Tuoth Dc Danana — who arc re- 
presented as having been engaged in a fierce coniliot, ere the former 
were subdued by the latter; therefore an invading force must have 
been numerous and poweri\jl to effect the subjugation of the country in 
a short time. Now, the Scoti are stated to have comu in thirtj* sliips, 
thirty men in each ship : this is a moderate computation, and a likely 
number to form a colony, but quite iuadeqaate to conquer a kingdom, 
more particularly when we And 300 out of the 900 killed in the first 
battle, to say nothing of the wounded and missing. Again, the people, 
liktdy to have invaded our island at that remote period were not likely 
to possess fleets capable of transporting on army equal to the sudden 
subjugation of a country having a settled government, and lai^e mili- 
tary resources for a semi-civilized people. 

We must therefore, in my opinion, conclude that the Scoti came as 

uiet coloniflts, and selected this remote and favourable district as a 
place where their infant state might mature unmolested. It is very 

robable that they wire superior in anus and civili;cation to the natives ; 
that, increasing in numbers, they pushed their way inland through the 
couiiLiesofKerry and Cork, occupying the southern and western districts 
of Mun^^ter, and ultimately becoming the dominant race in Erinn. I 
should not bo Burprised if future investigations will sustain the view I 
present of this subject. That a very numerous archaic population oc- 
cupied this remote barony at a period for back in our pre-historic annals 
will appear to any person who visits the locality, and investigates its 
antiquities, as I have done. 

The aboriginal town of Fahan, with its stone-roofed huts, its coshels, 
forts, and soutcrrains, the headland fortifications on almost every pro 
minent point, the cromlechs, stone circles^ pillar stones, and rathn, form 
a collection of ancient remains, unequalled for number and importance 
in any other district of our isdand. The late Mr. Richard Hitchcock, 
who so thoroughly explored Corcaguiney, in a valuable and interesting 
paper contributed to the ** Transactions of the Kilkenny Archacol»igical 
Society" (vol. iii., p. 136, 1852), thus enumerates them: — *' Eleven 
stone cahera, three came, forty cealluraghs, or ob:iolete burial groundf>, 
where unbaptized children only are interred; . . . eighteen artificial 
caves; . . . two hundred and eighteen ologhauns, or bee-hire shaped 
stone houses; sixteen cromlechs; .... three hundred and seventy-six 
earthen forta or raths ; one hundred and thirteen gallauns, or immense 
rude standing stones, fifty-four monumental pillars, most of them bear- 
ing Ogham inscriptions, and seventy-six holy wella." He further re- 
marks: — " I have made no mention in the above list of the stone 
drcles. so numerous in Corcaguiney. They are to be found in all parts 
of the barony." That even in Cliristian times this district was densely 
populated, we have uadeniable evidence. Mr. Hitchcock enumerates 


the following: — ** Twenty-one churches in ruins, ten caflUes, twelfe 
large atone crosses, fifteen oratories, nine penitential statioiis, and 
twenty-nine miscellaneous antiquities*' {ihid. p. 137). 

Dr. Smith, who published his ** Antient and Present State of the 
County of Kerry," in 175-1, alludes to the number of ccclc^iaslica] 
ruins as evidence of the existence of a much more numerous popalatton 
iu remote times than exbted in his day. He writes : *' It contains no 
less than twenty parishes, which shows that this barony was formerly 
better inhabited than at present ; each parish having had ite respectiw 
church, most of which were very large, as appears by their ruins" 
(p. 172). Again he remarks : *' In the southern division are also largt 
tracts of mountain, which have formerly been cultivated up to the top. 
Several of them, which are but poor barren rocks, have great numben 
of old inclosures and marks of culture on their sides, which are now 
neglected ; and this is a further circumstance that tends to prove that it 
hath been better peopled formerly than at present*' (p. 173), 

In a paper read before the Royal Irish Academy. Kov. 8th, 1867, 
I hazarded a conjecture, that irom the fact of the Ogham iDonument« 
being principally localized in the counties of Kerry, Cork, and Water- 
ford, and particularly along the sea-board of these districts, the proba- 
bility is, that the character was brought into our island by a colonisnng 
people who landed on our south-western shorcB. Further investigation 
has strengthened that opinion, and I am more than ever disposed to 
award that honour to the Scoti, or Clanna Ucledh, and not to theTuath 
Dt* Duunans, to whom the writer in the Book of Ballymote attributes the' 
invention of these letters. It is fatal to the claims of the latter that 
not a single inscription has been fouud in those localities looker! npou 
as the special seats of their power — not one on the celebrated firld of 
Magh-Tuireadh, where the Firbolgs are represented as receiving their 
last and crowning defeat, which gave the sovereignty of the iaiand to 
" the Mythic race.** 

On the contrary, in the very spot assigned by tradition, and our 
native annals, as the landing-place of the Scoti, they are sown broad- 
cast, while they are also found along the line of their probable occupa- 

This will appear in a very remarkable degree by an examinntion 
of the accompanying map (PI. XXV^llI.), upon which I have eolourMl 
the districts where Oghara monumonts have been found. It will be 
seen that they are clu